Chapman & Nakielny's Aids to Radiological Differential Diagnosis E-Book

 
 
Saunders Ltd. (Verlag)
  • 6. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 15. November 2013
  • |
  • 520 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-7020-5477-8 (ISBN)
 

Chapman and Nakielny's Aids to Radiological Differential Diagnosis has become a classic resource for trainees and practitioners worldwide, to hone their knowledge of radiological differential diagnosis for the most commonly encountered conditions throughout the body. It is an invaluable quick-reference companion in everyday practice, as well as an essential study tool when preparing for the FRCR or similar examinations.

This new edition is thoroughly revised and updated in line with latest clinical practice, knowledge and guidelines. The first section presents lists of differential diagnoses, supplemented by notes on useful facts and discriminating factors. These assist with the systematic assessment of radiographs and images from other modalities. The second section offers detailed summaries of the characteristic radiological appearance of a wide range of clinical conditions.

  • Lists of differential diagnoses.
  • Notes on radiological apperances.
  • Ideal for preparation for radiological examinations.
  • Contents revised and reduced to reflect current radiological practice.
  • Existing lists modernised to reflect modern imaging practice, particularly where technological advances have been made (eg multislice CT and PET CT).
  • Revised to take account of new imaging guidelines (eg Royal College of Radiologists: Making Best Use of the Radiology department; SIGN; NICE).
  • Journal references updated.
  • Increased number of diagrams.
  • Englisch
  • London
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • 16,30 MB
978-0-7020-5477-8 (9780702054778)
0702054771 (0702054771)
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  • Front cover
  • Chapman & Nakielny's Aids to Radiological Differential Diagnosis
  • Copyright page
  • Preface
  • Table of Contents
  • Explanatory notes
  • List of contributors
  • Abbreviations
  • 1
  • 1 Bones
  • 1.1 Generalized increased bone density
  • Myeloproliferative
  • Metabolic
  • Poisoning
  • Neoplastic (more commonly multifocal than generalized)
  • Idiopathic (more commonly multifocal than generalized)
  • 1.2 Solitary sclerotic bone lesion
  • Developmental
  • Neoplastic
  • Vascular
  • Traumatic
  • Infective
  • Idiopathic
  • 1.3 Multiple sclerotic bone lesions
  • Developmental
  • Neoplastic
  • Idiopathic
  • Vascular
  • Traumatic
  • Further Reading
  • 1.4 Bone sclerosis with a periosteal reaction
  • Traumatic
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • Idiopathic
  • Further Reading
  • 1.5 Solitary sclerotic bone lesion with a lucent centre
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • 1.6 Conditions involving skin and bone
  • Osteolytic bone lesions
  • Osteosclerotic bone lesions
  • Mixed osteolytic/osteosclerotic bone lesions
  • Tumorous lesions
  • 1.7 Coarse trabecular pattern
  • 1.8 Skeletal metastases - most common radiological appearances
  • Lung
  • Breast
  • Genitourinary
  • Reproductive organs
  • Thyroid
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Adrenal
  • Skin
  • Further Reading
  • 1.9 Sites of origin of primary bone neoplasms
  • Further Reading
  • 1.10 Peak age incidence of primary bone neoplasms
  • 1.11 Lucent bone lesion in the medulla - well-defined, marginal sclerosis, no expansion
  • 1.12 Lucent bone lesion in the medulla - well-defined, no marginal sclerosis, no expansion
  • 1.13 Lucent bone lesion in the medulla - ill-defined
  • Further Reading
  • 1.14 Lucent bone lesion in the medulla - well-defined, eccentric expansion
  • 1.15 Lucent bone lesion - grossly expansile
  • Malignant bone neoplasms
  • Benign bone neoplasms
  • Non-neoplastic
  • 1.16 Subarticular lucent bone lesion
  • Arthritides
  • Neoplastic
  • Others
  • 1.17 Lucent bone lesion - containing calcium or bone
  • Neoplastic
  • Others
  • 1.18 'Moth-eaten bone' in an adult
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • Further Reading
  • 1.19 Regional osteopenia
  • 1.20 Generalized osteopenia
  • 1.21 Osteoporosis
  • Endocrine
  • Disuse
  • Iatrogenic
  • Deficiency states
  • Idiopathic
  • Congenital
  • Further Reading
  • 1.22 Osteomalacia and rickets*
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Renal disease
  • Hepatic disease
  • Vitamin D-dependent rickets - see below
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Tumour-associated
  • Conditions which mimic rickets/osteomalacia
  • Further Reading
  • 1.23 Periosteal reactions - types
  • Continuous with destroyed cortex
  • Parallel spiculated ('hair-on-end')
  • Divergent spiculated ('sunray')
  • Codman angle (single lamina or lamellated)
  • Further Reading
  • 1.24 Periosteal reactions - solitary and localized
  • Further Reading
  • 1.25 Periosteal reactions - bilaterally symmetrical in adults
  • 1.26 Periosteal reactions - bilaterally asymmetrical
  • Further Reading
  • 1.27 Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
  • Pulmonary
  • Pleural
  • Cardiovascular
  • Gastrointestinal
  • 1.28 Excessive callus formation
  • 1.29 Stress fractures - sites and causations
  • Further Reading
  • 1.30 Avascular necrosis
  • Toxic
  • Traumatic
  • Inflammatory
  • Metabolic and endocrine
  • Haemopoietic disorders
  • Thrombotic and embolic
  • 1.31 Erosions of the medial metaphysis of the proximal humerus
  • 1.32 Erosion or absence of the outer end of the clavicle
  • 1.33 Focal rib lesion (solitary or multiple)
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 1.34 Rib notching - inferior surface
  • Arterial
  • Venous
  • Arteriovenous
  • Neurogenic
  • 1.35 Rib notching - superior surface
  • Connective tissue diseases
  • Metabolic
  • Miscellaneous
  • 1.36 Wide or thick ribs
  • 1.37 Madelung deformity
  • 1.38 Carpal fusion
  • Isolated
  • Syndrome-related
  • Acquired
  • 1.39 Short metacarpal(s) or metatarsal(s)
  • 1.40 Arachnodactyly
  • 1.41 Distal phalangeal destruction
  • Resorption of the tuft
  • Resorption of the mid-portion
  • Periarticular
  • Poorly defined lytic lesions
  • Well-defined lytic lesions
  • 1.42 Fluid-fluid levels in bone lesions on ct and mri
  • Benign
  • Malignant
  • Further Reading
  • 1.43 Increased uptake on bone scans
  • 1.44 Increased uptake on bone scans not due to skeletal abnormality
  • Artefacts
  • Physiological variants
  • Soft-tissue uptake
  • Visualization of normal organs
  • 1.45 Photopenic areas (defects) on bone scans
  • 2 Spine
  • 2.1 Scoliosis
  • Idiopathic
  • Congenital
  • Neuropathic disorders
  • Neuromuscular diseases
  • Mesodermal and neuroectodermal diseases
  • Postradiotherapy
  • Leg length discrepancy
  • Painful scoliosis
  • Further Reading
  • 2.2 Solitary collapsed vertebra
  • Further Reading
  • 2.3 Multiple collapsed vertebrae
  • Further Reading
  • 2.4 Erosion, destruction or absence of a pedicle
  • Further Reading
  • 2.5 Solitary dense pedicle
  • 2.6 Enlarged vertebral body
  • Generalized
  • Local (single or multiple)
  • 2.7 Squaring of one or more vertebral bodies
  • Further Reading
  • 2.8 Block vertebrae
  • 2.9 Ivory vertebral body
  • 2.10 Atlantoaxial subluxation
  • Trauma arthritides
  • Congenital
  • Infection
  • 2.11 Intervertebral disc calcification
  • 2.12 Bony outgrowths of the spine
  • Syndesmophytes
  • Paravertebral ossification
