Introduction to One Health

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Planetary Health
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 1. November 2018
  • |
  • 296 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-38285-0 (ISBN)
 
Introduction to One Health: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Planetary Health offers an accessible, readable introduction to the burgeoning field of One Health.



Provides a thorough introduction to the who, what, where, when, why, and how of One Health
Presents an overview of the One Health movement viewed through the perspective of different disciplines
Encompasses disease ecology, conservation, and veterinary and human medicine
Includes interviews from persons across disciplines important for the success of One Health
Includes case studies in each chapter to demonstrate real-world applications

1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Reflowable
  • 16,36 MB
978-1-119-38285-0 (9781119382850)

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The authors

Sharon L. Deem, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACZM, is Director of the Institute for Conservation Medicine at the Saint Louis Zoo in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and Adjunct Associate Professor in the Veterinary College and MPH Program at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Kelly E. Lane-deGraaf, PhD, is Assistant Professor and Director of the Center for One Health at Fontbonne University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Elizabeth A. Rayhel, PhD, is Professor and member of the Center for One Health at Fontbonne University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

About the Companion Website xvii

Part I An Introduction and Impetus for One Health 1

1 Why One Health? 3

1.1 Book Overview 8

1.2 Conclusions and Welcome to One Health 10

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 11

Interview 12

Works Cited 13

2 Our Interconnected World 15

2.1 One Health Challenges on a Connected Planet 17

2.2 Global Challenges for One Health Practitioners 19

2.2.1 Emerging Infectious Diseases and Invasive Species 19

2.2.2 Loss of Biodiversity and Natural Resources 19

2.2.3 Climate Change 21

2.2.4 Environmental Degradation and Environmental Contaminants 21

2.2.5 Loss of Habitat and Increased Interactions of Domestic Animals-Wildlife-Humans 22

2.3 Drivers of Our Connected Health Challenges 22

2.4 Solutions Using a One Health Approach 24

2.5 Connectivity Across the Human-Animal-Environment Interface 25

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 26

Interview 26

Case Study28

Works Cited 29

3 Greatest Threats to Planetary Health 31

3.1 The Climate Crisis 31

3.2 Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases 36

3.3 The Loss of Biodiversity 39

3.3.1 Habitat Loss 40

3.3.2 Pollution 41

3.3.3 Invasive Species 44

3.4 The Anthropocene and Inequality 46

3.4.1 Wealth and Income Inequality 46

3.4.2 Global Food Insecurity 48

3.4.3 Environmental Racism 49

3.5 Science Denial 51

3.6 Conclusion 52

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 53

Interview 54

Works Cited 56

Part II The One Health Triad 59

4 Environmental Health as One Health 61

4.1 Threats to Environmental Health 63

4.2 Pollution and Environmental Contamination 64

4.3 Habitat Loss and Land Use Alterations 68

4.4 Environmental Health and Health of the Future 70

4.5 Two Things Exacerbate Everything 71

4.5.1 Population Growth and Consumption 71

4.5.2 Climate Change 72

4.6 Things Can Get Better 72

4.7 Conclusion 74

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 74

Interview 75

Case Study 77

Works

Cited 79

5 Animal Health as One Health 81

5.1 Vulture Declines and One Health 83

5.2 Animals that Share Our Planet 85

5.3 How Do We Keep All Animals Healthy on a Changing Planet? 86

5.4 Threats to Animal Health on a Changing Planet 88

5.5 Conclusions 88

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 89

Interview 90

Case Study 91

Works Cited 93

6 Human Health as One Health 95

6.1 Human Health as One Health 96

6.2 Human Disease in the Context of One Health 98

6.2.1 Infectious Diseases 98

6.2.2 Disruption of Embryonic and Fetal Development 99

6.2.3 Diseases of Nourishment 100

6.2.4 Respiratory Disease 102

6.2.5 Cancer 104

6.3 Climate Change and Human Health 105

6.4 Going

Forward 105

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 107

Interview 107

Case Study 109

Works Cited 110

Part III Practitioners and Their Tools 113

7 The One Health Practitioner 115

7.1 Who Is a One Health Practitioner? 117

