Advances in Marine Biology

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 14. August 2015
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  • 318 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-802355-6 (ISBN)
 

Advances in Marine Biology has been providing in-depth and up-to-date reviews on all aspects of marine biology since 1963--over 40 years of outstanding coverage! The series is well known for its excellent reviews and editing. Now edited by Barbara E. Curry (University of Central Florida, USA) with an internationally renowned Editorial Board, the serial publishes in-depth and up-to-date content on many topics that will appeal to postgraduates and researchers in marine biology, fisheries science, ecology, zoology, and biological oceanography. Volumes cover all areas of marine science, both applied and basic, a wide range of topical areas from all areas of marine ecology, oceanography, fisheries management and molecular biology and the full range of geographic areas from polar seas to tropical coral reefs.


  • Review articles on the latest advances in marine biology
  • Many of the authors are leading figures in their fields of study
  • Material is widely used by managers, students, and academic professionals in the marine sciences
0065-2881
  • Englisch
Elsevier Science
  • 18,81 MB
978-0-12-802355-6 (9780128023556)
0128023554 (0128023554)
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  • Front Cover
  • Advances in Marine Biology
  • Copyright
  • Contributors to Volume 70
  • Contents
  • Series Contents for Last Fifteen Years
  • Chapter One: A Biophysical and Economic Profile of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands as Potential Large-Scale A ...
  • 1. Antarctica: Ecologically Unique, a Frontier of Exploitation, on the Frontline of Marine Conservation
  • 2. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands: The Geophysical Setting
  • 2.1. Geology
  • 2.1.1. Region (Southern South America, Scotia Arc, Antarctic Peninsula, Ocean Basins)
  • 2.1.2. South Georgia
  • 2.1.3. South Sandwich Islands
  • 2.1.4. The Southern South Sandwich Arc Seamounts and Calderas
  • 2.2. Climate
  • 3. The Ecology and Biodiversity of the Marine Ecosystems of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 3.1. The Pelagic Ecosystem
  • 3.1.1. Oceanography and Ecosystem Productivity
  • 3.1.2. Krill (Euphausia superba) and the Importance of Sea Ice in the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands
  • 3.1.3. Climate Change in the Atlantic Sector of the Antarctic and Changes in Food Webs
  • 3.2. Intertidal Zone
  • 3.2.1. South Georgia
  • 3.2.2. South Sandwich Islands
  • 3.3. Shallow Subtidal Zone to 50m Depth
  • 3.3.1. South Georgia
  • 3.3.2. South Sandwich Islands
  • 3.4. Island Shelves to the Deep Sea (50m Depth)
  • 3.4.1. South Georgia
  • 3.4.2. South Sandwich Islands
  • 3.5. Biogeography of the Benthic Biota of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 3.6. Diversity and Biogeography of Fish Communities Around South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 3.7. Chemosynthetic Communities
  • 3.7.1. Other Chemosynthetic Communities in the South Georgia South Sandwich Islands Maritime Zone
  • 4. Biology of Predators Found Around South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Population Size, Ecology and Distribution of Predators
  • 4.2.1. Birds
  • 4.2.1.1. Penguins
  • 4.2.1.1.1. King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.1.2. Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.1.3. Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.1.4. Gentoo Penguin (Pygoscelis papua)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.1.5. Macaroni Penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.1.6. Southern Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysochome)
  • 4.2.1.2. Albatrosses
  • 4.2.1.2.1. Black-Browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.2.2. Grey-Headed Albatross (Thalassarche chrysostoma)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.2.3. Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.2.4. Light-Mantled Sooty Albatross (Phoebetria palpebrata)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.3. Petrels
  • 4.2.1.3.1. White-Chinned Petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.3.2. Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Life History
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.1.3.3. Northern Giant Petrel (Macronectes halli)
  • Foraging Ecology
  • Breeding Ecology