  • Claw osteophytes
  • Traction spurs
  • Undulating anterior ossification
  • 2.13 Posterior scalloping of vertebral bodies
  • 2.14 Anterior scalloping of vertebral bodies
  • 2.15 Widened interpedicular distance
  • 2.16 Intraspinal masses
  • Extradural mass
  • Intradural mass
  • Intramedullary mass
  • Further Reading
  • 3 Joints
  • 3.1 Monoarthritis
  • Further Reading
  • 3.2 The major polyarthritides
  • 3.3 Arthritis with osteoporosis
  • 3.4 Arthritis with preservation of bone density
  • 3.5 Arthritis with a periosteal reaction
  • 3.6 Arthritis with preserved or widened joint space
  • 3.7 Arthritis with soft-tissue nodules
  • Further Reading
  • 3.8 Arthritis mutilans
  • 3.9 Diffuse terminal phalangeal sclerosis
  • 3.10 Calcified loose body (single or multiple) in a joint
  • Further Reading
  • 3.11 Calcification of articular (hyaline) cartilage (chondrocalcinosis)
  • 3.12 Sacroiliitis
  • Bilateral symmetrical
  • Bilateral asymmetrical
  • Unilateral
  • Further Reading
  • 3.13 Protrusio acetabuli
  • 3.14 Widening of the symphysis pubis
  • Acquired
  • Congenital
  • 3.15 Femoral head and neck abnormalities
  • Coxa magna
  • Coxa plana
  • Coxa valga
  • Idiopathic
  • Developmental
  • Inflammatory
  • Traumatic
  • Coxa vara
  • Developmental
  • Inflammatory
  • Traumatic
  • Vascular
  • Metabolic
  • 3.16 Erosion (enlargement) of the intercondylar notch of the distal femur
  • 4 Respiratory tract
  • 4.1 Unilateral hypertransradiant hemithorax
  • Rotation
  • Chest wall
  • Pleura
  • Lung
  • Pulmonary vessels
  • 4.2 Bilateral hypertransradiant hemithoraces
  • With overexpansion of the lungs
  • With normal or small lungs
  • Further Reading
  • 4.3 Tracheal/bronchial narrowing, stenosis or occlusion
  • In the lumen
  • In the wall
  • Outside the wall
  • Further Reading
  • 4.4 Increased density of one hemithorax
  • With an undisplaced mediastinum
  • With mediastinal displacement away from the dense hemithorax
  • With mediastinal displacement towards the dense hemithorax
  • Further Reading
  • 4.5 Pulmonary air cysts
  • Postinfective
  • Post-traumatic
  • Congenital
  • Neoplastic
  • Diffuse lung diseases
  • Further Reading
  • 4.6 Non-resolving or recurrent consolidation
  • Further Reading
  • 4.7 Consolidation with an enlarged hilum
  • Secondary pneumonias
  • Primary pneumonias
  • 4.8 Pneumonia involving part or the whole of one lobe
  • 4.9 Consolidation with bulging of fissures
  • 4.10 Bronchiectasis
  • Causes of bronchiectasis
  • More frequent
  • Less frequent
  • Further Reading
  • 4.11 Air-space opacification
  • Causes of air-space opacification
  • 4.12 Pulmonary oedema
  • Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
  • Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
  • Further Reading
  • 4.13 Unilateral pulmonary oedema
  • Pulmonary oedema on the same side as a pre-existing abnormality
  • Pulmonary oedema on the opposite side to a pre-existing abnormality
  • Further Reading
  • 4.14 Septal (Kerley B) lines
  • Pulmonary venous engorgement
  • Lymphatic/interstitial infiltration
  • Further Reading
  • 4.15 Reticular pattern (with or without honeycombing)
  • Reticular pattern - diffuse interstitial lung diseases
  • Reticular pattern - caused by thickened interlobular septa
  • Reticular pattern - caused by perilobular infiltration
  • Reticular pattern - due to parenchymal destruction leaving 'remnant' interlobular septa
  • Further Reading
  • 4.16 Nodules/nodular pattern
  • 4.16a Multiple small ('pin-point') micronodules
  • 4.16b Multiple micronodules (0.5-2 mm)
  • Soft-tissue or ground-glass attenuation
  • Greater than soft-tissue density
  • Further Reading
  • 4.16c Multiple opacities (2-5 mm)
  • Soft-tissue or ground-glass attenuation and remaining discrete
  • Tending to confluence and/or varying in radiographic intensity over hours to days
  • 4.17 Solitary pulmonary nodule
  • Granulomatous
  • Malignant tumours
  • Benign tumours
  • Infectious/inflammatory
  • Congenital
  • Vascular
  • Further Reading
  • 4.18 Multiple pulmonary nodules (> 5 mm)
  • Neoplastic
  • Infections
  • Immunological
  • Vascular
  • Further Reading
  • 4.19 Lung cavities
  • Infective
  • Neoplastic
  • Vascular
  • In abnormally modelled/destroyed lung or congenital
  • Inflammatory
  • Traumatic
  • Further Reading
  • 4.20 Non-thrombotic pulmonary emboli
  • Further Reading
  • 4.21 Pulmonary calcification or ossification
  • Localized
  • Calcification in a solitary nodule
  • Diffuse or multiple calcifications
  • Interstitial ossification
  • Further Reading
  • 4.22 Unilateral hilar enlargement
  • Lymph nodes
  • Pulmonary artery
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 4.23 Bilateral hilar enlargement
  • Idiopathic
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • Vascular
  • Immunological
  • Inhalational
  • Further Reading
  • 4.24 'Egg-shell' calcification of lymph nodes
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Further Reading
  • 4.25 Diffuse lung disease with preserved lung volumes
  • 4.26 Pleural effusion
  • Transudate (protein 30 g/L)
  • Haemorrhagic
  • Chylous
  • 4.27 Pleural effusion due to extrathoracic disease
  • 4.28 Pleural effusion with an otherwise normal chest X-ray
  • Infective
  • Neoplastic
  • Immunological
  • Extrathoracic diseases
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 4.29 Pneumothorax
  • 4.30 Pneumomediastinum
  • Further Reading
  • 4.31 Diaphragmatic humps
  • At any site
  • Medially
  • Anteriorly
  • Posteriorly
  • Further Reading
  • 4.32 Unilateral elevated hemidiaphragm
  • Causes above the diaphragm
  • Diaphragmatic causes
  • Causes below the diaphragm
  • Scoliosis
  • Decubitus film
  • Differential diagnosis
  • 4.33 Bilateral elevated hemidiaphragms
  • General causes
  • Causes above the diaphragms
  • Causes below the diaphragms
  • Differential diagnosis
  • 4.34 Pleural calcification
  • 4.35 Local pleural masses
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Further Reading
  • 4.36 Rib lesion with an adjacent soft-tissue mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • Inflammatory
  • Metabolic
  • Further Reading
  • 4.37 Chest radiograph following chest trauma
  • Soft tissues
  • Ribs
  • Sternum
  • Clavicles and scapulae
  • Spine
  • Pleura
  • Lung
  • Trachea and bronchi
  • Diaphragm
  • Mediastinum
  • Further Reading
  • 4.38 Drug-induced lung disease
  • Diffuse alveolar opacities
  • Focal alveolar opacities
  • Diffuse interstitial opacities
  • Bronchospasm
  • Hilar enlargement or mediastinal widening
  • Increased opportunistic infections
  • Further Reading
  • 4.39 High-resolution CT - nodules
  • Centrilobular
  • Perilymphatic
  • Random
  • 4.40 High-resolution CT - ground-glass opacification
  • Further Reading
  • 4.41 High-resolution CT - mosaic attenuation pattern
  • Mosaic attenuation pattern - small airways disease (constrictive obliterative bronchiolitis)
  • Mosaic attenuation pattern - vascular disease
  • Mosaic attenuation pattern - infiltrative disease
  • Further Reading
  • 4.42 Anterior mediastinal masses in adults
  • Region I
  • Region II
  • Region III (anterior cardiophrenic angle masses)
  • Further Reading
  • 4.43 Middle mediastinal masses in adults
  • Further Reading
  • 4.44 Posterior mediastinal masses in adults
  • Region I (paravertebral)
  • Region II
  • Region III
  • Further Reading
  • 4.45 CT mediastinal mass containing fat
  • 4.46 CT mediastinal cysts
  • Further Reading
