Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Technicians

 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 6. Februar 2018
  • |
  • 136 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF ohne DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-351-45014-0 (ISBN)
 
This book provides the basic knowledge in sample collection, field and laboratory quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), sample custody, regulations and standards of environmental pollutants. The text covers sample collection, preservation, handling, detailed field activities, and sample custody.
It provides an overview of the occurrence, source, and fate of toxic pollutants, as well as their control by regulations and standards. Environmental Sampling and Analysis for Technicians is an excellent introductory text for laboratory training classes, namely those teaching inorganic nonmetals, metals, and trace organic pollutants and their detection in environmental samples.
  • Englisch
  • Bosa Roca
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
978-1-351-45014-0 (9781351450140)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Preface
  • The Author
  • Acknowledgments
  • Dedication
  • Table of Contents
  • Part 1. Collecting, Preserving, and Handling Environmental Samples
  • Chapter 1. General Considerations in Sampling
  • 1.1 Objectives of a Sampling Program
  • Project Scope and Purpose
  • Type of Sampling Program
  • Type of Samples
  • Nature of Sample Collection
  • Manual Sample Collection
  • Sample Collection with Automatic Samplers
  • The Material of the Sampling Device Should be Selected According to the Requested Parameters
  • Maintenance and Calibration of Sampling Equipment
  • 1.2. General Sampling Rules
  • 1.3. Preparation of Sampling Equipments
  • Outline for House Cleaning of Sampling Equipments
  • Outline for Field Cleaning of Sampling Equipments
  • Cleaning of Purging Equipments (Submersible Pumps and Non-Teflon Hoses)
  • Decontamination of Teflon Tubing
  • 1.4. Preparation of Sample Containers
  • Cleaning Procedures for Sample Containers
  • Physical Properties and Mineral Analysis
  • Nutrients, Demands, and Radiological Analysis
  • Metals
  • Extractable Organics
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • 1.5. Sample Preservation
  • Special Preservation Techniques
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Chlorophyll "a
  • Cyanide
  • 1.6. Special Sampling Procedures
  • Total Metals
  • Dissolved Metals
  • Suspended Metals
  • VOCs
  • Purgeable Halocarbons (EPA Method-60 1)
  • Purgeable Aromatics (EPA Method-602)
  • Acrolein and Acrylonitrile (EPA Method-603)
  • Extractable Organics
  • Phenols (EPA Method-604)
  • Benzidines (EPA Method-605)
  • Phthalate esters (EPA Method-606
  • Nitrosaxnine (EPA Method-607)
  • Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)(EPA MethoddOS)
  • Nitroaromatics and Isophorone (EPA Method-609)
  • Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) (EPA Method-610)
  • Haloethers (EPA Methoddl 1)
  • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (EPA Method-612)
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin(E PA Method-613)
  • Purgeables (GCIMS EPA Method-624)
  • Base/Neutrals, Acids, Pesticides (GCIMS EPA Method 625)
  • Nutrients, Demands, Nonmetallic Inorganics, Physical Properties, and Radiological Analysis
  • Microbiological Examination
  • Oils and Greases, Total Reamerable Petroleum Hydmcarbons (TRPH)
  • 1.7. Field Sample Custody, Field Records
  • Field Records
  • 1.8. Postsampling Activities
  • Sample Dispatch
  • Waste Disposal in the Field
  • 1.9. Field Quality Control
  • The Field QA/QC Program Included and Documented in the Following Areas
  • The Effectiveness of Sample Collection and Related Field Activities are Supported by Field QC Checks
  • Criteria of Field QC Checks
  • Equipment Blanks