  • Population Trends
  • 4.2.2. Other Bird Species
  • 4.2.2.1. South Georgia
  • 4.2.2.2. South Sandwich Islands
  • 4.2.2.3. Other Conservation Threats to Seabirds on South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 4.2.3. Pinnipeds
  • 4.2.3.1. Antarctic Fur Seal (Arctocephalus gazella)
  • 4.2.3.2. Southern Elephant Seals (Mirounga leonina)
  • 4.2.3.3. Leopard Seals (Hydrurga leptonyx)
  • 4.2.3.4. Other Seals
  • 4.2.4. Cetaceans
  • 5. Exploitation of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 5.1. Historical Exploitation of Whales and Seals
  • 5.1.1. South Georgia
  • 5.1.1.1. Sealing
  • 5.1.1.2. Whaling
  • 5.1.2. South Sandwich Islands
  • 5.2. Fishing
  • 5.2.1. The History of Fishing in the South Atlantic/South Georgia
  • 5.2.2. CCAMLR and Fisheries Management
  • 5.2.3. Current Fisheries
  • 5.2.3.1. Toothfish (Dissostichus spp.)
  • 5.2.3.2. Fishing Technology
  • 5.2.3.3. Technical Modifications of Gear
  • 5.2.3.4. Current State of the Toothfish Fisheries Around South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 5.2.3.5. The Current Performance of the South Georgia/Shag Rocks Toothfish Fishery
  • 5.2.3.6. The South Sandwich Islands Toothfish Fishery
  • 5.2.3.7. By-Catch Issues with the Toothfish Fishery in South Georgia/Shag Rocks
  • 5.2.3.7.1. Seabirds
  • 5.2.3.7.2. Fish Species
  • 5.2.3.7.3. Sessile Organisms
  • 5.2.3.7.4. By-Catch Issues with the Toothfish Fishery in the South Sandwich Islands
  • 5.2.3.8. Mackerel Icefish
  • 5.2.3.8.1. By-Catch in the Mackerel Icefish Fishery
  • 5.2.3.9. Stone Crabs
  • 5.2.3.10. Krill
  • 5.2.3.10.1. By-Catch from the Krill Fishery
  • 5.2.3.10.2. Ecosystem Concerns
  • 5.2.3.10.3. The Future of the South Georgia Krill Fishery
  • 6. An Economic Review of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands: Background in Relation to Socioeconomics
  • 6.3. Methods
  • 6.4. Financial Overview of the Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 6.4.1. Overview
  • 6.4.2. Description of Government Activities
  • 6.4.3. Revenues
  • 6.4.3.1. Fishery License Fees
  • 6.4.3.2. Landing Charges
  • 6.4.3.3. Other Sources of Revenues
  • 6.4.4. Expenditures
  • 6.4.4.1. Fisheries Management Expenditures
  • 6.4.4.2. Additional Expenditures
  • 6.4.4.3. Special Expenditures
  • 6.5. Looking Ahead
  • 6.5.1. The Strategic Plan for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 6.5.2. The Krill Fishery
  • 6.5.2.1. History of the Krill Fishery
  • 6.5.2.2. The Krill Fishery Today
  • 6.5.2.3. The Outlook for the Krill Fishery
  • 6.5.3. Other Fisheries
  • 6.5.3.1. Overview
  • 6.5.3.2. Toothfish
  • 6.5.3.3. Mackerel Icefish
  • 6.5.4. Tourism in the Antarctic and South Sandwich Islands
  • 6.5.4.1. Overview
  • 6.5.4.2. Trends in Antarctic Tourism
  • 6.5.4.3. The History of Antarctic Tourism
  • 6.5.4.4. Tourism in SGSSI
  • 6.5.4.5. Outlook for Tourism in the Region
  • 6.5.5. Oil and Minerals
  • 6.5.5.1. Background
  • 6.5.5.2. The Mineral Potential of Antarctica
  • 6.5.6. Oil
  • 6.5.7. Exploiting Antarctic Mineral Resources: If and When?
  • 6.5.7.1. Political Developments
  • 6.5.7.2. Sensitivity to Market Prices
  • 6.5.8. Implications for SGSSI
  • 6.6. Non-Use Values of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 6.6.1. Conceptual Framework
  • 6.6.2. The Challenge of Numerical Estimation
  • 6.7. Other Economic Values
  • 6.8. Summary and Concluding Remarks on Economics
  • 7. The South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Marine-Protected Areas: What is Needed in the Future
  • 7.1. Assessing the SGSSI MZ Spatial Protection Measures
  • 7.2. Spatial Management Imposed by the Governments of Other Antarctic Sovereign Territories
  • 7.2.1. Australia
  • 7.2.2. France
  • 7.2.3. South Africa
  • 7.2.4. New Zealand
  • 7.3. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 7.3.1. Adequacy of the Current Spatial Conservation Measures
  • 7.3.2. Prospects for Developing Alternative Means of Fisheries Enforcement
  • 7.3.3. The Ecological Grounds for No-Take Marine Reserves Around South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • 7.3.3.1. Global Value as a No-Take MPA
  • 7.3.3.2. Value as a No-Take MPA in the Antarctic Context
  • 7.3.4. Broader Issues with Respect to Spatial Protection of Marine Biodiversity
  • 7.4. Summary Remarks and Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Subject Index
  • Taxonomic Index
4.2.1.2 Albatrosses
4.2.1.2.1 Black-Browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophris)