  • 4.47 CT thymic mass
  • Further Reading
  • 4.48 Ventilation-perfusion mismatch
  • Mismatched perfusion defects
  • Mismatched ventilation defects
  • Further Reading
  • 4.49 Multiple matched ventilation/perfusion defects
  • Further Reading
  • 5 Cardiovascular system
  • 5.1 Gross cardiomegaly on chest x-ray
  • 5.2 Right atrial enlargement
  • Secondary to RV failure
  • Volume loading
  • Pressure loading
  • 5.3 Right ventricular enlargement
  • Volume loading
  • Pressure loading (which may lead to increasing RV volume)
  • 5.4 Left atrial enlargement
  • Volume loading
  • Pressure loading
  • 5.5 Left ventricular enlargement
  • Myocardial disease
  • Volume loading
  • Pressure loading (which may lead to increasing LV volume)
  • Further Reading for 5.1-5.5
  • 5.6 Cardiac calcification
  • Valves
  • Intracardiac calcification
  • Myocardium
  • Pericardium
  • Coronary arteries
  • Further Reading
  • 5.7 Myocardial diseases
  • LV generalized increased myocardial wall thickness
  • RV thickening
  • Focal myocardial thickening
  • Myocardial thinning
  • Fatty lesions
  • Further Reading
  • 5.8 Pericardial diseases
  • Pericardial thickening
  • Pericardial effusion
  • Pericardial constriction
  • Further Reading
  • 5.9 Cardiac masses
  • Further Reading
  • 5.10 Late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac MRI
  • Further Reading
  • 5.11 Malignant coronary artery anomalies in the adult
  • Further Reading
  • 5.12 Causes of a perfusion defect on cardiac stress perfusion MRI
  • 5.13 Causes of a perfusion defect on a cardiac spect scan
  • 5.14 Acute aortic syndromes
  • Aortic dissection
  • Intramural haematoma
  • Penetrating aortic ulcer
  • Aortic transection
  • Further Reading
  • 5.15 Aortic arch anomalies
  • 5.16 Thoracic aortic aneurysm
  • Ascending aortic aneurysm
  • Descending aortic aneurysm
  • Further Reading
  • 5.17 Increased aortic wall thickness
  • 5.18 Pulmonary arterial enlargement
  • 5.19 Pulmonary hypertension
  • Further Reading
  • 5.20 Pulmonary venous enlargement
  • Further Reading
  • 6 Abdomen and gastrointestinal tract
  • 6.1 Pneumoperitoneum
  • Radiological signs
  • Causes
  • Further Reading
  • 6.2 Gasless abdomen
  • Adult
  • 6.3 Pharyngeal/oesophageal pouches and diverticula
  • Upper third
  • Middle third
  • Lower third
  • Further Reading
  • 6.4 Oesophageal ulceration
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 6.5 Oesophageal strictures - smooth
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 6.6 Oesophageal strictures - irregular
  • Neoplastic
  • Inflammatory
  • Iatrogenic
  • 6.7 Tertiary contractions in the oesophagus
  • Further Reading
  • 6.8 Stomach masses and filling defects
  • Primary malignant neoplasms
  • Polyps
  • Submucosal neoplasms
  • Extrinsic indentation
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 6.9 Thick stomach folds/wall
  • Inflammatory
  • Infiltrative/neoplastic
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 6.10 Linitis plastica
  • Neoplastic
  • Inflammatory
  • 6.11 'Bull's-eye' (target) lesion in the stomach
  • 6.12 Decreased/absent duodenal folds
  • 6.13 Duodenal mural/fold thickening or mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Inflammatory/infiltrative
  • Further Reading
  • 6.14 Dilated small bowel
  • Normal folds
  • Thick folds
  • Further Reading
  • 6.15 Strictures in the small bowel
  • Further Reading
  • 6.16 Thickened folds in non-dilated small bowel - smooth and regular
  • Vascular
  • Radiotherapy
  • Oedema
  • Early infiltration
  • Coeliac disease
  • Abetalipoproteinaemia
  • 6.17 Thickened folds in non-dilated small bowel - irregular and distorted
  • Localized
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • Widespread
  • Infiltrative
  • Inflammatory
  • Infestations
  • Further Reading
  • 6.18 Small bowel mural thickening on cross-sectional imaging - differentiation by contrast enhancement
  • Avid contrast enhancement
  • Moderate homogeneous contrast enhancement
  • Heterogeneous enhancement
  • Layered enhancement
  • Reduced enhancement
  • 6.19 Small bowel mural thickening on cross-sectional imaging - differentiation by length of involvement
  • Focal (= 5 cm)
  • Malignant
  • Inflammatory
  • Segmental (6-40 cm)
  • Diffuse (> 40 cm)
  • Further Reading
  • 6.20 Multiple nodules in the small bowel
  • Inflammatory
  • Infiltrative
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • 6.21 Lesions in the terminal ileum
  • Inflammatory
  • Infective
  • Neoplastic
  • Ischaemia
  • Further Reading
  • 6.22 Colonic polyps
  • Adenomatous
  • Hyperplastic
  • Hamartomatous
  • Inflammatory
  • Infective
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 6.23 Colonic strictures
  • Neoplastic
  • Inflammatory
  • Ischaemia
  • Infective
  • Extrinsic masses
  • Further Reading
  • 6.24 Colitis on cross-sectional imaging
  • Diffuse
  • Predominantly right-sided
  • Predominantly left-sided
  • Further Reading
  • 6.25 Pneumatosis intestinalis (gas in the bowel wall)
  • Benign causes
  • Life-threatening causes
  • Further Reading
  • 6.26 Megacolon in an adult
  • Non-toxic (without mucosal abnormalities)
  • Toxic (with severe mucosal abnormalities)
  • Further Reading
  • 6.27 'Thumbprinting' in the colon
  • Colitides
  • Neoplastic
  • Differential diagnosis
  • 6.28 Aphthoid ulcers
  • In colon
  • In small bowel
  • 6.29 CT signs of intestinal ischaemia
  • Further Reading
  • 6.30 Cross-sectional imaging signs of appendicitis
  • Further Reading
  • 6.31 Causes of increased mesenteric attenuation - 'misty mesentery'
  • Inflammatory
  • Haemorrhage
  • Oedema
  • Neoplastic
  • Idiopathic
  • Further Reading
  • 6.32 Widening of the retrorectal space/presacral mass
  • Normal variation
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Retrorectal developmental cysts
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 6.33 CT of a retroperitoneal cystic mass
  • Pancreas
  • Kidney
  • Para-aortic cystic nodes
  • Retroperitoneal cystic tumour
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 6.34 Normal size of abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes
  • Further Reading
  • 6.35 Scintigraphic localization of gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Technique
  • Common sites
  • Alternatives to scintigraphy
  • Further Reading
  • 6.36 Causes of non-malignant fdg uptake in abdominal pet CT
  • 6.37 Abdominal malignancy with poor fdg pet avidity
  • Further Reading
  • 7 Gallbladder, liver, spleen and pancreas
  • 7.1 Filling defect in the gallbladder
  • Multiple
  • Single and small
  • Single and large
  • Further Reading
  • 7.2 Biliary tract dilatation
  • Benign
  • Malignant
  • 7.3 Thickened gallbladder wall
  • Further Reading
  • 7.4 Gas in the biliary tract
  • Within the bile ducts
  • Incompetence of the sphincter of Oddi
  • Postoperative
  • Spontaneous biliary fistula
  • Within the gallbladder
  • 7.5 Gas in the portal veins
  • Further Reading
  • 7.6 Segmental anatomy of the liver
  • Further Reading
  • 7.7 Hepatomegaly
  • Neoplastic
  • Raised venous pressure
  • Degenerative
  • Myeloproliferative disorders
  • Infective
  • Storage disorders
  • Congenital
  • Further Reading
  • 7.8 Hepatic calcification
  • Multiple and small
  • Curvilinear
  • Localized in mass
  • Sunray spiculation
  • Diffuse increased density
  • 7.9 Ultrasound liver - generalized hypoechoic
  • 7.10 Ultrasound liver - generalized hyperechoic
  • Further Reading
