Secondary Liability of Internet Service Providers

 
 
Springer (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 28. Juni 2017
  • |
  • XII, 386 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-3-319-55030-5 (ISBN)
 
This book analyses the doctrinal structure and content of secondary liability rules that hold internet service providers liable for the conduct of others, including the safe harbours (or immunities) of which they may take advantage, and the range of remedies that can be secured against such providers. Many such claims involve intellectual property infringement, but the treatment extends beyond that field of law. Because there are few formal international standards which govern the question of secondary liability, comprehension of the international landscape requires treatment of a broad range of national approaches. This book thus canvasses numerous jurisdictions across several continents, but presents these comparative studies thematically to highlight evolving commonalities and trans-border commercial practices that exist despite the lack of hard international law. The analysis presented in this book allows exploration not only of contemporary debates about the appropriate policy levers through which to regulate intermediaries, but also about the conceptual character of secondary liability rules.
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Graeme B. Dinwoodie is the Professor of Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law at the University of Oxford, Director of the Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre, and a University Professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law. He has previously taught at the National University of Singapore (as the Yong Shook Lin Professor in Intellectual Property Law), New York University University School of Law (as a Global Visiting Professor of Law), the University of Pennsylvania School of Law, and the University of Cincinnati College of Law. Immediately prior to taking up the IP Chair at Oxford, Professor Dinwoodie was for several years a Professor of Law at Chicago-Kent College of Law and, from 2005-2009, also held a Chair in Intellectual Property Law at Queen Mary College, University of London. Professor Dinwoodie holds law degrees from the University of Glasgow, Harvard Law School (where he was a John F. Kennedy Scholar), and Columbia Law School (where he was a Burton Fellow). He is an elected member of the American Law Institute, and served as President of the International Association for the Advancement of Teaching and Research in Intellectual Property from 2011-2013. In 2008, the International Trademark Association awarded Professor Dinwoodie the Pattishall Medal for Teaching Excellence in Trademark Law. He is the author of numerous articles and books on trade mark law and on international and comparative intellectual property law.

  • Intro
  • Contents
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 1: A Comparative Analysis of the Secondary Liability of Online Service Providers
  • Introduction
  • I. Definitional Questions
  • A. Online Service Providers
  • B. "Secondary" Liability
  • II. The Rise of Secondary Liability Claims
  • III. Defining Liability Positively or Negatively
  • A. The Positive Approach: Standards Establishing Secondary Liability
  • B. Immunity Provisions Precluding Liability
  • IV. Notice and Takedown
  • V. Obligations Without "Liability"
  • A. Explicit Regulatory Responses
  • B. Cooperative Mechanisms: Assistance in Preventing Unlawful Conduct
  • VI. Assimilation and General Principles
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 2: Secondary Liability of Internet Service Providers in Poland
  • Introduction
  • Secondary Liability-Indirect Infringements
  • Polish Tort Law and Secondary Liability
  • Remedies
  • Safe Harbours for ISPs
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Secondary Liability of Internet Service Providers in the United States: General Principles and Fragmentation
  • Introduction
  • Secondary Liability Standards
  • Immunity from Secondary Liability and Safe Harbours
  • Best Practices
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 4: ISP Secondary Liability: A Portuguese Perspective on Omissions as the Basis for Secondary Liability
  • Overview of the Portuguese Legal Framework of ISP's Secondary Liability
  • Historical Development of the Secondary Liability of Service Providers in Portugal
  • The Concept of an Intermediary Service Provider
  • The Relationship Between Primary and Secondary Liability
  • The Liability Immunity Standard
  • ISP Omissions as Grounds for Liability
  • Ascertaining the Liability for Omission in the Case of 'Caching', Hosting and Content Association Services
  • Extension of the Existing Framework: Lack of Compliance with Interlocutory Injunctions and ISP Liability for Omissions
  • Omissions and Contracts: The Duty to Act Imposed by a Contractual Obligation
  • Remedies Available for Secondary Liability for Omission
  • A Brief Reference to Criminal Liability
  • Possibilities of Improving the Current Framework
  • References
  • Chapter 5: The Legal Framework Governing Online Service Providers in Cyprus
  • Introduction
  • The Liability of OSPs in Cyprus
  • Primary Liability of OSPs
  • Civil Liability
  • Criminal Liability
  • Secondary Liability of OSPs
  • The Safe Harbours of OSPs
  • Injunctions Against OSPs
  • General Framework
  • Specific Provisions
  • OSPs in the Eye of the Storm: Balancing of Fundamental Rights
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Analysis of ISP Regulation Under Italian Law
  • Introduction
  • ISPs' Civil Liability Before 2003
  • The Legislative Decree 70/2003
  • The New Liability Regime: Articles 14-17 of the Legislative Decree 70/2003
  • Some Critical Issues: Actual Knowledge and Notice and Takedown
  • Codes of Conduct (Article 18 of the Legislative Decree 70/2003)
  • The Scope of the Legislative Decree 70/2003
  • The Definition of ISP
  • Primary Liability
  • Case Law
  • ISPs' Criminal Liability
  • The AGCOM Regulation
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Secondary Liability of Service Providers in Brazil: The Effect of the Civil Rights Framework
  • Introduction
  • The Concept of the Internet Service Provider
  • Article 18: Exclusion of Liability of Access Providers for Content Generated by Third Parties
  • Article 19: Secondary and Conditional Liability of the Application Provider
  • Secondary or Joint Liability?
