Decision Neuroscience

An Integrative Perspective
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 27. September 2016
  • |
  • 440 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-805331-7 (ISBN)
 

Decision Neuroscience addresses fundamental questions about how the brain makes perceptual, value-based, and more complex decisions in non-social and social contexts. This book presents compelling neuroimaging, electrophysiological, lesional, and neurocomputational models in combination with hormonal and genetic approaches, which have led to a clearer understanding of the neural mechanisms behind how the brain makes decisions. The five parts of the book address distinct but inter-related topics and are designed to serve both as classroom introductions to major subareas in decision neuroscience and as advanced syntheses of all that has been accomplished in the last decade.

Part I is devoted to anatomical, neurophysiological, pharmacological, and optogenetics animal studies on reinforcement-guided decision making, such as the representation of instructions, expectations, and outcomes; the updating of action values; and the evaluation process guiding choices between prospective rewards. Part II covers the topic of the neural representations of motivation, perceptual decision making, and value-based decision making in humans, combining neurcomputational models and brain imaging studies. Part III focuses on the rapidly developing field of social decision neuroscience, integrating recent mechanistic understanding of social decisions in both non-human primates and humans. Part IV covers clinical aspects involving disorders of decision making that link together basic research areas including systems, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience; this part examines dysfunctions of decision making in neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, behavioral addictions, and focal brain lesions. Part V focuses on the roles of various hormones (cortisol, oxytocin, ghrelin/leptine) and genes that underlie inter-individual differences observed with stress, food choices, and social decision-making processes. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in decision making neuroscience.

With contributions that are forward-looking assessments of the current and future issues faced by researchers, Decision Neuroscience is essential reading for anyone interested in decision-making neuroscience.


  • Provides comprehensive coverage of approaches to studying individual and social decision neuroscience, including primate neurophysiology, brain imaging in healthy humans and in various disorders, and genetic and hormonal influences on decision making
  • Covers multiple levels of analysis, from molecular mechanisms to neural-systems dynamics and computational models of how we make choices
  • Discusses clinical implications of process dysfunctions, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, eating disorders, drug addiction, and pathological gambling
  • Features chapters from top international researchers in the field and full-color presentation throughout with numerous illustrations to highlight key concepts
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 14,75 MB
978-0-12-805331-7 (9780128053317)
0128053313 (0128053313)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • DECISION NEUROSCIENCE
  • DECISION NEUROSCIENCE:AN INTEGRATIVE PERSPECTIVE
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK
  • I - ANIMAL STUDIES ON REWARDS, PUNISHMENTS, AND DECISION-MAKING
  • 1 - Anatomy and Connectivity of the Reward Circuit