  • 7.11 Ultrasound liver - focal hyperechoic
  • 7.12 Ultrasound liver - focal hypoechoic
  • Further Reading
  • 7.13 Ultrasound liver - periportal hyperechoic
  • 7.14 Periportal hypoechogenicity/hypoattenuation
  • Hepatic causes
  • Extrahepatic causes
  • Further Reading
  • 7.15 CT liver - focal hypodense lesion pre-intravenous contrast medium
  • Further Reading
  • 7.16 CT liver - focal hyperenhancing lesion
  • During the arterial phase
  • During the portal vein phase
  • During the equilibrium phase
  • 7.17 CT liver - focal hyperdense lesion
  • Pre-intravenous contrast
  • Post-intravenous contrast
  • Further Reading
  • 7.18 CT liver - generalized low attenuation pre-intravenous contrast medium
  • 7.19 CT liver - generalized increase in attenuation pre-intravenous contrast medium
  • 7.20 Liver-specific mri contrast media
  • Further Reading
  • 7.21 Mri liver
  • Further Reading
  • 7.22 Mri liver - focal hyperintense lesion on T1W
  • Further Reading
  • 7.23 Mri liver - ringed hepatic lesions
  • Further Reading
  • 7.24 Liver lesions with a central scar
  • Further Reading
  • 7.25 Liver lesions causing capsular retraction
  • Further Reading
  • 7.26 Splenomegaly
  • Huge spleen
  • Moderately large spleen
  • Slightly large spleen
  • 7.27 Splenic calcification
  • Curvilinear
  • Multiple small nodular
  • Diffuse homogeneous or finely granular
  • Solitary > 1 cm
  • 7.28 Splenic lesion
  • Solid
  • Cystic
  • Further Reading
  • 7.29 Pancreatic calcification
  • Further Reading
  • 7.30 Cystic pancreatic lesion
  • Further Reading
  • 7.31 CT of pancreas - solid mass
  • Further Reading
  • 8 Adrenals, urinary tract and testes
  • 8.1 Adrenal calcification
  • Further Reading
  • 8.2 Incidental adrenal mass (unilateral)
  • Functioning tumours
  • Malignant tumours
  • Benign
  • Further Reading
  • 8.3 Bilateral adrenal masses
  • Further Reading
  • 8.4 Adrenal pseudotumours
  • Imaging structures mimicking adrenal mass
  • Further Reading
  • 8.5 Mibg imaging
  • Normal uptake
  • Abnormal uptake
  • Further Reading
  • 8.6 Congenital renal anomalies
  • Anomalies of position
  • Anomalies of form
  • Anomalies of number
  • Further Reading
  • 8.7 Localized bulge of the renal outline
  • Further Reading
  • 8.8 Unilateral scarred kidney
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Further Reading
  • 8.9 Unilateral small smooth kidney
  • Prerenal = vascular
  • Renal = parenchymal
  • Postrenal = collecting system
  • Further Reading
  • 8.10 Bilateral small smooth kidneys
  • Prerenal = vascular
  • Renal = parenchymal
  • Postrenal = collecting system
  • Cause of unilateral small kidney
  • Further Reading
  • 8.11 Unilateral large smooth kidney
  • Prerenal = vascular
  • Renal = parenchymal
  • Postrenal = collecting system
  • Further Reading
  • 8.12 Bilateral large smooth kidneys
  • Developmental
  • Proliferative and necrotizing disorders
  • Deposition of abnormal proteins
  • Interstitial fluid accumulation
  • Neoplastic infiltration
  • Inflammatory cell infiltration
  • Miscellaneous
  • Further Reading
  • 8.13 Renal calcification
  • Calculi
  • Nephrocalcinosis
  • Dystrophic calcification due to localized disease
  • Further Reading
  • 8.14 Renal calculi
  • Opaque
  • Poorly opaque
  • Non-opaque
  • Calcium-containing
  • Pure calcium oxalate due to hyperoxaluria
  • Uric acid
  • Xanthine
  • Matrix
  • Indinavir
  • Further Reading
  • 8.15 Signs of urinary tract stone disease on CT
  • 8.16 Mimics of renal colic on unenhanced CT urography
  • Non-stone genitourinary
  • Gynaecological
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Vascular
  • Miscellaneous conditions
  • Further Reading
  • 8.17 Nephrocalcinosis
  • Medullary (pyramidal)
  • Cortical
  • Further Reading
  • 8.18 Cortical defects in radionuclide renal images
  • Further Reading
  • 8.19 Renal cystic disease
  • Renal dysplasia
  • Polycystic disease*
  • Cortical cysts
  • Medullary cysts
  • Miscellaneous intrarenal cysts
  • Extraparenchymal renal cysts
  • Further Reading
  • 8.20 CT findings in renal cystic disease
  • Bosniak I - simple cyst
  • Bosniak II - minimally complicated
  • Bosniak IIF - minimally complicated requiring follow-up
  • Bosniak III - measurable enhancement/probably malignant
  • Bosniak IV - clearly malignant
  • Further Reading
  • 8.21 Fat-containing renal mass
  • Further Reading
  • 8.22 Renal neoplasms in an adult
  • Malignant
  • Benign
  • Further Reading
  • 8.23 CT of focal hypodense renal lesions
  • Tumours
  • Infection
  • Vascular
  • Cyst
  • Further Reading
  • 8.24 Renal sinus mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic lesions
  • Further Reading
  • 8.25 Neoplastic and proliferative disorders of the perinephric space
  • Soft tissue rind
  • Fatty lesions
  • Cystic lesions
  • Abscess and infection
  • Further Reading
  • 8.26 Nephrographic patterns
  • Global absence of nephrogram
  • Segmental absence of nephrogram
  • Immediate faint persistent nephrogram
  • Immediate distinct persistent nephrogram
  • Increasingly dense nephrogram
  • Rim nephrogram
  • Striated nephrogram
  • Further Reading
  • 8.27 Renal papillary necrosis
  • Further Reading
  • 8.28 Renal-induced hypertension
  • Renal artery stenosis
  • Chronic bilateral parenchymal disease
  • Unilateral parenchymal disease
  • 8.29 Renal artery stenosis
  • Aetiology
  • Signs of unilateral renal artery stenosis on CT
  • Signs of unilateral renal artery stenosis on IVU
  • Signs of unilateral renal artery stenosis on ACE inhibitor renal scintigraphy
  • Signs of unilateral renal artery stenosis on Doppler sonography
  • Further Reading
  • 8.30 Renal vein thrombosis
  • Ultrasound findings
  • 1st week
  • 2nd week
  • Late
  • Conventional radiographic findings
  • Sudden occlusion
  • Gradual occlusion
  • Children
  • Adults
  • Further Reading
  • 8.31 Non-opacification of a calyx on CT or excretory urography
  • Further Reading
  • 8.32 Filling defect in the renal collecting system or ureter
  • Technical factors
  • Extrinsic with a smooth margin
  • Inseparable from the wall and with smooth margins
  • Arising from the wall with an irregular margin
  • In the lumen
  • Further Reading
  • 8.33 Spontaneous urinary contrast extravasation
  • Pyelorenal backflow
  • Further Reading
  • 8.34 Dilated calyx
  • With a narrow infundibulum
  • With a wide infundibulum
  • Further Reading
  • 8.35 Dilated ureter
  • Obstruction
  • Within the lumen
  • In the wall
  • Outside the wall
  • Vesicoureteric reflux
  • No obstruction or reflux
  • Further Reading
  • 8.36 Stricture of the ureter
  • Congenital
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Infection
  • Vascular
  • Trauma
  • 8.37 Filling defect within the ureter
  • Solitary
  • Within the lumen
  • In the wall
  • Multiple
  • Within the lumen
  • In the wall
  • 8.38 Retroperitoneal fibrosis
  • Aetiology
  • Further Reading
  • 8.39 Deviated ureters
  • Medial deviation
  • Lateral deviation
  • 8.40 Vesicoureteric reflux
  • Congenital (= primary reflux)
  • Acquired (= secondary reflux)
  • Further Reading
  • 8.41 Filling defect in the bladder
  • Within the lumen
  • In the wall
  • Further Reading
  • 8.42 Bladder wall thickening
  • Neoplastic
  • Inflammatory
  • Muscular hypertrophy
  • Trauma
  • Further Reading
  • 8.43 Bladder calcification
  • In the lumen
  • In the wall
  • Further Reading
  • 8.44 Bladder fistula
  • Congenital
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Trauma
  • Further Reading