 Location: South Georgia (breeding) and South Sandwich Islands (foraging).

 IUCN Red List Status: Endangered.

 Population size: 74,296 pairs (South Georgia).

 Population trend: 25% decrease in South Georgia in last 20 years.

 Diet: Krill, cephalopods, fish.

 Foraging range: Variable; early in breeding season north of South Georgia to the Antarctic Polar Front; during brooding Shag Rocks; post brooding, South Orkney Islands and Antarctic Peninsula; winter, Benguela current, Patagonian Shelf, off south coast of Australia.

 Breeding: Adults arrive in September. A single egg is laid in November to December. Eggs hatch late December to early January and chicks fledge April/May.

Foraging Ecology

Black-browed albatross (Figure 35) usually seize prey at the surface, but are also capable of diving to a maximum of 4.5 m depth (Prince et al., 1994a). They often associate in large numbers with fishing vessels (ACAP, 2010a), and sometimes also with large ocean predators, such as killer whales (Sakamoto et al., 2009). The diet of the black-browed albatross varies depending on location and inter-annually within a single location/region (ACAP, 2010a; Xavier et al., 2003). At South Georgia, between the years of 1996 and 2000, krill (E. superba) formed the majority of the diet of black-browed albatross (38% by mass), followed by squid (31%) and fish (27%; Xavier et al., 2003). However, in some years, fish were the most important component of the diet (1998, 1999; mainly C. gunnari and southern barracudina, Magnisudis prionosa) or cephalopods (1996, 1997; mainly Galiteuthis glacialis, Kondakovia longimana, Martialia hyadesi, Moroteuthis knipovitchi; Xavier et al., 2003). Breeding success in black-browed albatross appears to be positively correlated with the quantities of the notothenioid fish C. gunnari in the diet (Xavier et al., 2003). In previous years, such as 1986, other fish, P. guntheri (51% of estimated fish biomass, probably obtained from a commercial fishery) and Icichthys australis (40%), were the main prey species (ACAP, 2010a).

Figure 35 Black-browed albatross, Thalassarche melanophrys, Scotia Sea. Photograph A.D. Rogers, 2010.

As is true of other seabird species, foraging distance varies depending on the time of year for black-browed albatross. At South Georgia, observations have indicated that during egg incubation, adults forage to the north of the islands in sub-Antarctic waters north of the Antarctic Polar Front (Phillips et al., 2008; Figure 36). During brooding, they forage mainly in areas around Shag Rocks, while at the post-brooding stage they forage mainly to the south at the South Orkney Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Phillips et al., 2008; 2009; see Figure 35). Over winter, black-browed albatross migrate mainly to the Benguela shelf region, although a small number of birds migrate to the Patagonian Shelf or to areas off the coast of Southern Australia (Phillips et al., 2005a; Figure 36).

Figure 36 Foraging areas of black-browed albatross, Thalassarche melanophrys, from South Georgia throughout the annual cycle of breeding and non-breeding. Data from Phillips et al. (2005a, 2008, 2009).
Life History

Black-browed albatross nest in colonies. The entire breeding cycle lasts about 8 months. Birds begin to return to colonies in South Georgia in late September and egg-laying begins in late October to early November. A single egg is laid and is incubated for about 68 days before hatching in late December to early January. Chicks fledge April to May. Juveniles do not return to land until they are at least 2 years of age to 6 years of age. Birds begin to breed at a median age of 10 (range 8-13 years). Mortality of black-browed albatross chicks mainly arises from the abandonment of the nest following the failure of one of the adults to return from a foraging trip, or predation of chicks by brown skuas and giant petrels (nests on the periphery of colonies are particularly vulnerable; Forster and Phillips, 2009).