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PREFRONTAL CORTEX
  • THE VENTRAL STRIATUM
  • Special Features of the Ventral Striatum
  • Connections of the Ventral Striatum (See Fig. 1.3)
  • Cortical Projections to the Ventral Striatum
  • The Amygdala and Hippocampal Projections to the Ventral Striatum
  • Thalamic Projections to the Ventral Striatum
  • Efferent Projections From the Ventral Striatum (See Fig. 1.4)
  • VENTRAL PALLIDUM (FIG. 1.4)
  • THE MIDBRAIN DOPAMINE NEURONS
  • Afferent Projections (Fig. 1.5B)
  • Efferent Projections (Fig. 1.5B)
  • The Striatonigrostriatal Network
  • COMPLETING THE CORTICAL-BASAL GANGLIA REWARD CIRCUIT
  • Subthalamic Nucleus, the Hyperdirect Cortical Pathway
  • The Lateral Habenula, a Negative-Reward Signal
  • The Thalamus, the Final Link Back to Cortex
  • The Lateral Habenula, Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, and the Raphe Serotonergic Systems
  • Complex Network Features of the Reward Circuit
  • References
  • 2 - Electrophysiological Correlates of Reward Processing in Dopamine Neurons
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BASICS OF DOPAMINE REWARD-PREDICTION ERROR CODING
  • Reward-Prediction Error
  • Response Components
  • Reward Learning
  • SUBJECTIVE VALUE AND FORMAL ECONOMIC UTILITY CODING
  • Subjective Value
  • Subjective Value Derived From Risk
  • Utility
  • DOPAMINE AND DECISION-MAKING
  • Updating of Decision Variables
  • Direct Dopamine Influences on Choices
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 3 - Appetitive and Aversive Systems in the Amygdala
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Valence in the Amygdala
  • Updating the Valence Representation in the Amygdala: Learning, Extinction, and Cognitive Regulation
  • The Influence of Valenced Representations in the Amygdala on Cognitive Processes
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 4 - Ventral Striatopallidal Pathways Involved in Appetitive and Aversive Motivational Processes
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE CORTICOBASAL GANGLIA FUNCTIONAL CIRCUITS: THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CORTEX AND THE BASAL GANGLIA
  • THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT PATHWAYS: FROM INHIBITION OF COMPETITIVE MOVEMENT TO AVERSIVE BEHAVIORS
  • SINGLE-UNIT RECORDING IN AWAKE ANIMALS TO INVESTIGATE THE NEURAL BASES
  • TASKS TO INVESTIGATE APPETITIVE APPROACH BEHAVIOR AND POSITIVE MOTIVATION
  • VENTRAL STRIATUM AND VENTRAL PALLIDUM ARE ALSO INVOLVED IN AVERSIVE BEHAVIORS: FIRST EVIDENCE OF LOCAL INHIBITORY DYSFUNCTION
  • THE VENTRAL STRIATUM AND THE VENTRAL PALLIDUM ENCODE AVERSIVE FUTURE EVENTS FOR PREPARATION OF AVOIDANCE AND FOR CONTROLLING ANXIETY LEVEL
  • ABNORMAL AVERSIVE PROCESSING COULD BIAS DECISION-MAKING TOWARD PATHOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS
  • CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5 - Reward and Decision Encoding in Basal Ganglia: Insights From Optogenetics and Viral Tracing Studies in Rodents
  • DOPAMINE
  • Physiology
  • Function
  • Circuitry
  • STRIATUM
  • Initiating Movement, Habits, and Motor Skills
  • Value Representations and Adaptive Decision-Making
  • Circuits
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 6 - The Learning and Motivational Processes Controlling Goal-Directed Action and Their Neural Bases
  • LEARNING "WHAT LEADS TO WHAT": THE NEURAL BASES OF ACTION-OUTCOME LEARNING
  • HOW REWARDS ARE FORMED: NEURAL BASES OF INCENTIVE LEARNING
  • DECIDING WHAT TO DO: THE NEURAL BASES OF OUTCOME RETRIEVAL AND CHOICE
  • HOW THESE CIRCUITS INTERACT: CONVERGENCE ON THE DORSOMEDIAL STRIATUM
  • CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 7 - Impulsivity, Risky Choice, and Impulse Control Disorders: Animal Models
  • DELAYED AND PROBABILISTIC DISCOUNTING: "IMPULSIVE CHOICE" IN DECISION-MAKING
  • PREMATURE RESPONDING IN THE 5CSRTT
  • STOP-SIGNAL REACTION TIME
  • NEURAL BASIS OF IMPULSIVITY
  • NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF WAITING IMPULSIVITY
  • 5CSRTT Premature Responding
  • Temporal Discounting of Reward
  • Nucleus Accumbens
  • Amygdala and Corticolimbic Influences
  • NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF PROBABILITY DISCOUNTING OF REWARD: RISKY CHOICE
  • MOTOR IMPULSIVITY: STOP-SIGNAL INHIBITION
  • CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 8 - Prefrontal Cortex in Decision-Making: The Perception-Action Cycle
  • THE PERCEPTION-ACTION CYCLE
  • INPUTS TO THE PERCEPTION-ACTION CYCLE IN DECISION-MAKING
  • PREDICTION AND PREPARATION TOWARD DECISION
  • EXECUTION OF DECISION
  • FEEDBACK FROM DECISION: CLOSURE OF THE PERCEPTION-ACTION CYCLE
  • References
  • II - HUMAN STUDIES ON MOTIVATION, PERCEPTUAL, AND VALUE-BASED DECISION-MAKING
  • 9 - Reward, Value, and Salience
  • INTRODUCTION
  • VALUE
  • Definition and Behavioral Function
  • Value Signals in the Human Brain
  • SALIENCE
  • Definition and Behavioral Function
  • Confounds in Operational Definitions of Salience
  • Salience Signals in the Human Brain
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 10 - Computational Principles of Value Coding in the Brain
  • INTRODUCTION
  • VALUE AND CHOICE BEHAVIOR
  • VALUE CODING IN DECISION CIRCUITS
  • CONTEXT DEPENDENCE IN BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR
  • NEURAL COMPUTATIONS UNDERLYING VALUE REPRESENTATION
  • TEMPORAL DYNAMICS AND CIRCUIT MECHANISMS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 11 - Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Modulators of Perceptual Decision-Making in the Human Brain
  • INTRODUCTION
  • FACTORS AFFECTING PERCEPTUAL DECISION-MAKING
  • Prestimulus State
  • Reward and Punishment
  • Speed Versus Accuracy Trade-Off
  • Learning and Training
  • Confidence
  • Neuromodulation
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 12 - Perceptual Decision-Making: What Do We Know, and What Do We Not Know?
  • INTRODUCTION
  • WHAT ARE PERCEPTUAL DECISIONS?
  • AIMS AND SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
  • DECISION OPTIMALITY
  • Q1: HOW IS INFORMATION INTEGRATED DURING PERCEPTUAL DECISION-MAKING?
  • Observers Sample Information Sequentially
  • However, Information Integration Is Not Lossless
  • Q1: Summary
  • Q2: WHAT COMPUTATIONS DO CORTICAL NEURONS PERFORM DURING PERCEPTUAL DECISIONS?
  • In the Macaque, Lateral Intraparietal Region Firing Rates Grow During Information Integration
  • In the Rodent, Posterior Parietal Cortex Neurons Show Similar Dynamics
  • However, Lateral Intraparietal Region and Posterior Parietal Cortex Neurons Exhibit Mixed Selectivity
  • Q2: Summary
  • Q3: HOW CAN WE STUDY PERCEPTUAL DECISION-MAKING IN HUMANS?
  • It Is Unclear How BOLD Signals Encode Decision Variables
  • EEG Signals Capture Integration-to-Bound Dynamics During Perceptual Decisions
  • EEG Studies Suggest Discrete Computational Stages for Perceptual Decisions
  • Q3: Summary
  • Q4: HOW DO OBSERVERS DECIDE WHEN TO DECIDE?
  • It Is Unclear How Speed and Accuracy Are Traded Off at the Neural Level
  • The Optimal Bound Collapses When Sensory Reliability Is Unknown
  • Decisions May Be Driven by a Time-Varying Urgency Signal
  • Q4: Summary
  • Q5: HOW ARE PERCEPTUAL DECISIONS BIASED BY PRIOR BELIEFS?
