Thermodynamics

A Smart Approach
 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 18. August 2020
  • |
  • 688 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-38787-9 (ISBN)
 
Presents a unique, stepwise exergy-based approach to thermodynamic concepts, systems, and applications

Thermodynamics: A Smart Approach redefines this crucial branch of engineering as the science of energy and exergy--rather than the science of energy and entropy--to provide an innovative, step-by-step approach for teaching, understanding, and practicing thermodynamics in a clearer and easier way. Focusing primarily on the concepts and balance equations,this innovative textbook covers exergy under the second law of thermodynamics, discusses exergy matters, and relates thermodynamics to environmental impact and sustainable development in a clear, simple and understandable manner. It aims to change the way thermodynamics is taught and practiced and help overcome the fear of thermodynamics.

Author Ibrahim Dincer, a pioneer in the areas of thermodynamics and sustainable energy technologies, draws upon his multiple decades of experience teaching and researching thermodynamics to offer a unique exergy-based approach to the subject. Enabling readers to easily comprehend and apply thermodynamic principles, the text organizes thermodynamics into seven critical steps--property, state, process, cycle, first law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics and performance assessment--and provides extended teaching tools for systems and applications. Precise, student-friendly chapters cover fundamental concepts, thermodynamic laws, conventional and innovative power and refrigeration cycles, and more. This textbook:
* Covers a unique approach in teaching design, analysis and assessment of thermodynamic systems
* Provides lots of examples for every subject for students and instructors
* Contains hundreds of illustrations, figures, and tables to better illustrate contents
* Includes many conceptual questions and study problems
* Features numerous systems related examples and practical applications

Thermodynamics: A Smart Approach is an ideal textbook for undergraduate students and graduate students of engineering and applied science, as well researchers, scientists, and practicing engineers seeking a precise and concise textbook and/or reference work.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
IBRAHIM DINCER is Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Ontario Tech. University, Canada. He is a leading researcher in the area of sustainable energy technologies, and his achievements have been recognized through numerous teaching, research and service awards. During the past five years he has been recognized by Thomson Reuters as one of The Most Influential Scientific Minds in Engineering and one of the most highly cited researchers. He is truly committed for better teaching and practicing thermodynamics.
Preface

Acknowledgements

CHAPTER 1: Fundamentals

CHAPTER 2: Energy Aspects

CHAPTER 3: Energy Analysis

CHAPTER 4: Entropy and Exergy

CHAPTER 5: System Analysis

CHAPTER 6: Power Cycles

CHAPTER 7: Refrigeration and Heat Pump Cycles

CHAPTER 8: Fuel Combustion

1
Fundamentals


1.1 Introduction


Energy has always been, historically, one of the most critical issues for humankind, which first started using wood (e.g. C/H = 9.2 for oak bark) as the source of energy; this was followed by coal (e.g. C/H = 2.7 for anthracite), oil (e.g. C/H = 0.9 for Alberta oil), and natural gas (e.g. C/H = 0.26 for Canadian natural gas). We are now moving into a low- and/or no-carbon era where hydrogen and other carbon free fuels (such as ammonia) become very critical solutions for implementation in our daily life. This is nicely illustrated in Figure 1.1 by providing a graph of carbon/hydrogen ratio versus types of fuels. It is also important to mention that humankind needs cleaner solutions, with carbon-free fuels (such as hydrogen and ammonia. These will result in significantly reduced environmental impact, particularly much lesser air, water and soil pollution which will apparently help improve human health and human welfare. Recently we have found ourselves in the Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic that has impacted every human being directly or indirectly. Of course, it has most harshly affected the elderly and people with weak immune system and those inflicted with various respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. It has been evident that pollution, particularly air pollution, is recognized as a major risk to such illnesses and health problems. Here, the bottom line is that improving environmental quality will help improve human health and that people can better cope with such virus pandemics.

Another example of the importance of energy in humankind history is that energy sources have always been, are being, and will be the source of the main issues, ranging from conflicts to wars and peace. The competition around energy matters has been even more critical since the industrial revolution, when industry and other aspects of human life shifted its main driving fuel from human and animal power to fuel-based power and industrial activities.

Since we have begun facing many challenges, in particular ranging from the economy to the environment and technology to sustainability, it has even become more apparent that humankind needs more efficient, more cost effective, more environmentally benign, and more sustainable energy options and solutions. Figure 1.2 shows the key targets of sustainable development with respect to better design, analysis, and assessment, better management, better efficiency, better resources use, better environment, and better energy security, which are critical for any place/country to achieve better sustainability. The requirements for attaining such tasks come down to the thermodynamic fundamentals, concepts, and laws. That is why we need to understand, learn, and teach thermodynamics in a better way - to better tackle the issues and provide better solutions.

Figure 1.1 Illustration of historical carbon-hydrogen ratios of various fuels used by humankind.

