Skin Microbiome Handbook

From Basic Research to Product Development
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 11. August 2020
  • |
  • 432 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-59304-1 (ISBN)
 
The idea to compile and edit the book is the result of over a decade of work by the editor, Dr. Nava Dayan, on various projects related to skin barrier, innate immunity, microbiome, developing products, testing methods and paths of products to the market, both for pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industries.

The book is a summary of current status of knowledge, research tools and approaches in skin microbiome, in health and disease. It contains the following categories: healthy skin microbiome and oral-skin interaction, skin microbiome observational research, skin microbiome in disequilibrium and disease, skin's innate immunity, testing and study design, regulatory and legal aspects for skin microbiome related products.

The 18 chapters of the book are written by carefully selected leaders in the academia, industry exhibiting extensive experience and understanding in the areas of interest.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 14,56 MB
978-1-119-59304-1 (9781119593041)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Nava Dayan Ph.D. Pharm D. is a research scientist who has specialized in skin product development for nearly 3 decades. She is the owner of Dr. Nava Dayan L.L.C, a skin science and research consultancy serving the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and personal care industries; dermal and transdermal. The uniqueness of Dr. Dayan's approach is in its comprehensiveness since she covers biology, physics, efficacy, toxicology, formulations product development, and bio-availability. With her many years of experience in the skin care sector, she has produced more than 150 publication credits in numerous industry-respected journals and in four books. Her research focus is on feasibility in skin care, composition of R&D plans covering efficacy and toxicology; planning, execution and data interpretation into claims, formulations, delivery for improved efficacy and attenuated toxicity, drug-skin interaction, bio-markers, skin/age related sensitivities, inflammatory skin disorders, innate immunity and skin microbiome. This is her fifth book and her 2nd with the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Part 1 Healthy Skin Microbiome
  • Chapter 1 The Microbiome of Healthy Skin
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.1 Retrospective
  • 1.1.2 Next Generation Sequencing
  • 1.2 The Skin Microbiome in Health
  • 1.2.1 Composition
  • 1.2.2 Diversity
  • 1.2.3 Uniqueness
  • 1.3 Healthy Skin is the Foundation of a Balanced Skin Microbiome
  • 1.3.1 Physical Aspects of Skin Impacting the Microbiome
  • 1.3.2 Biochemical and Defensive Aspects of Skin Impacting the Microbiome
  • 1.3.2.1 The Acid Mantle
  • 1.3.2.2 Antimicrobial Lipids (AMLs)
  • 1.3.2.3 Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs)
  • 1.3.3 Nutritional and Microenvironmental Aspects of Skin Impacting the Microbiome
  • 1.3.3.1 Amino Acids
  • 1.3.3.2 Sebaceous Lipids
  • 1.3.3.3 Organic Acids and Other Materials
  • 1.4 A Balanced Skin Microbiome Supports the Normal Functioning of Healthy Skin
  • 1.4.1 Pathogen Exclusion
  • 1.4.2 Contribution to Skin pH
  • 1.4.3 Microbial Contribution to Skin Barrier Integrity
  • 1.5 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 2 The Gut Microbiome-Skin Axis: Impact on Skin and Systemic Health
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The Gut-Skin Microbiome Axis
  • 2.3 The Gut-Skin Microbiome Axis: Principle Pathways
  • 2.4 Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiome and Skin Dyshomeostasis
  • 2.4.1 Acne Vulgaris
  • 2.4.2 Atopic Dermatitis
  • 2.5 Summary and Future Directions
  • References
  • Chapter 3 The Skin and Oral Microbiome: An Examination of Overlap and Potential Interactions between Microbiome Communities
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.1.1 Focus of the Chapter
  • 3.1.2 Definition of Skin Microbiome
  • 3.1.3 Definition of Oral Microbiome
  • 3.2 Characterization of the Microbiome
  • 3.2.1 Variability and Stability of Skin and Oral Microbiome
  • 3.2.2 Microbial Community
  • 3.2.2.1 Permeant Mutualistic or Commensal Microbes
  • 3.2.2.2 Non-Pathogenic Transient Microbes
  • 3.2.2.3 Pathogenic Microbes
  • 3.3 The Core Skin and Oral Microbiomes
  • 3.3.1 Taxonomic Methodology
  • 3.3.2 Subgroups of the Microbiome
  • 3.3.2.1 Bacteriome
  • 3.3.2.2 Mycobiome (and Other Eukaryotic Microbial Members)
  • 3.3.2.3 Virome
  • 3.4 Interactions Between Skin and Oral Microbiomes
  • 3.4.1 Potential for Interactions
  • 3.4.2 Quorum Sensing
  • 3.4.3 Immune System Development
  • 3.4.4 Future Directions
