Abbildung von: Democratic Consolidation and Constitutional Endurance in Asia and Africa - Oxford University Press

Democratic Consolidation and Constitutional Endurance in Asia and Africa

Comparing Uneven Pathways
Oxford University Press
Erschienen am 23. Januar 2024
432 Seiten
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978-0-19-289936-1 (ISBN)
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What factors drive constitutional change and sustain positive transformation? How are democratic values recognised, restored, and preserved through constitutional change? Democratic Consolidation and Constitutional Endurance in Asia and Africa is a well-articulated response to the growing scholarly conversation on democratic backsliding and resilience. Bringing together leading and emerging voices in constitutional law, this groundbreaking new collection considers recent democratising events in Ethiopia, The Gambia, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Across seven thematic chapters and seven case studies, the volume provides analytical insight into central topics arising from these events, including the role of political parties which depart from 'Western' frameworks; the often-marginalised place of courts; the centrality of civil-military relations; the explanatory power of constitutional culture; and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Offering a decolonising approach to constitutional law and democratisation studies, this book will be of keen interest to scholars, practitioners, and policymakers alike. It is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the relationship between democratic decay and institutional endurance, and how such a relationship plays out in conditions of ongoing constitutional development.
Sprache
Englisch
Verlagsort
Oxford
Großbritannien
ISBN-13
978-0-19-289936-1 (9780192899361)
Schlagworte
Schweitzer Klassifikation
DNB DDC Sachgruppen
BISAC Klassifikation
Tom Gerald Daly is Deputy Director of the Melbourne School of Government, Director of the online knowledge platform Democratic Decay & Renewal (DEM-DEC; democratic-decay.org), and Convenor of the Constitution Transformation Network (CTN). His comparative research focuses on global democratic decay and renewal, the contingent democratic legitimacy of judicial review, constitutional design, and constitutional repair. Beyond extensive experience at Melbourne, Edinburgh, and Copenhagen universities, his consultancy work includes designing a pan-continental African Judicial Network for the African Union and leading or working on constitutional-legal reform projects in states and territories including Lebanon, Palestine, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Uzbekistan, and the Pacific. Dr Dinesha Samararatne is Senior Lecturer at Faculty of Law of the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. She is a Convenor of the Constitution Transformation Network (CTN) at Melbourne Law School and an Articles Editor for the Indian Law Review. Dinesha's research interests include constitutional law, administrative law, and human rights law from a Global South perspective, including fourth branch institutions, constitutional resilience, public participation in constitution-making, and judicial interpretation of fundamental rights. She has published with the Asian Journal of Law and Society, World Comparative Law, Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, and Asian Journal of Comparative Law.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents
  • Detailed Contents
  • List of Abbreviations
  • List of Contributors
  • 1. Decolonising Comparative Constitutional Law (and Democratisation Studies)?
  • 1. Introduction: A Distorted Conversation
  • 2. This Book: Radically Re-orientating Our Centre
  • 3. Comparative Methodology and Theory-Building
  • 3.1 The Case Studies
  • 3.2 A Different Model for Theoretical Development
  • 3.3 Context, Collaboration, and Community-Building
  • 4. Our Organising Concepts: Democratic Consolidation and Constitutional Endurance
  • 5. Three Key Features
  • 5.1 Constitutional Change: Endurance and Decay as Cyclical
  • 5.2 Critical Events and Crises
  • 5.3 New Old Actors
  • 6. Summary of the Book
  • 6.1 Thematic Chapters
  • 6.2 Case Studies
  • 7. Concluding Reflections: Seeing Non-linear Constitutional Change through New Eyes
  • Part I. Thematic Chapters
  • 2. Public Offices in Processes of Constitutional Development
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Search for an Organising Concept