  • 8.45 Gas in the urinary system
  • Gas inside the bladder
  • Gas in the bladder wall
  • Gas in the ureters and pelvicalyceal systems
  • Further Reading
  • 8.46 Calcifications of the male genital tract
  • Prostate
  • Further Reading
  • 8.47 Ultrasound of intratesticular abnormalities
  • Neoplastic
  • Vascular
  • Inflammatory
  • Idiopathic non-neoplastic cysts
  • Further Reading
  • 8.48 Ultrasound of extratesticular abnormalities
  • Inflammatory
  • Idiopathic
  • Neoplastic
  • Vascular
  • Further Reading
  • 9 Soft tissues
  • 9.1 Gynaecomastia
  • Physiological
  • Pathological
  • Pharmacological
  • 9.2 Linear and curvilinear calcification in soft tissues
  • Arterial
  • Nerve
  • Ligament
  • Bismuth injection
  • Parasites
  • Further Reading
  • 9.3 'Sheets' of calcification/ossification in soft tissues
  • 9.4 Soft-tissue calcification
  • Connective tissue disorder
  • Metabolic
  • Traumatic
  • Neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 9.5 Soft-tissue ossification
  • Traumatic
  • Neoplastic
  • Idiopathic
  • Further Reading
  • 10 Breast disease and mammography
  • 10.1 Mammographic features of breast lesions
  • 10.2 Calcification
  • 10.3 Disappearance of calcification
  • 10.4 Benign lesions with typical appearances
  • 10.5 Single well-defined soft-tissue opacity
  • Benign
  • Malignant
  • 10.6 Multiple well-defined soft-tissue opacities
  • 10.7 Large (> 5 cm) well-defined opacity
  • 10.8 Benign conditions that mimic malignancy
  • 10.9 Risk factors for breast cancer
  • Family and genetic factors
  • 10.10 Oedematous breast
  • Signs on mammography
  • Causes
  • 10.11 Ultrasound in breast disease
  • Uses and indications
  • 10.12 Appearances and features of fibroadenomas
  • 10.13 Gynaecomastia
  • Causes
  • 10.14 MRI in breast disease
  • Indications
  • 10.15 Breast augmentation
  • Types of breast augmentation
  • Key features of implants
  • 10.16 CT and pet CT in breast imaging
  • Further Reading
  • 11 Face and neck
  • 11.1 Orbital mass lesions
  • Lesions involving the globe
  • Intraconal lesions
  • Conal lesions
  • Extraconal lesions
  • Further Reading
  • 11.2 Optic nerve glioma versus optic nerve sheath meningioma - clinical and radiological differentiation
  • Further Reading
  • 11.3 Enlarged orbit
  • 11.4 Bare orbit
  • 11.5 Enlarged optic foramen
  • Concentric enlargement
  • Focal defect
  • 11.6 Enlarged superior orbital fissure
  • 11.7 Intraorbital calcification
  • Within the globe
  • Outside the globe
  • 11.8 Orbital hyperostosis
  • Further Reading
  • 11.9 Small or absent sinuses
  • Congenital
  • Acquired
  • 11.10 Opaque maxillary antrum
  • Traumatic
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Others
  • 11.11 Mass in maxillary antrum
  • Further Reading
  • 11.12 Cystic lesions in the mandible/maxilla
  • Dental
  • Non-dental
  • Further Reading
  • 11.13 'Floating' teeth
  • 11.14 Loss of lamina dura of teeth
  • Generalized
  • Focal
  • 11.15 Nasopharyngeal mass
  • Further Reading
  • 11.16 Prevertebral soft-tissue mass in an adult on lateral cervical X-ray
  • Further Reading
  • 11.17 Photopenic areas in radionuclide thyroid imaging
  • Localized
  • Generalized
  • 12 Skull and brain
  • 12.1 Acute arterial infarct: CT
  • 12.2 Acute arterial infarct: MRI
  • 12.3 Venous infarcts
  • 12.4 Indications for CT and MRI in acute stroke
  • Indications for CT in suspected stroke
  • Indications for MRI in suspected stroke
  • Further Reading
  • 12.5 Differentiation between infarct and tumour
  • 12.6 Appearances of blood on scans
  • CT
  • MRI
  • 12.7 Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Causes
  • Diagnosis and investigation
  • Complications
  • Further Reading
  • 12.8 Intracranial aneurysms
  • Presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • 12.9 Vascular malformations
  • Malformations with AV shunts
  • Malformations without AV shunts
  • Further Reading
  • 12.10 CNS infection
  • Meningitis
  • Encephalitis and encephalitis-like disorders
  • Slow viruses
  • Prion diseases
  • Further Reading
  • Encephalitis and encephalitis-like disorders
  • Prion diseases
  • 12.11 HIV and the brain
  • Infections
  • Viral
  • Fungal
  • Protozoal
  • Bacterial
  • Tumour
  • 12.12 Congenital CNS infections
  • 12.13 Head injury
  • Primary effects
  • Secondary effects
  • Delayed effects
  • Further Reading
  • 12.14 Hydrocephalus
  • CSF overproduction
  • Non-communicating/obstructive
  • Congenital
  • Acquired
  • Communicating
  • 12.15 Pneumocephalus
  • 12.16 CT attenuation of cerebral masses
  • Hyperdense
  • Isodense
  • Hypodense
  • 12.17 Differential diagnosis of a solitary intracerebral mass
  • Further Reading
  • 12.18 Intracranial calcification
  • Normal variant
  • Vascular
  • Tumours
  • Infection
  • Neurocutaneous syndromes
  • 12.19 Basal ganglia calcification
  • 12.20 Meningeal enhancement on CT and MRI
  • Normal
  • Dural
  • Leptomeningeal
  • 12.21 Enhancement of ependymal and subarachnoid space on CT and MRI
  • Ependymal
  • Subarachnoid space
  • 12.22 Multiple ring-enhancing lesions
  • 12.23 Basal ganglia: bilateral abnormalities
  • Normal
  • Vascular
  • Neurodegenerative
  • Toxins
  • Acquired metabolic disease
  • Inherited metabolic disease
  • 12.24 Basal ganglia: bright on T1
  • Deposition of paramagnetic substances
  • Calcification
  • Hamartomas
  • Indeterminate
  • 12.25 Thalamus: bilateral abnormalities
  • Vascular
  • Infection
  • Metabolic
  • 12.26 Inherited metabolic white matter disease
  • Dysmyelination
  • Lysosomal disorders
  • Peroxisomal disorders
  • Mitochondrial disorders
  • Amino organic acid abnormalities
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 12.27 Multiple sclerosis and its differential diagnosis
  • Normal features mimicking MS
  • Vascular
  • Other demyelinating conditions
  • Infection
  • Tumour
  • Further Reading
  • 12.28 Cerebral atrophy
  • Generalized
  • Focal
  • Further Reading
  • 12.29 Diffuse cerebellar atrophy
  • 12.30 Intracranial manifestations of well-known neurocutaneous disorders
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1
  • Neurofibromatosis type 2
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Sturge-Weber syndrome
  • Von Hippel-Lindau
  • Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu)
  • 12.31 Causes of high T1 signal
  • Normal
  • Pathological
  • Further Reading
  • 12.32 Causes of low T2 signal
  • Normal
  • Pathological
  • 12.33 Enlarged pituitary fossa
  • 12.34 J-shaped sella
  • 12.35 Intrasellar mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 12.36 Infundibular mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • 12.37 Suprasellar mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • 12.38 Cavernous sinus/parasellar mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 12.39 Pineal region mass
  • Pineal gland
  • Further Reading
  • Posterior brainstem
  • Posterior third ventricle
  • Perimesencephalic cistern
  • 12.40 Intraventricular mass in adults
  • Lateral ventricles
  • Foramen of Monro
  • Third ventricle
  • Fourth ventricle
  • 12.41 Cerebellopontine angle mass
  • 12.42 Internal auditory canal abnormality
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 12.43 Middle/external ear mass
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplastic
  • Vascular
  • Further Reading
  • 12.44 Temporal bone mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • 12.45 Temporal bone sclerosis
  • Further Reading
