Mereology

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 22. Juli 2021
  • |
  • 400 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-106583-5 (ISBN)
 
Is a whole something more than the sum of its parts? Are there things composed of the same parts? If you divide an object into parts, and divide those parts into smaller parts, will this process ever come to an end? Can something lose parts or gain new ones without ceasing to be the thing it is? Does any multitude of things (including disparate things such as you, this book, and the tail of a cat) compose a whole of some sort? Questions such as these have occupied us for at least as long as philosophy has existed. They define the field that has come to be known as mereology-the study of all relations of part to whole and of part to part within a whole-and have deep and far-reaching ramifications in metaphysics as well as in logic, the foundations of mathematics, the philosophy of language, the philosophy of science, and beyond. In Mereology, A. J. Cotnoir and Achille C. Varzi have compiled decades of advanced research into a comprehensive, up-to-date, and formally rigorous picture. The early chapters cover the more classical aspects of mereology; the rest of the book deals with variants and extensions. Whether you are an established professional philosopher, an interested student, or a newcomer, inside you will find all the tools you need to join this ever-evolving field of inquiry and theorize about all things mereological.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • 2,76 MB
978-0-19-106583-5 (9780191065835)
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A.J. Cotnoir is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of St Andrews. His research focuses on areas of metaphysics, philosophical logic, philosophy of language, and philosophy of religion. He is the co-editor of a collection entitled Composition as Identity (Oxford University Press, 2014), and has published widely on the metaphysics of parthood, composition, and identity. Achille C. Varzi is Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University, New York, where he has been teaching since 1995. He has published numerous articles and books in logic, metaphysics, formal ontology, and the philosophy of language and literature. He is an editor of The Journal of Philosophy, a subject editor of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and an associate or advisory editor of several other journals and book series.
  • Cover
  • Mereology
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • List of Figures
  • 1 What is Mereology?
  • 1.1 A Bit of History
  • 1.2 Contemporary Perspectives
  • 1.2.1 Mereology as Formal Ontology
  • 1.2.2 Mereology as an Alternative to Set Theory
  • 1.3 `Part' and Parthood
  • 1.4 Parts and Wholes
  • 1.5 The Formal Setting
  • 2 Classical Mereology
  • 2.1 A Perspicuous Axiom System
  • 2.1.1 A Partial Order
  • 2.1.2 Decomposition
  • 2.1.3 Composition
  • 2.2 Algebraic Models
  • 2.2.1 Boolean Algebras
  • 2.2.2 Complete Boolean Algebras are Models
  • 2.2.3 Models are Complete Boolean Algebras
  • 2.3 Set-theoretic Models
  • 2.3.1 Finite Models
  • 2.3.2 Infinite Models
  • 2.4 Other Axiom Systems
  • 2.4.1 Proper Parthood as Primitive
  • 2.4.2 Overlap or Disjointness as Primitive
  • 2.4.3 More Parthood Axiomatizations
  • 2.4.4 Further Options
  • 2.4.5 Primitivity in Mereology
  • 3 Ordering
  • 3.1 Reflexivity and Irreflexivity
  • 3.1.1 Concrete Self-parts
  • 3.1.2 Abstract Self-parts
  • 3.2 Antisymmetry and Asymmetry
  • 3.2.1 Loops
  • 3.2.2 Irregular Parts
  • 3.2.3 Mutual Parts and Extensionality
  • 3.3 Transitivity
  • 3.3.1 Distinguished Parts
  • 3.3.2 Immediate Parts
  • 3.3.3 Parts of Parts
  • 3.3.4 Local Transitivity and Beyond
  • 4 Decomposition
  • 4.1 Complementation
  • 4.1.1 Remainders
  • 4.1.2 Boolean Complements
  • 4.1.3 Complementation and Composition
  • 4.2 Strong Supplementation
  • 4.2.1 Supervenience
  • 4.2.2 Strong Supplementation and Extensionality
  • 4.3 Weak Supplementation
  • 4.3.1 Solitary Parts
  • 4.3.2 Weak Supplementation and Extensionality
  • 4.3.3 Strictly Weak Supplementation
  • 4.4 Even Weaker Supplementation
  • 4.5 Null Objects
  • 4.6 Atoms and Gunk
  • 4.6.1 Atomism
  • 4.6.2 Atomlessness
  • 4.6.3 Hybrid Theories
  • 5 Composition
  • 5.1 Fusions
  • 5.1.1 Types of Fusion
  • 5.1.2 Comparisons
  • 5.2 Existence and Identity
  • 5.2.1 Existence
  • 5.2.2 Uniqueness
  • 5.2.3 Composition as Identity
  • 5.3 Structured Composites
  • 5.3.1 Levels
  • 5.3.2 Order
  • 5.3.3 Repetition
  • 5.3.4 Compositional Pluralism
  • 5.4 The Universe
  • 5.4.1 A Russell Paradox?
  • 5.4.2 Super-Universal Wholes
  • 5.5 Coatoms and Junk
  • 6 Logic
  • 6.1 Expressive Power
  • 6.1.1 Second-Order Mereology
  • 6.1.2 Plural Quantification and Megethology
  • 6.2 Time and Modality
  • 6.2.1 Temporal and Modal Parts
  • 6.2.2 More Arguments for Parthood
  • 6.2.3 Modal Mereology
  • 6.3 Indeterminacy
  • 6.3.1 De Dicto and De Re
  • 6.3.2 Ontic Indeterminacy
  • 6.3.3 Fuzzy Mereology
  • 6.3.4 Overdeterminacy and Paraconsistency
  • 6.4 Non-classical Logics and Non-classical Mereologies
  • Bibliography
  • Index
  • Names
  • Subjects
  • Featured Formulas
  • Symbols
  • List of Featured Formulas

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