  • Field Blanks
  • Trip Blanks
  • Duplicates
  • Field Spiked Samples
  • Split Samples
  • QC Checks in Field Measurements
  • Control Limits for Precision
  • Control Limits for Accuracy
  • 1.10. Summary of Field Activities and Reparation for Sample Collection
  • Field Activities
  • Preparation for Sample Collection
  • Project Plans
  • Chapter 2. Field Tests
  • 2.1. Calibration of Field Instruments
  • 2.2. Maintenance of Field Instruments
  • 2.3. Minimum Quality Control (QC) Activities in Field Measurements
  • 2.4. The Most Common Field Tests, Instrumentations, and Calibration Procedures
  • Temperature Measurement
  • pH Measurement
  • pH Papers
  • Comparators
  • pH Meter
  • Calibration of pH Meter and Measurement of pH
  • Measurement of Conductivity
  • Applying Temperature Correction
  • Resistivity
  • Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • Measurement by Membrane Electrode
  • Measurement by Iodometric Titration, Winkler Method
  • Sample Collection for the Winkler Method
  • Testing Chlorine Residual
  • Field Methods for Testing Chlorine Residuals
  • Laboratory Method to Measure Chlorine Residual
  • Determination of Carbon Dioxide
  • Titrimetric Method
  • Chapter 3. Sample Collection from Different Matrices
  • 3.1. Groundwater Sampling
  • Monitoring Wells
  • Selection of Materials for Sampling Equipments
  • Stainless Steel 316 or 304
  • Teflon
  • Carbon Steel and Galvanized Steel
  • Polypropylene, Polyethylene
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (WC)V, iton, Tygon, Neoprene, Silicon
  • Purging and Sampling Equipment
  • Determination of the Volume of the Purged Water Prior to sampling
  • Water-Level Measurement
  • Groundwater Sampling Technique
  • Using the Bailer
  • Groundwater Sampling for VOCs
  • Groundwater Sampling for Extractable Organics
  • Groundwater Sampling for Metal Analysis
  • Collection Groundwater Samples for Oil and Grease and Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TRPHs
  • Sampling Groundwater for Inorganic Nonmetallic Parameters and Other Miscellaneous Tests
  • 3.2. Drinking Water Sampling
  • Potable Well Water Sampling
  • Sampling Drinking Water From a Distribution System
  • Sampling Locations
  • Collection Samples for Microbiological Testing
  • Collecting Samples for VOCs
  • Parameters for Drinking Water Analysis
  • Primary Drinking Water Parameters
  • Secondary Drinking Water Parameters
  • 3.3. Surface Water Sampling
  • Surface Waters Have Been Classified According to Their Designated Uses
  • General Rules in Surface Water Sampling
  • Sample Types and Sampling Equipments Used to Collect Surface Waters
  • 3.4. Wastewater Sampling
  • Sample Types
  • Grab Samples
  • Composite Samples
  • Sampling Locations
  • Common Parameters in Wastewater Analysis
  • 3.5. Agricultural Discharges Sampling
  • 3.6. Domestic Sludge Sampling
  • Analytical Parameters and Usual Reporting Units in Sludge Analysis
  • 3.7. Soil Sampling
  • Sampling Equipment
  • Surface Soil Sampling
  • Shallow Subsurface Soil Sampling
  • Deeper Subsurface Soil Sampling
  • General Rules in Soil Sample Collection
  • 3.8. Collecting Sediment Samples
  • Scoops
  • Corers
  • Other Equipments
  • 3.9. Hazardous Waste Sampling
  • Sampling Equipment
  • Coliwasa
  • Trier
  • Sampling Thief
  • Auger
  • Weighed Bottle
  • Dipper
  • Scoops and Shovels
  • Sample Containers
  • Random Sampling
  • Safety in Collecting Hazardous Waste Samples
  • Transportation and Shipping Hazardous Materials
  • Packaging and Labeling of Hazardous Materials
  • Hazardous Waste Verification
  • Ignitability or Flammability
  • Chromium Hexavalent (Cr6+)
  • Toxicity
  • Corrosivity
  • Reactivity
  • Statistical Approach of Sampling Hazardous Wastes
  • Calculate the Proper Number of the Samples
  • Tentative Determination of Contamination
  • Calculation of Confidence Intervals (CI)