  • 12.46 Pulsatile tinnitus
  • Anatomical
  • Vascular
  • Neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 12.47 Jugular foramen mass
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 12.48 Foramen magnum mass
  • Intramedullary
  • Intradural, extramedullary
  • Extradural
  • 12.49 Diffuse skull base abnormality
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • 12.50 Skull vault lucency without sclerotic edge
  • Normal
  • Neoplastic (adults)
  • Neoplastic (children)
  • Traumatic
  • Metabolic
  • Infective
  • Vascular
  • Others
  • 12.51 Skull vault lucency with sclerotic edge
  • Developmental
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • Others
  • 12.52 Generalized increase in density of skull vault
  • 12.53 Localized increase in density of skull vault
  • Within bone
  • Adjacent to bone
  • Artefact
  • 12.54 Thickened skull
  • Generalized
  • Focal
  • 12.55 Thin skull
  • Generalized
  • Focal
  • 12.56 Basilar invagination
  • 12.57 Platybasia
  • 12.58 'Hair-on-end' skull vault
  • Haemolytic anaemias
  • Neoplastic
  • Others
  • 12.59 Diffusion-weighted imaging
  • 13 Gynaecology and obstetrics
  • Gynaecological imaging
  • 13.1 Vagina
  • US-detectable lesions
  • 13.2 Vulval carcinoma
  • 13.3 Uterine cervix
  • 13.4 Uterine myometrium
  • Clinical and imaging features of benign disease
  • Clinical and imaging features of malignant disease
  • 13.5 Uterine endometrium
  • Clinical and imaging features of benign disease
  • Clinical and imaging features of malignant disease
  • 13.6 Ovary
  • Clinical and imaging features of benign ovarian disease
  • Clinical and imaging features of malignant ovarian disease
  • 13.7 Adnexa
  • Clinical and imaging features
  • Further Reading
  • Obstetric imaging
  • 13.8 Normal pregnancy
  • First trimester imaging
  • Second trimester imaging
  • 13.9 Abnormal pregnancy
  • First trimester loss
  • Features of early pregnancy failure
  • 13.10 Fetal growth restriction
  • Risk factors
  • Assessment
  • 13.11 Fetal hydrops
  • 13.12 Multiple pregnancy
  • 13.13 Abnormalities of the placenta
  • Placenta praevia
  • Other placental abnormalities
  • 13.14 Gestational trophoblastic disease
  • Hydatidiform mole (classic mole/molar pregnancy)
  • Incomplete mole (partial mole)
  • Invasive mole
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • 13.15 Early pregnancy bleeding
  • Causes and features
  • 13.16 Ectopic gestation
  • Risk factors
  • Clinical features
  • US findings
  • Further Reading
  • 14 Paediatrics
  • 14.1 Retarded skeletal maturation
  • Chronic ill-health
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Chromosome disorders
  • Other congenital disorders
  • Further Reading
  • 14.2 Generalized accelerated skeletal maturation
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Congenital disorders
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • 14.3 Premature closure of a growth plate
  • Further Reading
  • 14.4 Asymmetrical maturation
  • Hemihypertrophy or localized gigantism
  • Hemiatrophy or localized atrophy
  • Further Reading
  • 14.5 Skeletal dysplasias
  • Dysplasias with predominant metaphyseal involvement
  • Metaphyseal chondrodysplasias
  • Dysplasias with predominant epiphyseal involvement
  • Mesomelic dysplasias (short forearms ± shanks)
  • Acromelic dysplasias (short hands and feet)
  • Dysplasias with major involvement of the spine
  • 14.6 Lethal neonatal dysplasia
  • Further Reading
  • 14.7 Dumbbell-shaped long bones
  • 14.8 Conditions exhibiting dysostosis multiplex
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses
  • Mucolipidoses
  • Oligosaccharidoses
  • 14.9 Generalized increased bone density
  • Dysplasias
  • Metabolic
  • Poisoning
  • Idiopathic
  • Further Reading
  • 14.10 Paediatric tumours that metastasize to bone
  • 14.11 'Moth-eaten bone' in a child
  • Neoplastic
  • Infective
  • Further Reading
  • 14.12 Periosteal reactions - bilaterally symmetrical in children
  • Further Reading
  • 14.13 Syndromes and bone dysplasias with multiple fractures as a feature
  • With reduced bone density
  • With normal bone density
  • With increased bone density
  • 14.14 Pseudarthrosis in a child
  • Further Reading
  • 14.15 'Bone within a bone' appearance
  • Further Reading
  • 14.16 Irregular or stippled epiphyses
  • 14.17 Solitary radiolucent metaphyseal band
  • Further Reading
  • 14.18 Alternating radiolucent and dense metaphyseal bands
  • Further Reading
  • 14.19 Solitary dense metaphyseal band
  • Further Reading
  • 14.20 Dense vertical metaphyseal lines
  • 14.21 Fraying of metaphyses
  • Further Reading
  • 14.22 Cupping of metaphyses
  • 14.23 Erlenmeyer flask deformity
  • Dysplasias
  • Haematological
  • Depositional disorders
  • Poisoning
  • Further Reading
  • 14.24 Focal rib lesion (solitary or multiple) in a child
  • Neoplastic
  • Non-neoplastic
  • Further Reading
  • 14.25 Widening of the symphysis pubis
  • Acquired
  • Congenital
  • With normal ossification
  • Poorly ossified cartilage
  • Further Reading
  • 14.26 'Sheets' of calcification in a child
  • 14.27 Abnormal thumbs - congenital
  • Broad
  • Large
  • Short or small
  • Absent
  • Triphalangeal
  • Abnormally positioned
  • Further Reading
  • 14.28 Differential diagnosis of skeletal lesions in non-accidental injury*
  • Further Reading
  • 14.29 Platyspondyly in childhood
  • Congenital platyspondyly
  • Platyspondyly in later childhood
  • Acquired platyspondyly
  • Further Reading
  • 14.30 Anterior vertebral body beaks
  • Further Reading
  • 14.31 Acute upper airway obstruction in a child
  • Further Reading
  • 14.32 Chronic upper airway obstruction in a child
  • Nasal
  • Supraglottic
  • Glottic
  • Subglottic and tracheal
  • Further Reading
  • 14.33 Neonatal respiratory distress
  • Pulmonary causes
  • With no mediastinal shift
  • With mediastinal shift away from the abnormal side
  • With mediastinal shift towards the abnormal side
  • Cerebral causes
  • Metabolic causes
  • Abdominal causes
  • Further Reading
  • 14.34 Ring shadows in a child
  • Neonate
  • Older child
  • 14.35 Interstitial lung disease unique to childhood
  • Further Reading
  • 14.36 The normal thymus
  • 14.37 Anterior mediastinal masses in childhood
  • Congenital
  • Neoplastic
  • Inflammatory
  • Further Reading
  • 14.38 Middle mediastinal masses in childhood
  • Neoplastic
  • Inflammatory
  • Congenital
  • Further Reading
  • 14.39 Posterior mediastinal masses in childhood
  • Neoplastic
  • Congenital
  • Further Reading
  • 14.40 Solitary pulmonary mass in childhood
  • Pseudomass lesions
  • Non-neoplastic lesions
  • Neoplastic lesions
  • Malignant
  • Benign
  • Further Reading
  • 14.41 Multiple pulmonary nodules in a child
  • Benign
  • Malignant
  • 14.42 Situs and cardiac malpositions
  • Further Reading
  • 14.43 Neonatal pulmonary venous congestion
  • 1st week
  • 2nd-3rd weeks
  • 4th-6th weeks
  • Further Reading
  • 14.44 Neonatal cyanosis
  • With increased pulmonary vascularity
  • With oligaemia and cardiomegaly
  • With oligaemia but no cardiomegaly
  • Further Reading
  • 14.45 Cardiovascular involvement in syndromes
  • 14.46 Abdominal mass in a child
  • Renal (55%)
  • Non-renal retroperitoneal (23%)
  • Gastrointestinal (18%)
  • Genital (4%)
  • Further Reading
  • 14.47 Intestinal obstruction in a neonate
  • High intestinal obstruction
  • Low intestinal obstruction
  • Further Reading
  • 14.48 Intra-abdominal calcifications in the newborn
  • Further Reading