  • 3. Mapping Changes of Political, Legal, and Constitutional State
  • 3.1 Constitutionalism and the Westphalian State
  • 3.2 Office, Status, and Role (in Western Modernity and Beyond)
  • 4. Putting the Office Concept into Action
  • 4.1 Modelling Competition between the State and Its Rivals
  • 4.2 Towards a Minimum Normative Concept of 'Constitutionalism'
  • 5. Conclusion
  • 3. The Role of Governing Institutions in Attempted Reform Processes
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Executive-Legislative Relations
  • 2.1 Parliamentary Systems
  • 2.2 Presidential Systems
  • 2.3 Structure of Government in Comparison: Hybrid Systems
  • 2.4 Role of the Armed Forces in Supporting or Hampering Policymaking
  • 3. The Role of Governing Institutions in Reform Processes
  • 4. Factors Contributing to Failure (or a General Theory on the Causes for Failure)
  • 5. Conclusion
  • 4. Here, There, and Everywhere: Locating the Political Party in Democratic Transitions and Backslides
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Parties versus Systems: On the Design of This Chapter
  • 3. The Party Regulated, the Party Regulating: Finances, Bans, Suppression
  • 3.1 Party Suppression through Party Laws
  • 3.2 Business Elites, Transnational Networks, and Party Financing
  • 4. Populism, Leaders, and Military Regimes: The Party as a Front
  • 5. The Other Lives of Parties: Contextualising Parties as Organisational Entities
  • 6. Coalitions, Dynasties, and Power Networks: Party and Party System Institutionalisation
  • 6.1 The Impact of Party Systems and Institutionalisation
  • 6.2 Dynasties and Loyalties: Parties as Vehicles for Unreliable Power Negotiations
  • 7. Conclusion: Locating the Party as an Organisation
  • 5. Constitutional Courts and the Exceptionality of Regime Change
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Regime-Type Approach and Its Allure
  • 3. Courts in Transitional Regimes?
  • 4. The Exceptional Normative Role?
  • 5. Conclusion
  • 6. Civil-Military Relations
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Civil-Military Relations and Militarisation
  • 1.1.1 Civil-military relations
  • 1.1.2 Militarisation
  • 2. Case Studies
  • 2.1 Historical Features
  • 2.2 Exercise of State Power by Present and Former Military Officials
  • 2.3 Deployment of the Military for Functions Unrelated to National Security
  • 3. Constitutions and Civil-Military Relations
  • 3.1 Constitutional Features which Regulate and Influence Civil-Military Relations
  • 3.1.1 Executive powers of the head of state
  • 3.1.1.1 Powers of appointment and assigning subjects and functions to ministries
  • 3.1.1.2 Presidential pardons
  • 3.1.1.3 Declaration of states of emergency and powers to deploy the military
  • 3.1.1.4 (Extra-)Constitutional practice and residual powers
  • 3.1.2 The role and powers of the commander-in-chief
  • 3.1.3 The role of the military
  • 3.1.4 The 'military imprint'
  • 3.2 How Should Constitutions Seek to Regulate and Influence Civil-Military Relations?
  • 3.2.1 Ideal institutions and institutional design
  • 3.2.2 Contextual factors and the balance of power
  • 4. Strategies to Balance Civil-Military Relations at Moments of Democratic Transition
  • 4.1 Sequencing of Security-Sector Reform
  • 4.2 Strategies for Security-Sector Reform
  • 5. Conclusion: The Problem
  • 5.1 The Stylised Model
  • 5.2 Key Features of the Stylised Model
  • 5.2.1 Divide et impera
  • 5.2.2 Actors within the security sector
  • 5.2.3 Entrenching the balance of power through institutionalisation
  • 5.2.4 Reducing the size of the military
  • 5.2.5 Diminishing legitimacy for an oversized role
  • 5.2.6 Claiming legitimacy by employing religious tropes and narratives
  • 7. Constitutional Cultures
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Culture
  • 2.1 Meaning, Properties, Use
  • 2.2 Cultural Communities
  • 2.3 Constitutional Culture
  • 3. Democratic Opportunity
  • 3.1 Case Studies
  • 3.2 Considerations of Culture
  • 3.3 Democracy and Constitutions
  • 4. Constitutional Endurance
  • 4.1 Foundations
  • 4.2 Implementation
  • 4.3 Endurance
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 8. The Impact of COVID-19
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Power in an Emergency
  • 3. The (In)Effectiveness of Safeguards
  • 4. Constitutional Questions: Power, Politics, and the Law during an Emergency
  • 5. The Wider Context: Public Trust
  • 6. Conclusions
  • Part II. Case Studies
  • 9. Prospects for Democratic Consolidation in The Gambia: A Cup Half Full, Half Empty, or More?