7.2 The Beauty of an Interdisciplinary, Team-Based Approach 119

7.2.1 Problem Solving 119

7.2.2 One Health Is Anticipatory 120

7.3 Occupational Opportunities in One Health 120

7.3.1 The One Health Triad 120

7.3.2 One Health Practitioners and Their Tools 121

7.3.3 How to Start a Movement 122

7.3.4 The Humanity of Science 122

7.4 The Citizen Practitioner 123

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 124

Interview 124

Case Study 126

Works Cited 127

8 Essential Tools for One Health Practitioners 129

8.1 Why We Need One Health Tools 131

8.2 The Tools of One Health 132

8.2.1 The Tangible: Hard Tools of One Health 132

8.2.2 People Power: The Intangible Tools of One Health 134

8.2.3 Disease Risk Analyses: Linking the Tangible with the Intangible Tools of One Health 138

8.3 Tools to Help Start a One Health Movement 140

8.4 Conclusions 141

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 141

Interview 142

Case Study 144

Works Cited 145

Part IV How to Start a Movement 147

9 Education and Critical Thinking in One Health 149

9.1 Higher Education and One Health 151

9.2 One Health Practitioners as Educators 153

9.3 Conclusions 158

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 158

Interview 159

Case Study 160

Works Cited 161

10 Communication and Advocacy in One Health 163

10.1 A Hole in the Ozone 163

10.2 Scientific Communication 165

10.3 Science Denial and the Cautionary Language of Scientists 166

10.4 Communication as the Bridge-Building Tool of One Health 168

10.5 Communication as Outreach 168

10.6 Citizen Science as One Health 171

10.7 Communication and Advocacy as a One Health Tool 172

10.8 Conclusion 174

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 174

Interview 175

Case Study 177

Works Cited 179

Part V The Humanities of One Health 181

11 Culture and Theology in One Health 183

11.1 Culture 185

11.2 Culture, Social Structure, and One Health 185

11.2.1 Poverty 185

11.2.2 Marginalization 186

11.2.3 Women and Gender Equity 186

11.3 Culture and Animal/Ecosystem One Health 187

11.4 Religion and One Health 189

11.5 Cultural and Religious Awareness and One Health 191

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 191

Interview 192

Case Study 193

Works Cited 194

12 Economics and One Health 197

12.1 Economics: The Connection Between Values and Behaviors 199

12.2 Cost and Externalities 200

12.3 The Cost and Value of Life 201

12.4 The Conundrum of Economics and the Environment 204

12.5 Business and Sustainability: Patagonia 205

12.6 Business and Sustainability: New Belgium Brewing 205

12.7 Global Economics and Planetary Health 206

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 207

Interview 208

Case Study 210

Works Cited 211

13 Politics and Policy of One Health 213

13.1 What Do We Mean by the Politics of One Health? 215

13.2 How a Health Issue May Become a Political Issue 216

13.3 Political Differences, Realities, and Challenges 217

13.4 Key Local, National, and International One Health Organizations and Movements 218

13.5 Environmental/Biodiversity 218

13.5.1 International Climate Accord 218

13.5.2 International Union for the Conservation of Nature 218

13.5.3 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 219

13.5.4 United States Environmental Protection Agency 219

13.6 Animal and Human Health 219

13.6.1 World Health Organization 219

13.6.2 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 220

13.6.3 The World Organization for Animal Health 220

13.6.4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 220

13.7 Approaching Health Policies Through the One Health Lens 221

13.8 Call to Action - Advocacy, Policy, and Politics 221

13.9 Conclusions 223

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 223

Interview 224

Case Study 226

Works Cited 227

Part VI Where Do We Go From Here? 229

14 Working in a Global Environment 231

14.1 Think Globally, Act Locally, and the Butterfly Effect 232

14.2 How a Global Environment Fits in One Health 233

14.3 Education and Skills Needed to Work and Thrive in a Global World 235

14.4 How To Be a One Health Practitioner in a Global Environment 238

14.5 International Programs, Policies, and Laws for One Health in the Global Environment 239

14.6 Conclusion 240

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 242

Interview 243

Case Study 245

Works Cited 245

15 The Past and Future of One Health 247

15.1 The Lesson of Easter Island 248

15.2 One Health in History 249

15.3 How One Health Became One Health 249

15.4 Our Futures 250

15.5 Our Current Actions Establish the Path 252

15.6 The Ethics of Our Decisions 252

15.7 Conclusions 252