  • 3.10. Fish Tissue Sampling
  • 3.1 1. Collecting Air Samples
  • Sampling and Storage of Particles
  • Isokinetic Sampling of Particles
  • General Rules for Sampling Particulates
  • Sampling and Storage of Gases and Vapors
  • Sampling Equipments
  • Sampling Techniques, Without Concentration of Gases and Vapors
  • Sampling Techniques that Extract and Concentrate Gases and Vapors
  • Wet Collection System
  • Dry Collection System
  • Part 2. Quahty Assurance and Quality Control
  • Chapter 4. Introduction to Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QAIQC)
  • 4.1. Quality Assurance Programs
  • 4.2. Responsibilities of the QA/QC Officer
  • 4.3. Duties of the Laboratory Supervisor
  • 4.4. Duties of the Analyst
  • Chapter 5. Sample Custody
  • 5.1. Field Custody
  • 5.2. Laboratory Custody
  • Sample Bottles and Sample Identification Checklist
  • Sample Log-In
  • Holding Time and Storage of the Samples
  • Sample Preparation for Analysis
  • Documentation During Analytical Processes
  • Disposal of the Samples, Extracts, Digestates, and AnalyticalEndproducts
  • Chapter 6. Approved Analytical Methods and References
  • 6.1. EPA Approved Methods and References for Analyzing Water Samples
  • Drinking Water
  • Surface Water, Groundwater, and Wastewater Effluents
  • Water Sources (Surface and Groundwater) Analyzed Pursuant to 40 CFR Part 261 (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, RCRA) and the DER Chapter 17-700 Series
  • EPA Approved Methods for Biological Analyses of Water Samples Microbiological Tests
  • Bioassays
  • 6.2. EPA Approved Methods and References for Analyzing Soils, Sediments, and Residuals
  • Soils and Sediments
  • Domestic and Industrial Sludges
  • Solid and Hazardous Wastes
  • 6.3. DEP Approved Methods and References for Analyzing Water and Groundwater Sources
  • 6.4. DEP Approved Methods and References for Analyzing Solid Matrices
  • 6.5. Approved Modifications of EPA Methods
  • Chapter 7. Analytical System Calibration and Performance Check
  • 7.1. Calibration of Instruments
  • Initial and Continuing Calibration
  • 7.2. Calibration Stock and Standard Solutions
  • Commercially Available Calibration Stock Solutions
  • Laboratory Prepared Calibration Stock Solutions
  • Calibration and Continuing Calibration Standards (CCS)
  • Frequency of Standard Preparation and Storage of the Standards
  • 7.3. Calibration Requirements for Field Instruments
  • 7.4. Calibration of Laboratory Instruments
  • Initial Calibration
  • Accepted Calibration
  • Calibration Frequency
  • 7.5. Summary of Calibration Procedures
  • Initial Calibration
  • Daily Calibration
  • W/VIS Spectrophotometer
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AA)
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Analyzer (ICP)
  • Ion Analyzer, Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE)
  • 7.6. Standardization of Titrating Solutions
  • 7.7. Performance Check of Laboratory Instruments
  • Performance Check of pH and Conductometer
  • Performance Check of Dissolved Oxygen Meter
  • Performance Check of Residual Chlorine Kit
  • Performance Check of Turbidimeter
  • Performance Check of VIS/IV Spectrophotometer
  • Wavelength Calibration Check
  • Linearity Check
  • Performance Check of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AA) Flame and Graphite
  • Performance Check of Ion Analyzer and Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE)
  • Performance Check of Infrared (IR) Spectrophotometer
  • Performance Check and Calibration of Balances
  • Performance Check of Temperature Related Devices
  • Performance Check of Gas Chromatograph
  • Performance Check of Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrotometry
  • Performance Check of Autoclave
  • 7.8. Definitions Related to Calibration
  • Chapter 8. Quality Management of Laboratory Instruments and Supplies