  • Probability Cues Can Bias Both the Origin and the Slope of Information Integration
  • Predictive Coding
  • Adaptive Gain Control During Perceptual Decision-Making
  • Q5: Summary
  • CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 13 - Neural Circuit Mechanisms of Value-Based Decision-Making and Reinforcement Learning
  • INTRODUCTION
  • REPRESENTATIONS OF REWARD VALUE
  • LEARNING REWARD VALUES
  • STOCHASTIC DOPAMINE-DEPENDENT PLASTICITY FOR LEARNING REWARD VALUES
  • FORAGING WITH PLASTIC SYNAPSES
  • RANDOM CHOICE AND COMPETITIVE GAMES
  • PROBABILISTIC INFERENCE WITH STOCHASTIC SYNAPSES
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • III - SOCIAL DECISION NEUROSCIENCE
  • 14 - Social Decision-Making in Nonhuman Primates
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BEHAVIORAL STUDIES ON SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING
  • NEURONAL CORRELATES OF DECISION-MAKING IN A SOCIAL CONTEXT
  • CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES
  • References
  • 15 - Organization of the Social Brain in Macaques and Humans
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX
  • SUPERIOR TEMPORAL SULCUS AND TEMPORAL PARIETAL JUNCTION
  • A SOCIAL BRAIN NETWORK
  • SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVES
  • References
  • 16 - The Neural Bases of Social Influence on Valuation and Behavior
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE EFFECT OF MERE PRESENCE OF OTHERS ON PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR
  • The Neural Bases of Social Reward Processing
  • The Observer Effect in Autism
  • THE EFFECT OF OTHERS' OPINIONS ON VALUATION
  • The Neural Bases of Social Conformity
  • Summary and Future Directions
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • References
  • 17 - Social Dominance Representations in the Human Brain
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Social Hierarchies in Health and Well-Being
  • Social Hierarchies as a Major Evolutionary Pressure and Pivotal Feature of Societies
  • LEARNING SOCIAL DOMINANCE HIERARCHIES
  • Reinforcement Learning Approaches to Social Cognition
  • The Emergence of Dominance and Subordination by Reinforcement Learning
  • INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND SOCIAL DOMINANCE
  • Intercultural Differences in the Appraisal of Social Dominance
  • Interindividual Differences Resulting From Social Status and Personality
  • NEUROCHEMICAL APPROACHES TO SOCIAL DOMINANCE AND SUBORDINATION
  • Stress Asymmetries Paralleling Social Hierarchy Rank Have Adverse Consequences on Adrenocortical, Reproductive, and Neural ...
  • Dopamine, Serotonin, and Social Hierarchies in Rodents and Nonhuman Primates
  • CONCLUSION
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 18 - Reinforcement Learning and Strategic Reasoning During Social Decision-Making
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MODEL-FREE VERSUS MODEL-BASED REINFORCEMENT LEARNING
  • NEURAL CORRELATES OF MODEL-FREE REINFORCEMENT LEARNING DURING SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING
  • NEURAL CORRELATES OF HYBRID REINFORCEMENT LEARNING DURING SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING
  • ARBITRATION AND SWITCHING BETWEEN LEARNING ALGORITHMS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 19 - Neural Control of Social Decisions: Causal Evidence From Brain Stimulation Studies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NONINVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION METHODS USED FOR STUDYING SOCIAL DECISIONS
  • BRAIN STIMULATION STUDIES OF SOCIAL EMOTIONS
  • BRAIN STIMULATION STUDIES OF SOCIAL COGNITION
  • BRAIN STIMULATION STUDIES OF SOCIAL BEHAVIORAL CONTROL
  • BRAIN STIMULATION EVIDENCE FOR SOCIAL-SPECIFIC NEURAL ACTIVITY
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 20 - The Neuroscience of Compassion and Empathy and Their Link to Prosocial Motivation and Behavior
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE "TOOLKIT" OF SOCIAL COGNITION
  • Mentalizing
  • Mimicry and Emotional Contagion
  • THE NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF EMPATHY
  • THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND NEURAL BASES OF COMPASSION
  • A Missing Link Between Empathy and Prosocial Motivation
  • The Psychological Bases of Compassion
  • The Neural Bases of Compassion
  • Compassion and Prosocial Behavior
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • IV - HUMAN CLINICAL STUDIES INVOLVING DYSFUNCTIONS OF REWARD AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES
  • 21 - Can Models of Reinforcement Learning Help Us to Understand Symptoms of Schizophrenia?