End of Chapter Questions & Activities 252

Interview 253

Works Cited 255

Glossary 257

Index 267

1
Why One Health?


The Mississippi River today is the source of economic strength and cultural movement throughout the USA. The Mississippi reaches more than 2300?miles from Lake Itaska in northwestern Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 1.1). The fourth largest watershed on the planet, it covers 32 states and 40% of the landmass of the USA and reaches from Appalachia to the Rocky Mountains. Pre-dating the European expansion into the Americas, Native American cultures thrived along the Mississippi River Basin. The Ojibwe, the Kickapoo, the Potawatomi, the Chickasaw, the Cahokia, the Choctaw, the Tunica, the Natchez, and many more peoples lived and flourished along the Mississippi River. Culturally diverse and rich in tradition, the peoples of the Mississippi River basin used and respected animals and the environment throughout their traditions. Focused on fishing and hunting, small-scale farming, and foraging, the traditions of the peoples of the Mississippi River are as varied as the people themselves, but importantly, these traditions shared a focus on maintaining a balance between humans, animals, and the environment. The culturally diverse native peoples of the Mississippi River region could truly be considered the first One Health practitioners of the region.

Figure 1.1 Mississippi River watershed.

In 1539, Hernando de Soto of Spain became the first European to witness the majesty and power of the Mississippi River. In his explorations and quest for gold, de Soto and his men frequently interacted with native peoples. The Spaniards, from their first landfall, exploited native peoples. Language and culture differences, not surprisingly, emerged frequently. de Soto traveled with one translator, who spoke the language of only one tribe. As a result, skirmishes between the Spaniards and the native peoples often broke out while traveling. When the army with which de Soto traveled, numbering approximately 620, encountered a local community, they demanded use of the food stores, preferring this to hunting. As a result, the Spaniards consumed nearly a year's worth of food in only a few days in each community they encountered, with devastating impacts on the survival of these local communities. de Soto and his men also routinely enslaved men, women, and children, demanding individuals carry their equipment and gear, care for their horses, provide cooked food, lodging, and sexual services. Native peoples who resisted were frequently raped, tortured, had their homes and crops burned, and/or were killed. The violence of the initial European arrivals to the Mississippi region resulted in the murder of an uncountable number of native peoples.

The devastation of the communities of Native Americans is not the only devastation de Soto and his men wrought on the Mississippi Basin. The Spaniards were exploring to claim the land for Spain and loot the region of its gold, silver, and other precious metals. In addition to men, de Soto brought with him 220 horses and 100 pigs. The movement of this army of people and animals from present day Florida west through Louisiana, north through Arkansas and into Missouri, and then south to Texas left in its trail a swath of deforestation, biodiversity loss, and pollution - all One Health threats. For example, while the Spaniards exploited Native American paths for travel as much as possible, they also carved many new paths through the forests and prairies that they crossed. The livestock brought along also created significant problems for the landscape. Feeding these animals created an additional burden for the land, taxing the ecosystems as the traveling herd of between 300 and 1000 domesticated animals trampled vast swathes of pristine forest and prairie vegetation. Rats and other stowaways from their ships would, in time, become invasive and drive their own ecological catastrophes. de Soto's herd of pigs, which grew from 100 to over 900 by 1542, brought its own unique environmental and ecological threats.

The normal behaviors of pigs - rooting for tubers, wallowing in mud, and trampling vegetation - wreaked havoc on native plant life and, importantly, their feces introduced an entire suite of novel pathogens to an area, contaminating local water supplies as they defecated across the south. An often overlooked consequence of early western explorations was the introduction of lead shot into the Americas; with this, de Soto and his army slaughtered countless native animal species and introduced the potential for lead pollution into the Mississippi River basin.

