This book presents a unified view of the physicochemical origin of the mechanical behaviour of gases, simple solids and liquids, suspensions, polymers, emulsions, foams, and granular materials, along with techniques for measuring that behaviour. Besides molecular materials in all their classical gaseous, solid, or liquid states, we deal daily with a number of other materials made of coarser elements such as polymers, cells, grains, bubbles, and droplets. They take on the familiar appearance of paints, inks, cements, muds, foams, emulsions, toothpastes, gels, etc. These materials exhibit complex structures and sometimes amazing types of mechanical behaviour, often intermediate between those of a simple liquid and a simple solid. From a practical standpoint, the aim is to analyze their internal evolution (aging, restructuring, phase separation, etc.), then to formulate these materials in accordance with the desired properties, and thereby devise new materials. With that aim in mind, it is crucial to understand how these materials deform or flow, depending on the interactions and structures formed by the elements they contain. This book is intended for students as well as more advanced researchers in mechanics, physics, chemistry, and biology. The mathematical formalism is reduced in order to focus on physical explanations.
Philippe Coussot is a researcher at the Laboratoire Navier and Director of the Education and Research Chair for the Saint-Gobain-Ecole des Ponts ParisTech. His studies concern the physical and mechanical properties of pasty or granular materials. He has already four books to his name and boasts an impressive list of honours, including the Maurice Couette Award of the French Society of Rheology (2009), the 2007 Award of the French magazine La Recherche (2007), the Schoemaker Award of the International Association of Hydraulic Research (1996).
Preface.- Foreword.- Contents.- Symbols.- Introduction.- Introduction.- Solids.- Liquids.- Suspensions.- Colloids.- Polymers.- Emulsions.- Foams.- Granulars.- Real materials.- Simple Materials.- Introduction.- Interactions between elementary components and states of simple matter.- Gaseous state.- Liquid state.- Solid state.- Glassy state.- Suspensions.- Introduction.- Preparation of a suspension.- Effect of the presence of particles on the behavior of the mixture.- Effect of particle concentration.- Effect of the particle anisotropy.- Effect of the heterogeneity of particle concentration.- Shear-thickening.- Suspensions in a yield stress fluid.- Polymers.- Introduction.- Structure of polymers.- A polymer in a liquid.- Several chains in a liquid.- Reticulated polymers and polymeric gels.- Mechanical behavior of liquid polymers.- Impact of temperature.- Colloids.- Introduction.- Brownian motion.- van der Waals forces.- Electrostatic forces.- Effect of absorbed polymers.- Depletion interactions.- Sum of the interactions.- Behavior of repulsive systems.- Attractive systems.- Pasty-hydrodynamic transition.- Emulsions - Foams.- Introduction.- Physical properties at the scale of the inclusions.- Preparation.- Stability.- Behavior.- Granulars.- Introduction.- Main types of direct interactions.- Role of the configuration.- Behavior regimes.- Frictional regime.- Coalitional regime.- Intermediate regimes.- Rheometry.- Introduction.- Basic geometries.- Effects perturbating the measures.- Experimental procedures.- Practical techniques.- Appendix A - Fluid Mechanics : Basic Principles and physical Origins.- Introduction.- Flow variables.- Continuum assumption.- Forces at play.- Mass conservation.- Momentum equation.- Temporal fluctuations.- Turbulence.- Solution of a flow problem.- Constitutive equations.- Generalities.- Strain rate tensor.- Simplified form of the constitutive equation.- Simple shear.- Elongation.- Energy dissipation.- Main types of constitutive equations.- Appendix B - Basics of Thermodynamics.- First principle.- Entropy.- Second principle.- Free energy.- Energy distribution.- Index.