  • INTRODUCTION
  • REWARD PROCESSING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
  • DOPAMINE, SCHIZOPHRENIA, AND REINFORCEMENT LEARNING
  • THE POSSIBLE IMPORTANCE OF GLUTAMATE
  • STUDIES OF REWARD PROCESSING/REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN PSYCHOSIS: BEHAVIORAL STUDIES
  • STUDIES OF REWARD PROCESSING/REINFORCEMENT LEARNING IN PSYCHOSIS: NEUROIMAGING STUDIES
  • CAN AN UNDERSTANDING OF REWARD AND DOPAMINE HELP US TO UNDERSTAND SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA?
  • Delusions
  • Anhedonia
  • SUMMARY
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 22 - The Neuropsychology of Decision-Making: A View From the Frontal Lobes
  • INTRODUCTION
  • LESION EVIDENCE IN HUMANS
  • Lesion Study Designs
  • DECISION-MAKING AND THE FRONTAL LOBES
  • COMPONENT PROCESSES OF DECISION-MAKING
  • Overview
  • Option Identification
  • Value Construction
  • Learning Value
  • Value and Attention
  • Decision Strategies
  • Decisions Over Time
  • SUMMARY
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 23 - Opponent Brain Systems for Reward and Punishment Learning: Causal Evidence From Drug and Lesion Studies in Humans
  • THE NEURAL CANDIDATES FOR REWARD AND PUNISHMENT LEARNING SYSTEMS
  • Hypothesis 1: No Opponent System
  • Hypothesis 2: Dopaminergic Opponent System
  • Hypothesis 3: Serotoninergic Opponent System
  • Hypothesis 4: Other Opponent Systems
  • EVIDENCE FROM DRUG AND LESION STUDIES
  • CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND PERSPECTIVES
  • References
  • 24 - Decision-Making and Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE ROLE OF DOPAMINERGIC MEDICATIONS AND INDIVIDUAL VULNERABILITY IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE
  • REINFORCING EFFECTS AND ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
  • LEARNING FROM FEEDBACK
  • RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
  • IMPULSIVITY
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 25 - The Subthalamic Nucleus in Impulsivity
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND FUNCTION OF CORTICOBASAL GANGLIA CIRCUITS
  • THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS AND DECISION-MAKING: EVIDENCE FROM ANIMAL STUDIES
  • THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS AND IMPULSIVITY: EVIDENCE FROM BEHAVIORAL OBSERVATIONS
  • THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS AND DECISION-MAKING: EVIDENCE FROM NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES
  • A MODEL OF THE IMPACT OF THE SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS ON DECISION-MAKING
  • References
  • 26 - Decision-Making in Anxiety and Its Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Representation
  • Valuation
  • Action Selection
  • Outcome Evaluation
  • Learning
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 27 - Decision-Making in Gambling Disorder: Understanding Behavioral Addictions
  • INTRODUCTION: GAMBLING AND DISORDERED GAMBLING
  • LOSS AVERSION
  • PROBABILITY WEIGHTING
  • PERCEPTIONS OF RANDOMNESS
  • ILLUSORY CONTROL
  • CONCLUSION
  • Disclosures
  • References
  • V - GENETIC AND HORMONAL INFLUENCES ON MOTIVATION AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
  • 28 - Decision-Making in Fish: Genetics and Social Behavior
  • SOCIAL SYSTEM OF THE AFRICAN CICHLID FISH, ASTATOTILAPIA BURTONI
  • Social System of Astatotilapia burtoni: Consequences of Status
  • DOMAINS OF ASTATOTILAPIA BURTONI SOCIAL DECISIONS
  • Can Males Be Deceptive?