  • 14.49 Abnormalities of bowel rotation
  • Further Reading
  • 14.50 Adrenal mass in childhood
  • Neoplastic
  • Medullary
  • Cortical
  • Non-neoplastic
  • 14.51 Primary renal neoplasms in childhood
  • Further Reading
  • 14.52 Hydronephrosis in a child
  • Further Reading
  • 14.53 Renal mass in the newborn and young infant
  • Further Reading
  • 14.54 Bladder outflow obstruction in a child
  • Causes (from proximal to distal)
  • 14.55 Vesicoureteric reflux
  • Congenital = primary reflux
  • Acquired = secondary reflux
  • Further Reading
  • 14.56 Gas in the portal veins
  • 14.57 Hepatic tumours in children
  • Malignant (two-thirds)
  • Benign (one-third)
  • Differential diagnosis
  • Further Reading
  • 14.58 Fetal or neonatal liver calcification
  • Peritoneal
  • Parenchymal
  • Vascular
  • 14.59 Jaundice in infancy
  • Anatomical abnormalities
  • Metabolic defects
  • Infections
  • Further Reading
  • 14.60 Differential diagnosis of retinoblastoma
  • Further Reading
  • 14.61 Prevertebral soft-tissue mass on the lateral cervical X-ray
  • 14.62 Neck masses in infants and children
  • Soft
  • Firm
  • Further Reading
  • 14.63 Causes of stroke in children and young adults
  • 14.64 Large head in infancy
  • 14.65 Wide cranial sutures
  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Infiltration of sutures
  • Metabolic disease
  • Recovery from illness
  • Trauma
  • 14.66 Hyperechoic lesions in the basal ganglia on cranial ultrasound of neonates and infants
  • 14.67 Multiple wormian bones
  • Further Reading
  • 14.68 Craniosynostosis
  • Primary craniosynostosis
  • Syndromic craniosynostosis
  • Secondary
  • Further Reading
  • 14.69 Cystic lesions on cranial ultrasound in neonates and infants
  • Normal variants
  • Infratentorial cysts
  • Supratentorial cysts
  • Further Reading
  • 14.70 Disorders of neuronal migration
  • Further Reading
  • 14.71 Supratentorial tumours in childhood
  • Further Reading
  • 14.72 Infratentorial tumours in childhood
  • Further Reading
  • 14.73 Intraventricular mass in children
  • Lateral ventricles
  • Foramen of Monro
  • Third ventricle
  • Fourth ventricle
  • 15 Evaluating statistics - explanations of terminology in general use
  • Further Reading
  • 2
  • Achondroplasia
  • Skull
  • Thorax
  • Axial skeleton
  • Pelvis
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  • A. Chest
  • Opportunistic infections
  • Neoplasms
  • Other parenchymal lung diseases
  • B. Abdomen
  • Infections
  • Malignancy
  • Common symptoms/signs
  • C. CNS
  • D. Musculoskeletal
  • Infection
  • Inflammatory
  • Neoplasm
  • Miscellaneous
  • Further Reading
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children
  • Generalized features
  • Chest
  • Abdomen
  • Head
  • Further Reading
  • Acromegaly
  • Skull
  • Thorax and spine
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Alkaptonuria
  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Extraskeletal
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Extraskeletal
  • Further Reading
  • Asbestos inhalation
  • Pleura
  • Lung parenchyma
  • Other associations
  • Further Reading
  • Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease
  • Further Reading
  • Chondroblastoma
  • Further Reading
  • Chondromyxoid fibroma
  • Further Reading
  • Chondrosarcoma
  • Central
  • Peripheral
  • Further Reading
  • Cleidocranial dysplasia
  • Skull
  • Thorax
  • Pelvis
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Coal worker's pneumoconiosis
  • Simple
  • Complicated, i.e. progressive massive fibrosis
  • Complications
  • Crohn's disease
  • Small bowel
  • Colon
  • Complications
  • Further Reading
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Iatrogenic
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Thoracic findings
  • Gastrointestinal findings
  • Hepatobiliary/pancreatic
  • Skeletal
  • Head and neck
  • Further Reading
  • Down's syndrome (trisomy 21)
  • Craniofacial
  • Central nervous system
  • Axial skeleton
  • Pelvis
  • Chest
  • Hands
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Further Reading
  • Enchondroma
  • Syndromes
  • Further Reading
  • Eosinophilic granuloma
  • Ewing's sarcoma
  • Further Reading
  • Fibrous dysplasia
  • Further Reading
  • Giant cell tumour
  • Further Reading
  • Gout
  • Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia
  • Acute gouty arthritis
  • Chronic tophaceous gout
  • Complications
  • Further Reading
  • Haemangioma of bone
  • Further Reading
  • Haemochromatosis
  • Bones and joints
  • Liver and spleen
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • Haemophilia
  • Joints
  • Bones
  • Soft tissues
  • Further Reading
  • Homocystinuria
  • Hurler's syndrome
  • Craniofacial
  • Central nervous system
  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Hyperparathyroidism, primary
  • Causes
  • Bones
  • Soft tissues
  • Joints
  • Kidney
  • Hypercalcaemia
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Further Reading
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Acute HP
  • Subacute HP
  • Chronic HP
  • Further Reading
  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Further Reading
  • Hypophosphatasia
  • Neonatal form
  • Infantile form
  • Childhood form
  • Adult form
  • Hypothyroidism, congenital
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Skull
  • Axial skeleton
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • Oligoarticular or monoarticular onset (45%)
  • Polyarticular onset (23%)
  • Systemic onset
  • Psoriatic arthritis (13%)
  • Enthesitis-related arthritis (10%)
  • Radiological changes
  • Further Reading
  • Langerhans' cell histiocytosis
  • Single-system disease
  • Bone LCH
  • Skin-only LCH
  • Isolated diabetes insipidus
  • Lung involvement
  • Multisystem disease
  • Hand-Schüller-Christian disease
  • Letterer-Siwe disease
  • Further Reading
  • Lymphoma
  • (Intrathoracic) lymph-node enlargement
  • Pulmonary disease
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Solid organs
  • Gastrointestinal lumen
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Colon and rectum
  • Nodal disease
  • Skeleton
  • Muscle
  • Soft tissue
  • Central nervous system
  • Further Reading
  • Marfan's syndrome
  • Skeletal system
  • Ocular system
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Dura
  • Lungs
  • Further Reading
  • Morquio's syndrome
  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Cardiovascular system
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes
  • MEN I (Werner syndrome)
  • MEN IIA (Sipple's syndrome)
  • MEN IIB
  • Further Reading
  • Multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma
  • Plasmacytoma
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Skeletal
  • Extraskeletal
  • Further Reading
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Further Reading
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1
  • von Recklinghausen disease)
  • Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2)
  • Features of neurofibromatosis
  • Skull
  • Brain (see also 12.30)
  • Spine
  • Thorax
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Others
  • Further Reading
  • Neuropathic arthropathy
  • Further Reading
  • Non-accidental injury
  • Skeletal
  • Intracranial injuries - brain
  • Imaging
  • Findings
  • Visceral trauma
  • Skeletal survey for NAI - imaging protocol
  • Further Reading
  • Non-ossifying fibroma (fibrous cortical defect)
  • Ochronosis