In what could be considered one of the earliest intercultural One Health threats, the greatest devastation brought by de Soto and his men was not the rape and pillaging of the land and local communities but the introduction of novel infectious diseases into naïve populations. In the wake of de Soto's army, smallpox and measles spread rapidly through the diverse tribes of native peoples of the Mississippi Basin, who were exposed to these pathogens as de Soto and his men traveled through their communities. Smallpox alone killed an estimated 95% of the people with whom the Spaniards came into contact, effectively eliminating entire communities in their wake. This drastically altered the make-up of the Native American landscape well before the French and English returned some 100?years later. de Soto did not survive his expedition, dying on the banks of the Mississippi River of a fever without finding a single piece of gold or silver. More than half of his men perished along the way as well.

Fast forward 150?years to 1682, when, after exploring its reaches and seizing upon the economic and strategic benefit of the Mississippi River system, René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de la Salle claimed the river for France. The southern stretches of the Mississippi Basin briefly fell under the control of the Spanish in 1769; in 1803, the USA, not even 30?years old, purchased the entirety of the Mississippi River watershed as a part of the Louisiana Purchase. When in May of 1804, William Clark, Meriwether Lewis, and 31 others set forth from St. Louis, MO, to find a Northwest Passage, a water route to the Pacific, they were tasked with acting as cartographers, naturalists, and cultural emissaries for the young country. Thomas Jefferson, who commissioned the expedition in 1803, believed that the most critical role for the commissioned explorers was to act as diplomats for the nation among the several Native American tribes the group would encounter. The Corps of Discovery, as the expedition came to be called, ultimately made contact with 55 independent groups of Native Americans and First Peoples, frequently trading for food and medical supplies as well as befriending many tribes people.

Lewis and Clark traversed nearly 8000?miles. Their expedition is touted by many as a model of inclusion - a black man, York, and a Shoshone woman, Sacagawea, were essential members after all. However, their inclusion hints at the exploitative nature of the Corps itself. York was a master hunter, bringing in a large portion of the game that fed the Corps throughout their journey, and acted frequently as the expedition's most stalwart caregiver, providing care to ill expedition members. Still, York was Clark's slave. He was not a paid member of the Corps of Discovery, despite his critical role in its success. Sacagawea was kidnapped as a teen by the Hidatsa and then sold to her "husband" Charbonneau. As property, neither York nor Sacagawea could refuse participation in the 8000?mile journey. Still, Sacagawea, like York, played a vital role in the expedition, acting as translator and helping with the group's welcome by many Native American peoples.

In all, the Lewis and Clark expedition, while fondly remembered today, was considered at the time as something of a failure. They discovered no Northwest Passage; the northern route chosen by the group was arduous and challenging in a way that the southern route across the Rockies is not and so was not used by later settlers. They mapped lands, documented plants and animals, and improved diplomatic relations with Native peoples, but they also opened the country to western occupation that drastically altered the landscape, replaced the diversity of plants and animals with corn and cows, each with long-term ecological consequences, and ravaged Native American communities through broken treaties, forced migrations, and massacres.

Lewis and Clark's expedition had two additional repercussions in the US West: the spread of sexually transmitted diseases () and widespread mercury contamination to the environment. STDs were not introduced to Native Americans by the Corps of Discovery; French and Canadian fur-trappers accomplished this. However, STDs spread through the Corps rapidly. As the men traveled west and as they encountered local tribes, it was common for members to trade goods for sex, and frequently, wives of chiefs of several High Plains tribes were shared with expedition members in order to benefit from the men's spiritual power. The result of this was the spread of STDs across the northwest, as the Corps of Discovery shared infections between peoples who would never have otherwise come into contact with each other. At the time, there were few treatments for STDs available, with modern medicine of the day advocating a strong course of mercury pills and bloodletting. As a result of the rampant STDs, members of the Corps of Discovery were also all exposed to toxic levels of mercury....

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