  • Attention Hierarchy Among Male Fish
  • When Being Observed, Males Change Their Behavior
  • Transitive Inference by Males
  • Genomic Consequences of Female Mate Choice
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 29 - Imaging Genetics in Humans: Major Depressive Disorder and Decision-Making
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER AS A DISORDER OF DECISION-MAKING
  • IMAGING GENETICS OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 30 - Time-Dependent Shifts in Neural Systems Supporting Decision-Making Under Stress
  • INTRODUCTION
  • LARGE-SCALE NEUROCOGNITIVE SYSTEMS AND SHIFTS IN RESOURCE ALLOCATION
  • SALIENCE NETWORK AND ACUTE STRESS
  • Salience Network: Neuroendocrine and Cellular Effects of Acute Stress
  • Salience Network: Behavioral Effects of Acute Stress
  • Salience Network: Brain Systems-Level Effects of Acute Stress
  • EXECUTIVE CONTROL NETWORK AND ACUTE STRESS
  • Executive Control Network: Behavioral Effects of Acute Stress
  • Executive Control Network: Brain Systems-Level Effects of Acute Stress
  • SALIENCE NETWORK AND EXECUTIVE CONTROL NETWORK AND RECOVERY FROM STRESS
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 31 - Oxytocin's Influence on Social Decision-Making
  • INTRODUCTION
  • The Social Brain
  • Oxytocin's Dual Mode of Release in the Brain
  • OXYTOCIN AND PERCEPTION OF SOCIAL STIMULI
  • Sensory Perception
  • Emotion Perception
  • OXYTOCIN AND SOCIAL DECISIONS
  • Trust Games and Cooperative Behaviors
  • Empathy and Prosociality
  • Social Norms
  • OXYTOCIN AND SOCIAL REWARD
  • Social Reward
  • Nonsocial Reward
  • OXYTOCIN, LEARNING, AND MEMORY
  • PERSPECTIVES
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 32 - Appetite as Motivated Choice: Hormonal and Environmental Influences
  • INTRODUCTION
  • APPETITIVE BRAIN SYSTEMS PROMOTE FOOD INTAKE
  • Hippocampus and Amygdala
  • Insula
  • Orbitofrontal Cortex
  • Striatum
  • Prefrontal Regions
  • SELF-CONTROL AND LATERAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX: ROLE IN APPETITE REGULATION AND OBESITY
  • INTERACTION BETWEEN ENERGY BALANCE SIGNALS AND DECISION-MAKING
  • Insulin
  • Leptin
  • Ghrelin
  • Satiety Hormones: Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Peptide YY
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 33 - Perspectives
  • IDENTIFYING FUNDAMENTAL COMPUTATIONAL PRINCIPLES: PRODUCE CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF ...
  • UNDERSTANDING THE FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX AND THE NATURE OF THE COMPUTATIONS PERFORMED IN VARIOUS SUBREGIONS: VALUE-CODING COMPUTATIONS
  • DEMONSTRATING CAUSALITY: LINKING BRAIN ACTIVITY TO BEHAVIOR BY DEVELOPING AND APPLYING PRECISE INTERVENTIONAL TOOLS THAT CHANGE NEURAL CIRCUIT DYNAMICS
  • MAPS AT MULTIPLE SCALES: GENERATE CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS THAT VARY IN RESOLUTION FROM SYNAPSES TO THE WHOLE BRAIN
  • THE BRAIN IN ACTION: PRODUCE A DYNAMIC PICTURE OF THE FUNCTIONING BRAIN BY DEVELOPING AND APPLYING IMPROVED METHODS FOR LARGE-SCALE MONITORING OF NEURAL ACTIVITY
  • THE ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS OF INTERACTING NEURONS
  • DEVELOP INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND SIMULTANEOUS MEASURES TO UNDERSTAND HOW THE BRAIN MAKES DECISIONS
  • ADVANCING HUMAN DECISION NEUROSCIENCE: UNDERSTANDING NEUROLOGICAL/PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND TREATING BRAIN DISEASES
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • Reference
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Back Cover

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