  • 8.1. Maintenance of Laboratory Instruments
  • 8.2. Quality Requirements for Laboratory Supplies
  • Laboratory Glassware
  • Volumetric Glassware
  • Cleaning Procedures of Laboratory Glassware
  • Chemicals
  • Grades and Purity of Chemicals
  • Reagent Grade Water
  • Type I Water
  • Type II Water
  • Type III Water
  • Methods for Preparation of Reagent Grade Water
  • Chapter 9. Quality Control Requirements
  • 9.1. Field Quality Control Checks
  • Equipment Blank
  • Field Blank
  • Trip Blank
  • Duplicate Samples
  • Calibration of Field Equipments
  • 9.2. Quality Control Checks in Chemical Measurements
  • Method of Standard Addition
  • 9.3. Detection Limits
  • Method Detection Limit (MDL)
  • Practical Quantitation Limit (PQL
  • Instrument Detection Limit (IDL)
  • 9.4. Precision, Accuracy, and Bias
  • Accuracy
  • Precision
  • 9.5 Quality Control Limit Delineation for Precision and Accuracy
  • Representation of Control Limits for Accuracy
  • Representation of Control Limits for Precision
  • Quality Assurance Confidence Limits for Precision and Accuracy
  • Calculation of Coddence Limit or Target Limit for Predsion and Accuracy
  • 9.6. Quality Control Charts
  • Accuracy Control Chart
  • Recision Control Chart
  • 9.7. Interpretation of the Control Charts
  • Valuation of the Conditions of the Recision Control Chart
  • 9.8. Quality Control Checks in Microbiology Testing
  • Facilities and Personnel
  • Laboratory Design
  • QC of Equipments and Instruments
  • Thermometers and Temperature Recording Devices
  • Balances
  • pH Meter
  • Water Deionization Unit
  • Laboratory Pure Water Quality
  • UV Sterilizer
  • Membrane Filter Apparatus
  • Centrifuge
  • Microscope
  • Water Bath
  • Incubator
  • Hot Air Oven
  • Refrigerators and Freezers (4°C)
  • Autoclave
  • Quality Control of Supplies
  • Utensils and Containers for Media Preparation
  • Glassware
  • Test for Alkaline or Acid Residues
  • Test for Residual Detergent
  • Sterility Check on Glassware
  • Reagents Used in Microbiological Testing
  • Quality Control on Rinse and Dilution Water
  • Quality Control Check on Media
  • Quality Control on Membrane Filters and Pads
  • Quality Control in Routine Analysis
  • Negative (Sterile) Controls
  • Colony Verification
  • Positive Control Sample
  • Air Density Plates
  • Summary List of the Quality Control Documentation in the Microbiology Laboratory
  • pH Meter
  • Balance Toploading
  • Temperature Monitoring Devices
  • Incubator
  • Autoclave
  • Membrane Filtration Equipment
  • Membrane Filters and Pads
  • Glass, Plastic, and Metal Utensils for Media Preparation
  • Sample Bottles
  • Hot Air Oven
  • Pipets
  • Pipet Containers
  • Culture Dishes
  • Culture Tubes and Closures
  • Part 3. Data Quality and Reporting
  • Chapter 10. Raw Data Conversion Into Reportable Results
  • 10.1. Responsibilities of the Analyst
  • 10.2. Calculations for Final Values
  • Temperature Correction for Correct pH Values
  • Temperature Compensation for Conductivity
  • Solids, Moisture, and Ash Calculations
  • Solids
  • Moisture
  • Ash
  • Composition Percentage of a Solid Sample
  • Calculations Related to Titrimetric Methods
  • Calculations Related to Calibration Curve
  • Linear Regression Calculation
  • Correlation Coefficient
  • Intercept (b)
  • Slope (m)
  • Predicting "x" and "y" Values
  • Logarithmic Regression Calculation
  • Calculating the Results for Solid Matrices
  • Calculation of Total Hardness From Calcium andMagnesium Values
  • Calculation of Magnesium Values from Total Hardness, as CaCO,and Calcium, as CaCO,
  • Calculation of Carbonate, Bicarbonate, and HydroxideFrom AlkalMty
  • Dilutions and Concentrations
  • 10.3. Significant Figures
  • 10.4. Records for Raw and Calculated Data
  • Field and Laboratory Notebook
  • Worksheets
  • Other Documentation
  • Documents to be Saved