  • Liability Based on the Risk of the Provider's Activity or on the Basis of Presumed Fault?
  • Legal Notification as a Formal Requirement to Establish Responsibility of the Internet Provider
  • Legal Procedure
  • Exclusion of Application of Article 19 to Copyright
  • Article 20 and the Obligation of Users Responsible for Offending Content to Inform the Reasons for Its Unavailability
  • Article 21 and the Secondary Civil Liability of the Internet Provider for Infringement of Privacy
  • Exclusionary Elements of Liability: Prerequisites for the Provider's Non-compliance with a Court Notice to Remove Content
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Intermediary Liability for IP Infringement in Finland: CopyRight vs. CopyLeft-A Series of Legislative Proposals and Decade of Debates
  • Introduction
  • Finnish Internet Law
  • Legislation for Telecommunications, Electronic Networks and ECHR Principles
  • Safe Harbours and Liability in Practice
  • Copyright Liability Cases
  • Direct or Indirect Infringement (Finnreactor-Case)
  • Preliminary Injunction (Pirate Bay Cases)
  • The Copyright Battles
  • The 2010 Bill and Citizen's Initiative for Common Sense into the Copyright Act
  • The 2013 Proposal to Slow Down Internet Connections
  • The 2014 Bill and the Revised Copyright Act
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Legislation
  • Bills
  • Draft Bills
  • Cases
  • Other
  • Chapter 9: Common Law Pragmatism: New Zealand's Approach to Secondary Liability of Internet Service Providers
  • Introduction
  • Immunity from Secondary Liability
  • File Sharing: The Graduated Response Regime
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 10: Secondary Liability of Internet Intermediaries and Safe Harbours Under Croatian Law
  • Introduction
  • Legal Basis for Secondary Liability of Internet Intermediaries
  • Legal Characterisation
  • Requirements for Non-contractual Obligations to Arise
  • Type of Liability
  • Types of Remedies Granted by the Courts
  • Criminal Liability of Internet Intermediaries
  • Safe Harbours Protecting Internet Intermediaries from Secondary Liability
  • Scope of Application
  • Categories of Safe Harbour
  • Requirements to Benefit from a Safe Harbour
  • Remedies Against Internet Intermediaries Independent of Their Secondary Liability
  • The Practice of Croatian Hosting Providers Concerning Takedown Requests
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Information Society Between Orwell and Zapata: A Czech Perspective on Safe Harbours
  • Czech Private Law: A Revolution Going Nowhere
  • (No) Secondary Liability Under Czech Law
  • The Concept of a Service Provider
  • Liable Only If.
