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Grapevine Yellows Diseases and Their Phytoplasma Agents

Biology and Detection
Erschienen am 14. Februar 2017
IX, 99 Seiten
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978-3-319-50648-7 (ISBN)
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This work is to compile our current knowledge on GY phytoplasma biology at the genomic, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics level, as well as to summarize the approaches for their detection.Phytoplasma are the most poorly characterized plant pathogenic bacteria from the Mollicutes class. In recent years new biostatistics and bioinformatics approaches have improved our understanding of their biology and interactions with host grapevines and a great improvement has been made toward their molecular detection, both in laboratories and on-site. They have a broad range of plant hosts among the monocots and dicots, and diseases of many important crops are associated with these pathogens. At least ten taxonomically unrelated phytoplasmas, one of them a quarantine pest in Europe, have been associated with grapevine yellows diseases (GY), which have great economic impact on viticulture worldwide.
Prof. Marina Dermastia, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, SloveniaDr. Natasa Mehle, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljiana, SloveniaFiona Constable Ph.D., Biosciences Research Division, Bundoora, AustraliaProf. Assunta Bertaccini, University of Bologna, Plant Pathalogy, Bologna, Italy

Phytoplasmas - dangerous and intriguing bacteriaAbstractHistory and biologyTaxonomy and detection methodsManagement of phytoplasmas and insect vectorsWorldwide distribution and identification of grapevine yellows diseasesAbstractIntroductionGrapevine yellows phytoplasmas in Europe 16SrV phytoplasmas: "Flavescence dorée" and "Palatinate GY" "Bois noir" Aster yellows phytoplasmas in EuropeMinor phytoplasmas reported in Europe and EurasiaGrapevine yellows phytoplasmas in AmericaGrapevine yellows phytoplasmas in USA Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in Canada Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in South AmericaGrapevine yellows phytoplasmas in Africa Ggrapevine yellows phytoplasmas in AustraliaInteractions between grapevines and grapevine yellows phytoplasmas BNp and FDpAbstractIntroduction <How phytoplasmas interact with their hosts, based on analysis of their genomes Pre-symptomatic grapevine responses to grapevine yellows phytoplasma infectionUltrastructure of phloem infected with grapevine yellows phytoplasmas Infection of grapevine with grapevine yellows phytoplasmas affects photosynthesis Grapevine yellows phytoplasma infection is associated with prominent changes in carbohydrate metabolismGrapevine yellows phytoplasma infection affects the plant-energy-associated network Changed concentrations of amino acids in infected vein-enriched grapevine samples Changes in the flavonoid pathway in grapevineyellows phytoplasma infected grapevines Induced salicylic-acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance in grapevines infected with grapevine yellows phytoplasmas The recovery and oxidative-stress phenomena Detection of phytoplasmas associated to grapevine yellows diseases in research and diagnostics Abstract Introduction Biological tests Transmission of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas to Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)Heterologous grafting A case study: Identification of Orientus ishidae as a possible vector of FDp Microscopy techniques Immunological approaches Molecular approaches Extraction of DNA Dot-blot hybridisation Techniques based on polymerase chain reaction Real-time PCR for grapevine yellows phytoplasma detection and quantification Loop-mediated isothermal amplification Gene sequencing Step-by-step routine detection of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas Sampling and sample handling Validation of diagnostic methods Analytical sensitivity Analytical specificity Repeatability and reproducibility Measures to reduce uncertainties of the diagnostic methods Index

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