If we look at the environmental dimensions of the challenges through for example global warming, the phenomena can only be better understood with thermodynamics and analyzed and assessed by thermodynamic tools. This is another clear example of the power of thermodynamics.

Since, in this book, thermodynamics is defined as the science of energy, which comes from the first law of thermodynamics (FLT), and exergy, which comes from the second law of thermodynamics (SLT), it clearly shows that the subject sits on these two laws, namely two pillars, just like the way in which a person has two legs.

Going back to the earlier discussion, the requirements of more adequate energy, better environment, and better sustainability have been the main motivation behind going beyond traditional analysis methods and techniques. Traditionally, the FLT, which is recognized as the conservation law, has been the only tool comprehensively used in design, analysis, and assessment of thermodynamic systems. However, it became more apparent in the 1970s and 1980s that the FLT does not achieve much and has limited ability to help achieve things due to the fact that it is insufficient and incapable of addressing practical systems with irreversibilities (or losses, inefficiencies, etc.) and unable to quantify these for assessment and improvement. This is the key reason to have the SLT brought into the picture to account for irreversibilities or destruction through entropy and exergy.

Exergy is distinguished to be a primary tool under the SLT. Thermodynamics is defined as the science of energy and exergy. There are various definitions for energy; however, the definition chosen here is that energy is what causes changes or has the ability to cause changes. Comparing the definition of thermodynamics in this book with the literature, this book follows a more correct approach and more consistent approach, as it considers both energy (coming from the first law of thermodynamics) and exergy (from the second law of thermodynamics) concepts with the same units consistently, and highlights two key efficiencies for performance assessment as the energy concept brings energy efficiency and exergy brings exergy efficiency. This way the concept of efficiencies dwell on two correct pillars of the FLT and the SLT for practical applications and complement each other. The exergy efficiency becomes more important for practical systems and applications since it is a true measure of system performance and indicates how much the actual performance deviates from the ideal performance.

Figure 1.2 Key targets for sustainable development.

In order to understand thermodynamics, it is essential to understand the four laws of thermodynamics: the zeroth law, first law, second law, and third law of thermodynamics. Each of these four laws is described later with details.

In closing, this chapter aims to provide the introductory aspects of thermodynamics, the basic principles, the main concepts, and the key points to better illustrate thermodynamics along with numerous examples.

1.2 The Spectrum of Energy


In the introduction it is mentioned that energy is critical for humanity. There have been many individuals and organizations ranking the world's key challenges where energy has always been among the top three issues - the first in many -followed by environment, economy, water, food, poverty, etc. Of course, energy challenges require energy solutions in a smartly diversified portfolio, although many just propose the renewable energy sources, such as renewable energy technologies, clean fuels (e.g. hydrogen, ammonia), cleaner technologies for fossil fuels, efficient energy use and energy conservation, nuclear energy, and waste to energy technologies. Such smart energy solutions require a holistic approach to see the complete spectrum and understand the key dimensions. As presented in many events, there is a 3S?+?2S???S approach as illustrated in Figure 1.3 which clearly shows that everything related to energy comes down to 3S, source, system, and service. For any system we need a source, which could be a fossil fuel source or a renewable source or a nuclear source. Based on the services needed in terms of useful outputs (commodities), such as electricity, heat, hot water, cooling, air conditioning, fresh water, drying air, fuel, etc., we need to design the system that will be fed by a source. This system may be a single-, co- or tri-generation system or a multigeneration system with more than three useful outputs. The next 2S is illustrated in the form of storage as needed in this energy spectrum. For example, one may have solar energy not available all the time; what is needed is storage to offset the mismatch. For the second part after the system, one may have more useful output produced that needed. What is required is storage. Therefore, the energy sustainability S requires 3S and 2S provided accordingly.

Figure 1.3 Illustration of the 3S?+?2S???S approach.

1.3 Two Pillars of Thermodynamics


Thermodynamics, as described in the previous section, can be defined as the subject of both energy and exergy which illustrated in Figure 1.4, based on the previously mentioned two pillars. Of course, it shows that the weight of exergy is more due to its role. The first column of scale is energy, which is brought in by the FLT and concerned with energy as a quantity that is conserved throughout in any system. However, energy alone cannot support thermodynamics, and energy should not be treated as a quantity as it has a quality, which is defined by exergy. Exergy is derived or is based on the SLT as it defines the quality of energy and provides a more meaningful rational for the flow of energy from one reservoir to another. There is another significant thermodynamic property coming from the SLT, namely entropy, which is defined as the degree of disorder. This is also be discussed later. We can easily connect entropy as a literal approach to our daily life and call some situations where things are messy as entropic. Figure 1.5 illustrates two cases where we have low-entropy and high-entropy cases. Of course, the high-entropy case is the more messy.

Figure 1.4 Thermodynamic...

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