This book explains in detail how to use oil and gas show information to find hydrocarbons. It covers the basics of exploration methodologies, drilling and mud systems, cuttings and mud gas show evaluation, fundamental log analysis, the pitfalls of log-calculated water saturations, and a complete overview of the use of pressures to understand traps and migration, hydrodynamics, and seal and reservoir quantification using capillary pressure. Also included are techniques for quickly generating pseudo-capillary pressure curves from simple porosity/permeability data, with examples of how to build spreadsheets in Excel, and a complete treatment of fluid inclusion analysis and fluid inclusion stratigraphy to map migration pathways. In addition, petroleum systems modeling and fundamental source rock geochemistry are discussed in depth, particularly in the context of unconventional source rock evaluation and screening tools for entering new plays. The book is heavily illustrated with numerous examples and case histories from the author's 37 years of exploration experience. The topics covered in this book will give any young geoscientist a quick start on a successful career and serve as a refresher for the more experienced explorer.
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John C. Dolson, Director, DSP Geosciences and Associates, LLC and Senior Geological Advisor, Delonex Energy (London). He has 35+ year's oil and gas exploration both domestic and international. He has served as Vice President of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (2006/2007), and was Senior Geological Advisor for TNK-BP (Russia), Amoco/BP before starting DSP Geosciences in 2008. Mr. Dolson has supervised hundreds of geoscientists and has been responsible for prospect generation as well as training and development, with 15 years spent living abroad (Egypt, London, and Moscow). He has served as an adjunct faculty member at the University of Miami (Fla), Colorado State University, Royal Holloway University (London) and geological advisor to Moscow State University and Tyumen State University (Russia). He has an extensive publications list including several landmark papers for AAPG dealing with stratigraphic traps and regional petroleum potential assessment and has authored books on Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument in 1982 and on unconformity analysis with the Rock Mountain Association of Geologists in 1994.
Introduction to the oil industry and oil show evaluation: a personal retrospective.- An introduction and vocabulary of oil and gas.- The art of exploration.- A history of drilling and exploration.- Generational challenges and evolving technology.- Some personal experiences in learning about seals and shows.- The art of exploration: plays versus prospects and getting proper experience early.- Creaming curves and new plays vs. prospect-challenging the 'peak oil' paradigm.- Looking at rocks, dealing with people and your learning curve.- Break from paradigms: believe in yourself and your data.- Pay attention to the fluids and the key well concept.- The value of teams, peer assists and risk assessment.- The need to get it right needs to be balanced by the need for speed.- Looking for the NULF (Nasty, Ugly, Little Fact) to break paradigms.- Pay attention to right rocks with oil and gas shows.- You never have enough data, but perseverance pays off.- Background on seismic.- New tools: advances in migration modelling and shows calibration.- Spider maps to 3D models.- The basics of traps, seals, reservoirs and shows.- The petroleum system: primary, secondary migration and unconventional exploration.- Traps, porosity, spill point and seals.- Assessing risk: think about seals, structure and reservoir quality.- Making the right maps.- Some thoughts on stratigraphic traps.- The basics of rock properties, free water levels, buoyancy pressure and hydrocarbon shows.- Porosity.- Buoyancy pressure (Pb), pressure verses depth plots, free water levels and water saturation.- Water and hydrocarbon saturations and height above free water plots.- Oil-water contacts, top of transition zones vs. FWL and relative permeability.- Permeability.- Waste zones.- Oil show types.- Kerogen-rich source rocks.- Thinking like a molecule.- Drilling, mud logging, wireline logs and cores.- Historical context around understanding shows and drilling wells.- Horizontal wells and multi-stage fracturing.- East vs. West: evolution of different evaluation techniques.- Seeps.- Drilling with mud.- Wellbore design, pressures and rig safety.- Background on muds, mud-weights and circulation time.- Mud logs, gasses and cuttings descriptions.- Analyzing mud gasses- wet to light gas ratio analysis.- Wellbore flushing and over and underbalanced drilling.- Cuttings and oil shows.- Residual shows.- Basics of well logs.- Well log formats: digital vs. raster.- The well header and common logs.- Common log displays and the basics of log interpretation.- Gamma ray (GR) and Spontaneous Potential (SP) logs.- Porosity logs, volume of shale calculations and total vs. effective porosity.- Quick look for gas effect and permeability from resistivity profiles.- Calculating lithology.- Capturing and interpreting core data.- Core data.- Saturation changes in coring.- How to miss good hydrocarbon shows and a case histories.- Ways to miss hydrocarbon shows.- Suppressed resistivity and 'hot gamma ray' reservoirs.- Case history 1: Russian River SE Field: "Hot" dolomite and by-passed pay, Williston Basin, Montana.- Case history 2: Using gas wetness mud log analysis to discover a new turbidite oil play fairway, Eocene Dharvi Dungar Formation, Barmer Basin, India.- Acknowledgements and introduction.- Regional setting.- Summary and impact.- Understanding seals, pressures and hydrodynamics.- Basic pressure terms, uses and pressure data collection.- Why look at seals from the standpoint of pressure and hydrodynamics?.- Some good references.- Pore pressure.- Recognizing seals on pressure-depth plots and understanding mud weights.- Tools and data capture for pressure analysis.