  • 3.5 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part 2 Skin Microbiome Observational Research
  • Chapter 4 Skin Microbiome Alterations in Skin Diseases
  • 4.1 Introduction and Background
  • 4.2 Interactions Between Microbes and Host
  • 4.3 Summary of Known Associations Between Skin Dysbioses and Skin Diseases
  • 4.3.1 The Role of
  • in Skin Disease
  • 4.3.2 Atopic Dermatitis
  • 4.3.3 Acne Vulgaris
  • 4.3.4 Psoriasis
  • 4.4 Skin Dysbioses in Skin Health
  • 4.5 Other Skin Conditions
  • 4.6 Therapeutic Approaches to Dysbiosis-Associated Skin Diseases
  • 4.6.1 Traditional Methods of Treating Dysbiosis-Associated Skin Diseases
  • 4.6.1.1 Atopic Dermatitis
  • 4.6.1.2 Acne Vulgaris
  • 4.6.2 Emerging Therapeutic Approaches to Treating Dysbiosis-Associated Skin Diseases
  • 4.7 Conclusion and Future Directions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 5 The Axillary Microbiome and its Relationship with Underarm Odor
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Composition of the Axillary Microbiome
  • 5.3 16-Androstene Steroids and Axillary Malodour
  • 5.4 The Axillary Microbiome, VFAs and Malodour
  • 5.5 The Axillary Microbiome, Thioalcohols and Malodour
  • 5.6 Perturbation of the Axillary Microbiome
  • 5.7 Human Genetics - Influence on Malodour and the Axillary Microbiome
  • 5.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Infant Skin Microbiome
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Infant Skin Maturation
  • 6.3 Infant Immune System Maturation
  • 6.4 Infant Skin Microbiome Dynamics
  • 6.5 Mother-Infant Microbial Transmission
  • 6.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Part 3 Skin Microbiome in Disequilibrium and Disease
  • Chapter 7 Microbiome of Compromised Skin
  • 7.1 Atopic Dermatitis
  • 7.2 Psoriasis
  • 7.2.1 Diversity
  • 7.2.2 Microbiome Composition
  • 7.3 Acne
  • 7.4 Rosacea
  • 7.5 Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff
  • 7.6 Exposome, Skin Barrier, and Skin Microbiome
  • 7.6.1 Skin Irritation and Microbiome
  • 7.6.2 Diaper Dermatitis
  • 7.6.3 Occupational Hand Dermatitis
  • 7.6.4 Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) and Skin Microbiome
  • 7.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Human Cutaneous Ectoparasites: A Brief Overview and Potential Therapeutic Role for Demodex
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Chiggers (Trombiculidae)
  • 8.3 Bedbugs (Cimex lectularius and Hemipterus)
  • 8.4 Lice
  • 8.5 Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei) [12, 13]
  • 8.6 Demodex
  • 8.7 The Association Between Demodex, Rosacea and Blepharitis
  • 8.8 Hypothesis
  • 8.9 Demodex Folliculorum as a Drug Delivery Agent for Early Skin Cancer
  • 8.10 Limitations
  • 8.11 Conclusion
  • 8.12 Future Considerations
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Dysbiosis of the Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 The Healthy Skin Microbiome
  • 9.3 The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis
  • 9.4 Microbiome-Targeted Treatment Strategies
  • 9.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 10 The Skin Microbiome of Inverse Psoriasis
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Methods
  • 10.2.1 Subject Population
  • 10.2.2 Patient Diagnosis and Characteristics of Populations
  • 10.2.3 Specimen Collection
  • 10.2.4 Sample DNA Extraction and Sequencing
  • 10.2.5 Downstream Sequence Processing and Analysis
  • 10.3 Results
  • 10.3.1 Cohort Metadata
  • 10.3.2 Sequencing Information
  • 10.3.3 The Skin Microbiome of Intertriginous Lesion and Non-Lesional Sites on Inverse Psoriasis Subjects
  • 10.3.3.1 Psoriasis Lesional Status is Associated with Relative Abundance and Presence of Specific Species
  • 10.3.3.2 Psoriatic Lesions Trend to Decrease Taxonomic Diversity
  • 10.3.3.3 Psoriatic Lesions are Characterized by Greater Intragroup Variability
  • 10.3.4 Inverse Psoriasis vs. Plaque Psoriasis vs. Healthy (All Non-Lesion Sites)
  • 10.4 Conclusions & Future Plans
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Part 4 Skin's Innate Immunity
  • Chapter 11 Effects of Endogenous Lipids on the Skin Microbiome
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Sebaceous Lipids -Source of Fatty Acids
  • 11.3 Stratum Corneum Lipids Source of Long-Chain Bases
  • 11.4 Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acids
  • 11.5 Antimicrobial Activity of Long-Chain Bases
  • 11.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Innate Immunity in Epidermis
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Skin Acts as an Anatomical Physical and Chemical Barrier to Infectious Agents
  • 12.3 Epidermal Cells Recognize Conserved Features of Pathogens, as well as the Indicators of Tissue Damage
  • 12.4 Defensive Antimicrobial Proteins AMPs
  • 12.5 Cytokines, Specific Signals that Activate Inflammation and Further Cellular Protective Mechanisms