  • Proportionality
  • ISP Concerted Practices
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Website Blocking Injunctions under United Kingdom and European Law
  • Introduction
  • The European Legal Framework
  • Injunctions against Intermediaries
  • Copyright and Related Rights
  • Other Intellectual Property Rights
  • Minimum Standards
  • Maximum Standards
  • 'Effective, Proportionate and Dissuasive'
  • General Monitoring Duties
  • Blocking Remedies in the United Kingdom
  • Copyright
  • Legislative History
  • Elements of Relief
  • Newzbin1
  • Newzbin2
  • The Pirate Bay
  • KAT, H33T and Fenopy
  • FirstRow
  • SolarMovies
  • 1967
  • Popcorn Time
  • Other Intellectual Property Rights
  • Non-transposition of the Enforcement Directive
  • Inherent Powers to Grant Injunctions
  • Significance of the Decision in Cartier
  • International Treatment
  • Future Developments
  • Data Protection
  • Voluntary Website Blocking
  • Proportionality
  • Gravity of Wrongdoing
  • Technical Feasibility
  • Effectiveness and Dissuasiveness
  • Alternatives
  • Effect on Lawful Content
  • Safeguards
  • Fair Balance
  • Compliance Costs
  • Emerging Issues
  • Target Websites
  • Search Engines
  • Primary Wrongdoing
  • Interim Remedies
  • Network Neutrality
  • Harmonisation
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 13: The Liability of Internet Intermediaries and Disclosure Obligations in Greece
  • Establishing Liability for Internet Intermediaries
  • Greek Law has Adopted the Immunity System of ECD
  • Constitutional Limitations against the ECD System
  • Adherence to International Instruments
  • Legislation Imposing Obligations on Intermediaries
  • Legislation for Telecommunications, Electronic Networks and ECHR Principles
  • Data Protection Legislation
  • Intellectual Property Legislation
  • Child Pornography Legislation
  • Gambling Legislation
  • Domain Abuse
  • Policing the Internet
  • Secrecy of Communications and Disclosure of External Communication Data Under Greek Law
  • Case Law
  • Injunction Granted for DNS Blocking for IP Infringement [Decision 4658/2012 of the First Instance Court of Athens]
  • Injunction Not Granted for IP Infringement [Decision 13478/2014 of the First Instance Court of Athens]
  • Decisions Involving Hyperlinks and Search Engines
  • Soft Law
  • Codes of Practice
  • Notice-and-Take-Down
  • Procedural Aspects
  • Proportionality for Intermediaries
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Internet Service Provider Copyright Infringement in Taiwan
  • Introduction
  • Secondary Liability Theories
  • Contributory Liability
  • Vicarious Liability
  • Legal Standards for Secondary Liability in Taiwan
  • General Standard Under Taiwan Civil Code
  • Secondary Liability Standard Under Taiwan Copyright Act
  • Comparison
  • ISP Copyright Infringement Liability and Safe Harbour in Taiwan
  • Applicable Service Provider
  • Requirements of Safe Harbour
  • Notice and Takedown Regime
  • Counter Notification Regime
  • ISP Copyright Infringement Liability in Practice
  • The ezPeer and KURO Cases
  • Concerns About ISP Liability
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Journal Articles
  • Book
  • Book Chapter
  • Online Document
  • Organization Site
  • Online Database
  • Chapter 15: Secondary Liability for Open Wireless Networks in Germany: Balancing Regulation and Innovation in the Digital Economy
  • Introduction
  • General Principles and Legal Framework
  • The Concept of Störerhaftung
  • Case Law
  • Private Networks
  • Commercial Networks
  • The 2016 Reform of the Tele Media Act
  • Application of the Mere Conduit Defence to WLAN Operators
  • Additional Duties of Care Imposed on WLAN Operators?
  • Ministerial Draft (March 2015)
  • Revised Ministerial Draft (June 2015)
  • Appropriate Security Measures Against Unauthorised Access
  • Declaration Not to Commit Any Unlawful Acts
  • Final Version of the Reform Act (June 2016)
  • The McFadden Case - (Some) Clarification from Luxembourg
  • Facts of the Case
  • Conditions for the Application of the 'Mere Conduit' Defence
  • Scope of the Liability Privilege for Access Providers
  • Reasonable Safety Measures Required from a WLAN Operator
  • Summary and Outlook: Another Reform of the Tele Media Act Ahead?
  • References
  • Erratum to: Intermediary Liability for IP Infringement in Finland: CopyRight vs. CopyLeft-A Series of Legislative Proposals and Decade of Debates
  • International Academy of Comparative Law
  • Introductory Remarks About the Topic
  • Practical Suggestions for the National Reports
  • Questionnaire
  • I. Secondary Liability Standards
  • II. Immunity from Secondary Liability
  • III. Other Questions
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