  • Osteoblastoma
  • Further Reading
  • Osteochondroma (exostosis)
  • Further Reading
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta
  • Further Reading
  • Osteoid osteoma
  • Osteomalacia
  • Further Reading
  • Osteopetrosis
  • Benign or tarda, AD
  • Malignant or congenita, AR
  • Intermediate, AR
  • With renal tubular acidosis, AR
  • Further Reading
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Further Reading
  • Paget's disease
  • Active (osteolytic)
  • Osteolytic and osteosclerotic
  • Inactive (osteosclerotic)
  • Complications
  • Further Reading
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes
  • Endocrine disorders
  • Haematological disorders
  • Digestive disorders
  • Renal dysfunction
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Skin disorders
  • Neurological disorders
  • Further Reading
  • Perthes' disease (legg-calvé- perthes disease)
  • Pigmented villonodular synovitis
  • Further Reading
  • Plasmacytoma
  • Polycystic kidney disease, autosomal dominant
  • Kidneys
  • Other organs
  • Further Reading
  • Polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive
  • Organs involved
  • Presentation
  • Imaging of associated renal disease
  • Imaging of associated liver disease
  • Further Reading
  • Pseudohypoparathyroidism
  • Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism
  • Psoriatic arthropathy
  • Radiological changes
  • Further Reading
  • Pulmonary embolic disease
  • Imaging acute pulmonary embolism
  • Chronic pulmonary embolism
  • Further Reading
  • Reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome)
  • Further Reading
  • Renal osteodystrophy
  • Children
  • Adults
  • Further Reading
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Para-articular, extra-articular and systemic features in rheumatoid arthritis
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Systemic
  • Pulmonary
  • Cardiac
  • Ocular
  • Vascular
  • Miscellaneous
  • Further Reading
  • Rickets
  • Causes of rickets
  • Changes at the growth plate and cortex
  • Changes due to bone softening (deformities)
  • General changes
  • Sapho
  • Adults
  • Children
  • Further Reading
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Intrathoracic sarcoidosis
  • Skin sarcoidosis
  • Ocular sarcoidosis
  • Cardiac sarcoidosis
  • Hepatic and gastrointestinal sarcoidosis
  • Neurological sarcoidosis
  • Joint sarcoidosis
  • Bone sarcoidosis
  • Sarcoidosis elsewhere
  • Further Reading
  • Scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis)
  • Skin
  • Joints
  • Mandible
  • Ribs
  • Cardiopulmonary
  • Gastrointestinal system
  • Scurvy
  • Sickle-cell anaemia
  • Skeletal
  • Extraskeletal
  • Thorax
  • Spleen
  • Liver and biliary system
  • Renal disease
  • CNS disease
  • Further Reading
  • Silicosis
  • Uncomplicated ('simple') silicosis
  • Complicated silicosis (i.e. progressive massive fibrosis)
  • Acute silicoproteinosis
  • Complications
  • Simple bone cyst
  • Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
  • Further Reading
  • Steroids
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Musculoskeletal
  • Respiratory
  • Cardiovascular
  • Abdomen
  • Neurological
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Further Reading
  • Thalassaemia
  • Skeletal
  • Extraskeletal
  • Further Reading
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Central nervous system
  • Kidneys
  • Skeletal
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Further Reading
  • Turner's syndrome
  • Chest
  • Abdomen
  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Complications
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z

Abbreviations


ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACTH Adrenocorticotrophic hormone AD Autosomal dominant ADC Apparent diffusion coefficient AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome AP Anteroposterior AR Autosomal recessive ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome ARVD Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia ASD Atrial septal defect AV Atrioventricular AVM Arteriovenous malformation AVSD Atrioventricular septal defect AXR Abdomen X-ray BMUS British Medical Ultrasound Society BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia CJD Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease CMC Carpometacarpal CMV Cytomegalovirus CNS Central nervous system COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CSF Cerebrospinal fluid CT Computed tomography CTD Connective tissue disease CXR Chest X-ray DAI Diffuse axonal injury DCIS Ductal carcinoma in situ DCM Dilated cardiomyopathy DIP Distal interphalangeal DISH Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis DNET Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour DWI Diffusion-weighted imaging EBV Epstein–Barr virus ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate FDG Fluorodeoxyglucose FIGO International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology FLAIR Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery GIST Gastrointestinal stromal tumour HAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy hCG Human chorionic gonadotrophin HCM Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy HIV Human immunodeficiency virus HOA Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy HP Hypersensitivity pneumonitis HRCT High-resolution computed tomography HSV Herpes simplex virus HU Hounsfield units i.v. Intravenous IPF Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis IPMN Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm IUCD Intrauterine contraceptive device IVC Inferior vena cava IVF In vitro fertilization IVU Intravenous urogram LAM Lymphangioleiomyomatosis LCH Langerhans' cell histiocytosis LIP Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia LV Left ventricle LVF Left ventricular failure MAI Mycobacterium avium intracellulare MALT Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MCA Middle cerebral artery MCN Mucinous cystic neoplasm MCP Metacarpophalangeal MEN Multiple endocrine neoplasia MIBG Meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine MPA Main pulmonary artery MR Magnetic resonance MRI Magnetic resonance imaging MS Multiple sclerosis NAI Non-accidental injury NEC Necrotizing enterocolitis NF Neurofibromatosis NICE National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence NSIP Non-specific interstitial pneumonia PA Posteroanterior PAS Periodic acid–Schiff (stain) PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PDA Patent ductus arteriosus PE Pulmonary embolism PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure PET Positron emission tomography PID Pelvic inflammatory disease PIP Proximal interphalangeal PKD Polycystic kidney disease PLH Pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia PMF Progressive massive fibrosis PNET Primitive neuroectodermal tumour PPH Primary pulmonary hypertension RTA Renal tubular acidosis RV Right ventricle SAH Subarachnoid haemorrhage SAPHO Synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis SDH Subdural haemorrhage SI Sacroiliac SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus SMA Superior mesenteric artery SMV Superior mesenteric vein SPECT Single-photon emission computed tomography SPN Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm STIR Short tau inversion recovery SVC Superior vena cava SXR Skull X-ray T1W T1-weighted T2W T2-weighted TAPVD Total anomalous pulmonary venous...

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