  • Chapter 11. Evaluation and Approval of Analytical Data
  • 11.1. Validation of Analytical QC Checks
  • Blanks
  • Calibration
  • Acceptance Criteria for Calibration
  • Probable Sources of Unaccepted Calibration Criteria and Their Corrections
  • Probable Sources of the Unaccepted Recision Values and Their Correction
  • Duplicates and Split Samples
  • Spikes and Surrogate Spikes
  • Standard Titrant Solutions
  • Analytical System Performance Checks
  • Quality of Laboratory Pure Water
  • Microbiological Tests
  • Positive and Negative Controls
  • Blanks
  • Inhibitory Residue Test
  • 11.2. Documentation of Out-of-Control Conditions
  • 11.3. Checking the Correctness of the Analyses
  • Calculation of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
  • TDS and Electrical Conductance (EC) Ratio
  • Anion - Cation Balance
  • Relation Between Conductivity and Total Cations or Total Anions
  • Relation Between Total Hardness and Calcium and Magnesium Values
  • Relation of the Different Forms of Nitrogens
  • Relation of the Different Forms of Phosphorus
  • Chapter 12. Reporting Analytical Data
  • 12.1. Required Documentation
  • 12.2. Significant Figures in Analytical Reports
  • Round Off
  • Calculations
  • 12.3. Report with Confidence Interval
  • 12.4. Units Used to Express Analytical Results
  • 12.5. Units Used to Express Results for Microbiological Tests
  • 12.6. Units Used to Express Results on Radioactivity Analyses
  • 12.7. Report Format
  • Usual Form of Analytical Report
  • Part 4. Discussion of the Analyzed Parameters
  • Chapter 13. Introduction to Physical Properties
  • 13.1. Electrical Conductance
  • 13.2. Color
  • 13.3. Solids or Residues
  • Total Solids (TS) or Total Residue
  • Suspended Solids (SS) or Nonfdterable Residue
  • Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) or Filterable Residue
  • Volatile and Fixed Solids
  • Settleable Solids
  • 13.4. Salinity
  • 13.5. Temperature
  • 13.6. Turbidity
  • Chapter 14. Introduction to Metals
  • 14.1. Specifications and Health Effects of Selected Metallic Parameters
  • Aluminum (AL)
  • Antimony (Sb)
  • Arsenic (As)
  • Barium (Ba)
  • Beryllium (Be)
  • Boron (B)
  • Cadmium (Cd)
  • Calcium (Ca)
  • Chromium (Cr)
  • Cobalt (Co)
  • Copper (Cu)
  • Iron (Fe)
  • Lead (Pb)
  • Lithium (Li)
  • Magnesium (Mg)
  • Manganese (Mn)
  • Mercury (Hg)
  • Molybdenum (Mo)
  • Nickel (Ni)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Selenium (Se)
  • Silver (Ag)
  • Sodium (Na)
  • Thallium (TI)
  • Thorium (Th)
  • Tin (Sn)
  • Vanadium (V)
  • Zinc (Zn)
  • Chapter 15. Inorganic Nonmetallic Constituents
  • 15.1. Acidity
  • 15.2. Alkalinity
  • 15.3. Bromide (Br)
  • 15.4. Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • 15.5. Calcium Carbonate Saturation (Corrosivity)
  • 15.6. Chloride (Cl-)
  • 15.7. Chlorine Residual (Cl2)
  • 15.8. Chlorine Demand
  • 15.9. Chlorine Dioxide (CIo2)
  • 15. lo. Cyanide (CN-)
  • 15.1 1. Fluoride (F-)
  • 15.12. Total Hardness, as CaCO3)
  • The Relationship of Alkalinity as CaCO, and Total Hardness asCaCO,
  • 15.13. Iodine (I2)
  • 15.14. Nitrogen Compounds
  • Organic Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)
  • Total Oxidized Nitrogen
  • Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3,-N)
  • Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2,-N)
  • Ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3,-N)
  • 15.1 5. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
  • 15.16. Phosphorus (P)
  • 15.17. Silica (SiO2,)
  • 15.18. Sulfate (SO24-)
  • 15.19. Sulfide (S2-)
  • 15.20. Sulfite (SO23-)
  • Chapter 16. Organic Pollutants
  • 16.1. Determination of Total Amount of Organic Matter Present
  • Demands
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
  • Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
  • Oil and Grease
  • Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TRPHs)
  • Surfactants
  • Tannin and Lignin
  • Total Organic Halogens (TOX)
  • Phenols
  • 16.2. Analyses of Individual Organic Compounds orGroups of Compounds
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Halogenated VOCs or Purgeable Halocarbons
  • Other VOCs (Halogenated, Aromatic, Acrolein)
  • Benzidines
  • Phthalate Esters (Phthalic Acid Esters)
  • Nitrosamines
  • Pesticides
  • Classification of Pesticides Based on Their Use
  • Classification of Pesticides According to Their Chemical Structure
  • Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) or l,2-Dibromoethane
  • Dioxins
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Nitroaromatics and Isophorone
  • Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Haloethers
  • Chapter 17. Microbiological Parametersand Radioactivity
  • 17.1. Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC)
  • 17.2. Coliform Bacteria Group
  • Total Coliform Group
  • Fecal Coliform Bacteria, Escherichia Coli (E. coli)
  • Fecal Streptococcus
  • Klebsiella
  • 17.3. Pathogenic Microorganism
  • Pathogenic Bacteria
  • Salmonella
  • Salmonella typhi
  • Shigella
  • Vibrio cholera
  • Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
  • Yersinia
  • Campylobacter
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Viruses
  • Hepatitis A
  • Norwalk Agent
  • Pathogenic Protozoa
  • Giardia lamblia
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • 17.4. Iron and Sulfiv Bacteria
  • Iron Bacteria
  • Gallionella
  • Crenothrix, Clonothrix, and Leptothrix
  • Sulfur Bacteria
  • Sulfate Reducing Bacteria
  • Photosynthetic Green and Purple Sulfur Bacteria
  • Aerobic Sulfur Oxidizer Bacteria
  • Sulfur Bacteria Produces Sulfuric Acid
  • 17.5. Actinomycetes
  • Streptomyce
  • 17.6. Fungi
  • Aspergillus
  • Candida albicans
  • 17.7. Radioactivity
  • Part 5. Environmental Regulations
  • Chapter 18. Regulations and Standards
  • 18.1. Introduction to Environmental Laws
  • 18.2. Groundwater Contamination and Protection
  • Sources of Groundwater Contamination
  • Landfills
  • What is Leachate?
  • Septic Tank Systems
  • Surface Impoundments
  • Injection Wells
  • Abandoned Wells
  • Underground Storage Tanks
  • Agricultural Wastes
  • Hazardous Waste Sites
  • Mining
  • Cooling Waters
  • Surface Waters
  • Storm water Runoff
  • Atmospheric Precipitation
  • Salt Water Intrusion
  • Ground Water Protection
  • Overview of Some of the Major Groundwater ManagementRegulations
  • Clean Water Act (CWA)
  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund)
  • Groundwater Classification
  • 18.3. Drinking Water Standards
  • 18.4. Surface Waters
  • 18.5. Industrial Water
  • 18.5. Industrial Waters
  • 18.6. Irrigation Water Quality
  • 18.7. Waste Characterization
  • Criteria for Hazardous Waste Evaluation
  • 18.8. Air Pollution and Control
  • Ambient Air Quality Standard (AAQS)
  • Permit Systems
  • Federal Air Toxic Agencies and Their Rules
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
  • Regulations for Air Toxicity
  • 18.9. Overview of Federal Regulations
  • Water
  • Clean Water Act (CWA)
  • Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  • Hazardous Substances
  • Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA)
  • Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its AmendmentHazardous and Solid Waste Act (HSWA)
  • Underground Storage Tanks
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund)
  • Occupational and Safety Act (OSHA)
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
  • 18.10. Overview of State Programs
  • References
  • Sample Collection
  • Quality Assurance - Quality Control
  • Environmental Health, Toxicology
  • Chemistry
  • Regulations, Standards
  • Glossary of Abbreviations Related to Regulations
  • Index

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