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Democracy Manifest: Historical Perspective
  • 3. The Talking Marbles: Voting Out the 'Billion-Year' Dictator in The Gambia
  • 4. 'New Gambia': The Reform Process
  • 4.1 Constitutional Amendment: Change of Retirement Age and Removal of Upper Age Limit for Holding Office as President
  • 4.2 Legislative Reform: Electoral Law
  • 4.3 'Gambianisation' of the Judiciary
  • 4.4 Dealing with Past Human Rights Violations
  • 4.5 Building a Human Rights Culture
  • 4.5.1 Establishment of the National Human Rights Commission
  • 4.5.2 State reporting to human rights treaty bodies
  • 5. The Constitutional Reform Process
  • 5.1 The Constitutional Review Commission (CRC)
  • 5.2 Overview of the 2020 Draft Constitution
  • 6. Liberal Democracy on the Rise or Backsliding?
  • 10. Ethiopia's Transition: Will the Country Stem Descent to Its Tradition of Authoritarianism?
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Context
  • 3. The Regime-Change Event and the Constitutional Reform Process
  • 3.1 Of Symbols
  • 3.2 Of Legal and Institutional Reform
  • 3.3 Of Deferred Constitutional Reform
  • 4. Of COVID-19: The Last Straw
  • 5. Transition Outcomes
  • 6. Reflection: Back to the Beginning
  • 11. Maldives Constitution 2008: Winds of Change at the Fifteenth-Year Crossroads
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Historical Context of Constitution-Making in Maldives
  • 3. Regime Change and the Constitutional Reform Process
  • 4. A Tumultuous Political Context
  • 5. Decentralisation: First as Development, Now a Vehicle for Democracy?
  • 6. Outcomes
  • 7. The Impact of COVID-19
  • 8. Reflections
  • 12. Sri Lanka's Chronic Inability to Sustain Democratic Reform
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Country Context
  • 3. The Regime-Change Event and the Constitutional Reform Process
  • 3.1 The Change in the Political Regime
  • 3.2 The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution
  • 3.3 The Scope of Reform Introduced by the Nineteenth Amendment
  • 3.4 Towards a New Constitution
  • 3.5 Opposition to the Constitutional Reform Process
  • 3.6 Constitutional Reform Derailed
  • 3.7 An Illegal Transfer of Power and Unconstitutional Dissolution of Parliament
  • 4. Outcomes of the Reform Process
  • 5. The Impact of COVID-19
  • 6. Reflections
  • 13. Myanmar's Transition to Peace and Democracy: The Journey Reversed
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Context
  • 2.1 Structure of Government under the 2008 Constitution
  • 2.2 The First Quasi-Civilian Government (2010-2015)
  • 3. The Transition Trumped
  • 3.1 Democratic Transition after 2015
  • 3.2 The Peace Process
  • 3.3 The Constitution-Building Process
  • 3.4 The NLD and the Opposition in the Union Parliament
  • 3.5 The Difficult Road to Federalism
  • 3.6 Formal or Informal Oversight Institutions
  • 4. Outcomes
  • 5. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • 6. Reflection
  • 14. Coup and Decay: How Thai-Style Democracy Abuses Constitutionalism
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Thai-Style Abusive Constitutionalism
  • 3. Network of Thai-Style Democracy
  • 4. The Regime Change and Constitutional Reform (2014-2019)
  • 4.1 The 2014 Coup
  • 4.2 Constitutional Reform
  • 4.3 The 2016 Referendum
  • 4.4 Royal Succession
  • 5. Elections and Consolidation of Thai-Style Democracy
  • 5.1 The 2019 Election
  • 5.2 Consolidation
  • 6. COVID-19: Policy Blunder and Economic Gap
  • 7. Reflection: Towards a Crisis
  • 15. Making Progress on a Rocky Path: Democratic Consolidation and Endurance in Malaysia, 2018-2021
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Context
  • 3. The Regime-Change Event and the Constitutional Reform Process
  • 3.1 The Pact of Hope
  • 3.2 Causes of the Pact of Hope's Collapse
  • 3.2.1 Ethno-nationalist agitation
  • 3.2.2 Internal dissent within PH
  • 3.2.3 Slow pace of reform
  • 3.3 Postscript
  • 4. Outcomes
  • 5. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • 6. Concluding Reflections
  • Index

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