- Data reporting formats.- Understanding facies and fault seals qualitatively.- Seals overview: facies and fault seals.- Seal quality, pressures and time.- Fault seals.- Fault traps, gouge and juxtaposition analysis.- Stress direction: borehole breakout.- Testing fault models with shows.- Building and interpreting pressure vs. depth plots and hydrodynamics flow.- The basics of pressure-depth plots and recognition of hydrodynamic flow.- Modeling hydrodynamic tilt and migration using potentiometric surface maps.- A practical example of hydrodynamic tilting using Trinity software.- Example of tilted contacts in an overpressured environment.- Building your own hydrodynamic maps: a bit more theory behind migration and hydrodynamics: the U-V-Z method.- A note on the value of Z in many petroleum systems software packages.- Hubbert's full equation with seal capacity added.- Perched water-another problem that can look hydrodynamic.- Ormen-Lange Field, Norway-perched or tilted?.- High pressure systems, pressure regressions and fracture seal breaching.- Maps of overpressure.- Deep overpressure and log and seismic methods of prediction.- Pressure regressions and fracture gradients-casing design, room for accumulations and enhanced seal capacity.- Bigger isn't always better-the role of pressures and centroids in fracture seal breach and exploration failure.- Case histories.- Temsah Field: 25 years to recognition of a tilted gas-water contact.- Deep Nile Delta play opener-pressures and shows identified the play.- Quantifying seals and saturations-capillary pressure, pseudo-capillary pressure and quantitative show assessment.- Fundamentals of capillary pressure.- The importance of understanding capillary pressure.- Fluid potential (entrapment) maps using capillary pressure seals.- Capillary pressure.- Mercury injection capillary pressure analysis.- Estimating height above free water from capillary pressure data.- Relative permeability, water cut and oil-water contacts.- Imbibition curves and residual saturations.- Flow units, Winland plots, pseudo-capillary pressure and mapping seals.- Flow units and Winland plots.- Pseudo-capillary pressure curves.- Making s seal capacity estimate when you do not have a pseudo-capillary pressure spreadsheet.- Weyburn Field example.- Migration with seals: examples from the Aneth Field are, Utah-Colorado.- Migration with both fault seals and hydrodynamics-Temsah Field, Egypt.- Show types and quantitative assessment.- Building and visualizing a shows database.- Case histories.- Cases 1-4: October Field, Egypt.- Underestimating field size-failure to get the free water level right, GS 184 Field, October Field complex, Egypt.- Cap pressure analysis finds a deeper oil-water contact, October Field, Egypt.- Capillary pressure and sample shows in a dry hole with by-passed pay lead to an updip oil discovery, October Field, Egypt.- "J" platform oil discovery: drilling updip of residual oil, October Field, Egypt.- Buzzard Field, United Kingdom-Missing a key oil show.- Hugoton Field: Giant re-migration along a residual migration pathway.- West Siberian Basin, Russia: perhaps the world's largest residual migration pathway. - Basic well log analysis, quick look techniques, pitfalls and volumetrics .- The Archie equation and finding Rw.- Archie equation limits due to shaliness.- Archie equation steps.- Finding Rw.- Porosity logs and calculation.- Sonic log porosity.- Density log porosity.- Porosity from combination neutron-density logs.- Some quick look techniques: Pickett and Buckles plots.- Pickett plots.- Buckles plots and Bulk Volume Water (BVW).- Pattern recognition of pay.- Residual shows on logs.- Pitfalls: Clays, shales, laminated pays.- Low resistivity-low contrast pays (LCLR).- Using Micro-resistivity and NMR logs in shaly and difficult pay zones.- NMR logs.- More pitfalls: Clays, conductive minerals and formation damage.- A note on calculating reserves.- Using fluid inclusion data in exploration.- The reality of migration: it is complicated!.- Conventional fluid inclusions analysis.- Using microthermometry data and identifying hydrocarbon types and salinities.- Bulk fluid inclusion analysis with FIS.- Proximity to pay.- Bacterial and thermal alteration.- A note on Drill Bit Metamorphism (DBM).- FIS interpretation examples.- Northwest coast of Australia.- Prospect ranking.- Barents sea.- Sogn graben.- Unconventional well performance-Mancos Shale, Utah.- Example of detecting oil shows missed on mud logs: Barmer Basin, India.- Shows and geochemistry: extracting more information from source rocks and hydrocarbons.- Source rock quality and maturation.- The language of source rocks.- Rock Eval pyrolysis.- Source rock quality.- Maturation and source rock type.- Maturation and Rock Eval numbers: what you see is not what you had.- Delta LogR and resistivity mapping.- Building maturation models and understanding heat flow.- Geothermal gradient heat flow.- Heat flow modelling.- An example of basement control on heat flow and maturation-Bakken Formation, Williston Basin.- 1-D burial models.- Rig data collection: Head space gas and mud isotubes.- Some source rock play screening criteria.- Sweet spots.- A note on calculating volumes of oil or gas in shale.- Oil to source rock correlations.- Example of utility of understanding basic oil and rock geochemistry correlations.- Nile Delta, Egypt.- Barmer Basin, India.- A case history of migration modelling using oil to source correlations: Cutbank Field, Montana.- Building and testing migration models.- The scale challenge in migration modelling.- Some migration concepts.- Building migration models and recognizing limits with risk maps.- Making migration risk index maps.- Appendices.- Common conversion equations and fluid classifications.- Constructing Winland pore throat graphs in Excel.- Equations in Excel to convert mercury-injection capillary pressure data to height above free water.- Equations in Excel to make pseudo-capillary pressure curves.- Converting paleogeographic maps or shapefiles in ARCGIS to grids.
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