  • 12.6 Specialized White Blood Cells Identify and Remove Pathogens
  • 12.7 Complement System
  • 12.8 Innate Immune System Activates the Adaptive Immune System
  • 12.9 Antiviral Defenses
  • 12.10 Innate Immunity Memory?
  • 12.11 Cutaneous Microbiome: A Newly Surfaced Contributor to Innate Immunity
  • 12.12 Conclusion
  • 12.13 Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Part 5 Testing and Study Design
  • Chapter 13 Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Skin Microbiome
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Current Approaches to Test the Microbiome
  • 13.3 The Genomics Revolution and Metagenomics
  • 13.4 Metagenomics and the Skin Microbiome
  • 13.5 Our Work at Biotia
  • 13.6 Challenges and Solutions in Metagenomics
  • 13.7 The Microbial World is our Oyster
  • 13.8 The Future of Metagenomics
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Investigate Skin Innate and ImmuneMediated Responses to Microorganisms
  • 14.1 State-of-the-Art and Limits of Skin Microbiota Research
  • 14.2 Mechanism-Based Approach to Study Host Response to Associated Microbiome: 3D Skin Models
  • 14.3 Understanding S. epidermidis and S. aureusBehavior and Role on Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE)
  • 14.4 Immuno-Competent Atopic Dermatitis Model
  • 14.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) In-Vivo Reduction Assay: A Pre-Clinical Pharmacodynamic Assay for Evaluating Antimicrobial/Antibiotic Agents in Development for Acne Treatment
  • 15.1 Acne Pathogenesis and the Role of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes)
  • 15.1.1 Introduction
  • 15.1.2 Pathogenesis
  • 15.1.3 The Role of C. acnes and its Microbiome
  • 15.2 Current Therapies and Regulatory Approval
  • 15.3 In-Vivo C. acnes Reduction Assay
  • 15.4 Correlations of C. acnes Reduction and Clinical Efficacy
  • 15.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Part 6: Regulatory and Legal Aspects for Skin Microbiome Related Products
  • Chapter 16 Intellectual Property Tools for Protecting, Developing and Growing a Skin Microbiome Brand
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 The Tools of Intellectual Property
  • 16.2.1 Patents
  • 16.2.2 Trademarks
  • 16.2.3 Copyrights
  • 16.2.4 Trade Secrets/Know-How
  • 16.3 Building an Intellectual Property Portfolio for a Skin Microbiome Brand
  • 16.3.1 Patents to Define "The Fence"
  • 16.3.1.1 Patents "As Sticks" Enforcement of Infringement
  • 16.3.1.2 Patents "As Financial Boosts" - Licensing and Other Agreements
  • 16.3.2 Trademarks to Establish Brand Recognition
  • 16.3.3 Copyrights to Maintain Information
  • 16.3.4 Trade Secrets/Know-How to Keep A Competitive Edge
  • 16.4 Conclusion
  • Chapter 17 Regulatory Aspects of Probiotics and Other Microbial Products Intended for Skin Care: The European Approach
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 The Governing Bodies and Decision-Making in the EU
  • 17.2.1 The Legal Instruments of the EU
  • 17.3 Probiotic Foods and the European Regulations
  • 17.3.1 The Safety Assessment of Microorganisms by EFSA, The QPS Concept
  • 17.3.1.1 The Safety Assessment of Non-QPS Microorganisms
  • 17.3.2 The Case of GMMs
  • 17.3.3 Microorganisms as Novel Foods
  • 17.3.4 Human Probiotics and Functional Claims
  • 17.4 Probiotic Skin Care Products as Pharmaceuticals
  • 17.4.1 The Authorization Procedure for Medicines
  • 17.4.1.1 The Centralized Procedure
  • 17.4.1.2 National Authorizations and Authorizations by Mutual Recognition or Decentralized Procedures
  • 17.4.2 Bacteria as Medical Devices
  • 17.5 Probiotics in Cosmetics
  • 17.5.1 Safety Aspects
  • 17.5.1.1 Microorganisms on Skin - Problems of Safety Evaluation
  • 17.5.2 The Permissible Cosmetic Claims in the EU
  • 17.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Legal Acts and Guidance Documents
  • Chapter 18 Regulation of Probiotic and Other Live Biologic Products: The United States Approach
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.1.1 U.S. Legislative Landscape
  • 18.1.2 Foods12
  • 18.1.2.1 Permissible Food Claims
  • 18.1.2.2 Additional Regulatory Considerations
  • 18.1.3 Dietary Supplements
  • 18.1.3.1 Permissible Dietary Supplement Claims
  • 18.1.3.2 Additional Regulatory Considerations
  • 18.1.4 Drugs
  • 18.1.4.1 Drug Approval Process
  • 18.1.4.2 Additional Regulatory Considerations
  • 18.1.5 Cosmetics
  • 18.2 Summary of Product Categorization and Regulatory Requirements
  • 18.3 Resources
  • 18.4 Endnotes
  • Chapter 19 A Future Research Perspective Is There a Connection Between Sun Exposure, Microbiome and Skin Cancer?
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Ultraviolet Light (UV) - The Skin Microbiome and Cancer
  • 19.3 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Also by Nava Dayan
  • EULA

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