Population Trends

Breeding populations of the black-browed albatross have declined in both South Georgia and the Falkland Islands, the latter being the most important breeding area for the species. In South Georgia, comparisons between 1985/1986 and 2003/2004 show a decrease of 17.5% in the number of pairs (1.1% per annum) in single species colonies, and of 32.8% (2.2% per annum), in mixed colonies, with larger decreases indicated for individual colonies over a similar time period (e.g. Bird Island, 44%; Poncet et al., 2006). Overall, population size in South Georgia has declined from approximately 101,488 pairs in the late 1980s/early 1990s (Prince et al., 1994b), to 74,296 pairs in the 2003/2004 breeding season (Poncet et al., 2006). This decline (about 25% of the population size) is similar in order to the decline of black-browed albatross in the Falkland Islands (Arnold et al., 2006).

It is likely that declines in population sizes of black-browed albatross are occurring for a number of reasons, but accidental mortality from fisheries in the southern hemisphere is probably the most important factor. The distribution of black-browed albatross coincides with the major pelagic and demersal longline and trawl fisheries that are known sources of mortality for the species (see Figure 36). Longlines are recognized as a significant source of mortality for black-browed albatrosses that dive on the baited hooks and are caught or entangled and drowned. Off South Africa, longline fisheries for tuna and swordfish between 1998 and 2000 were estimated as killing between 19,000 and 30,000 seabirds per year, including black-browed albatross (Ryan et al., 2002). Pelagic longline fisheries managed by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) overlap substantially with the distribution of black-browed albatrosses in the South Atlantic. Estimates between 2003 and 2006 suggest up to 3900 individual black-browed albatrosses per annum were killed in ICCAT-managed longline fisheries during this period, and that the species made up the highest proportion of identified seabird by-catch (Tuck et al., 2011). Other longline fisheries with a by-catch of black-browed albatross include the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, fishery off Chile, the Argentine longline fisheries targeting toothfish and kingclip, Genypterus blacodes, the Uruguayan pelagic longline fishery and artisanal fisheries in Brazil targeting tuna (ACAP, 2010a; Azocar et al., 2011; Goya et al., 2011; Jimenez et al., 2009). Historically, longline fisheries off Australia, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia were also sources of mortality for black-browed albatross.

Trawl fisheries are also a source of mortality for black-browed albatross, including aerial collisions with trawl warps, drowning in nets as they are deployed, or, more commonly, becoming entangled in trawl warps and subsequently drowning during trawling operations (Sullivan et al., 2006; Watkins et al., 2008). Such impacts have been identified in finfish fisheries in the Falkland Islands where 1411 birds (predominantly black-browed albatross) were killed in 2002-2003 (Sullivan et al., 2006). In the deep-water hake fishery off South Africa where, based on observations in 2004 and 2005, an estimated 18,000 birds (range of 8000-31,000) were killed annually in 2004 and 2005, of which an estimated 39% were black-browed albatrosses (Watkins et al., 2008). Significant mortality of black-browed albatross also occurs in the trawl fishery in Golfo San Jorge off Argentina (ACAP, 2010a).

Mortality of seabirds from fishing operations can be dramatically decreased with the implementation of technical measures within a fishery, or other mitigation measures such as seasonal closures. For longline fisheries, such measures include changes in the timing of fishing operations, technical measures such as deployment of streamer lines over longlines during deployment to deter birds from diving on baited hooks, and the deployment of longlines through shoots (ACAP, 2010a, 2011a, b; Phillips et al., 2010). Such measures have been successful, and in South Georgia by-catch of albatross in the toothfish longline fishery fell from 5755 individuals in 1997 to zero by 2006 (Croxall, 2008). An identification scheme allowing hooks to be attributed to specific vessels has also been introduced by the Government of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Effective measures have also been developed to reduce bird mortality in trawl fisheries and include banning the discharge of offal during net deployments, binding nets to allow them to sink rapidly with minimal risk of entanglement of birds, and the employment of streamers on the trawl warps, bird scaring lines over nets (e.g. Tori lines) or booms around the stern of the...

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