Emergency Point-of-Care Ultrasound

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 3. Juli 2017
  • |
  • 488 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-07288-1 (ISBN)
 
Featuring contributions from internationally recognized experts in point-of-care sonography, Emergency Point-of-Care Ultrasound, Second Edition combines a wealth of images with clear, succinct text to help beginners, as well as experienced sonographers, develop and refine their sonography skills.
The book contains chapters devoted to scanning the chest, abdomen, head and neck, and extremities, as well as paediatric evaluations, ultrasound-guided vascular access, and more. An entire section is devoted to the syndromic approach for an array of symptoms and patient populations, including chest and abdominal pain, respiratory distress, HIV and TB coinfected patients, and pregnant patients. Also included is expert guidance on administering ultrasound in a variety of challenging environments, such as communities and regions with underdeveloped healthcare systems, hostile environments, and cyberspace.
Each chapter begins with an introduction to the focused scan under discussion and a detailed description of methods for obtaining useful images. This is followed by examples of normal and abnormal scans, along with discussions of potential pitfalls of the technique, valuable insights from experienced users, and summaries of the most up-to-date evidence.
Emergency Point-of-Care Ultrasound, Second Edition is a valuable working resource for emergency medicine residents and trainees, practitioners who are just bringing ultrasound scanning into their practices, and clinicians with many years of sonographic experience.
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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  • 62,42 MB
978-1-119-07288-1 (9781119072881)
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James A. Connolly, MBBS, FRCS (ed), FRCS (Glas), FCEM, CFEU is a Consultant in Emergency Medicine at Great North Trauma and Emergency Care Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Anthony J. Dean, MD is a Professor of Emergency Medicine and of Emergency Medicine in Radiology; and the Director of the Division of Emergency Ultrasonography at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Beatrice Hoffmann, MD, PhD, RDMS is Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Ultrasound Division Director, and Emergency Physicianat Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
Robert D. Jarman, MBBS, MSc(Medical Ultrasound), FRCS(Ed), FRCEM(UK), FRCP(Ed), CFEU is a Consultant in Emergency Medicine at Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Visiting Professor and MSc Point-of-Care Ultrasound Lead at University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, UK.
1 - Title Page [Seite 5]
2 - Copyright Page [Seite 6]
3 - Contents [Seite 7]
4 - List of Contributors [Seite 12]
5 - About the Companion Website [Seite 19]
6 - Introduction: What is Point-of-Care Ultrasound? [Seite 21]
7 - Part 1 Physics [Seite 25]
7.1 - Chapter 1 How Does Ultrasound Work? [Seite 27]
7.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 27]
7.1.2 - What is Ultrasound? [Seite 27]
7.1.3 - Constructing the Image [Seite 27]
7.1.4 - Making Sense of Ultrasound Images [Seite 28]
7.1.5 - What Happens to a Pulse of Sound as it Travels Through a Patient? [Seite 28]
7.1.6 - Summary [Seite 30]
7.1.7 - Further Reading [Seite 31]
8 - Part 2 Ultrasound by Region [Seite 33]
9 - Thorax [Seite 34]
9.1 - Chapter 2 Evaluation of the Chest Wall, Pleura and Lung [Seite 35]
9.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 35]
9.1.2 - Technique [Seite 35]
9.1.3 - Normal Sonographic Findings [Seite 36]
9.1.4 - Chest Wall Lesions [Seite 37]
9.1.5 - Pleural Diseases [Seite 37]
9.1.6 - Interstitial Syndrome [Seite 43]
9.1.7 - Lung Consolidations [Seite 44]
9.1.8 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 51]
9.1.9 - Summary [Seite 51]
9.1.10 - Further Reading [Seite 51]
9.2 - Chapter 3 Point-of-Care Ultrasonography of the Thoracic Aorta [Seite 52]
9.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 52]
9.2.2 - Normal Anatomy and Scanning Technique [Seite 52]
9.2.3 - Sonographic Technique [Seite 53]
9.2.4 - Pathologic Findings [Seite 55]
9.2.5 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 58]
9.2.6 - Summary [Seite 58]
9.2.7 - Further Reading [Seite 58]
9.3 - Chapter 4 Anatomy/Ultrasonography of the Heart [Seite 59]
9.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 59]
9.3.2 - Probe Orientation [Seite 59]
9.3.3 - Improving Image Quality [Seite 59]
9.3.4 - Cardiac Windows, Planes and Views [Seite 61]
9.3.5 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 65]
9.3.6 - Further Reading [Seite 66]
9.4 - Chapter 5 Basic Point-of-Care Echocardiography: Interpretation and Haemodynamic Assessment [Seite 67]
9.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 67]
9.4.2 - The Ultrasound Examination [Seite 67]
9.4.3 - Normal Findings at Echocardiography: 2D and M?Mode [Seite 70]
9.4.4 - Haemodynamic Patterns in the Critically Ill [Seite 70]
9.4.5 - Advanced Echocardiography and 'Departmental Scans' [Seite 73]
9.4.6 - Further Reading [Seite 75]
9.4.7 - Other Reference Material [Seite 75]
9.5 - Chapter 6 Beyond Basic Point-of-Care Echocardiography [Seite 76]
9.5.1 - Introduction [Seite 76]
9.5.2 - When is Basic Not Enough? [Seite 76]
9.5.3 - Practical Issues [Seite 76]
9.5.4 - Ventricular Assessment [Seite 77]
9.5.5 - Volume Status [Seite 79]
9.5.6 - Pericardial Effusion [Seite 81]
9.5.7 - Valvular Pathology [Seite 82]
9.5.8 - Aortic Pathology [Seite 85]
9.5.9 - Chest Trauma [Seite 87]
9.5.10 - Conclusions [Seite 87]
9.5.11 - Further Reading [Seite 87]
10 - Abdomen [Seite 89]
10.1 - Chapter 7 Ultrasound Assessment of the Abdominal Aorta in the Acute Setting [Seite 91]
10.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 91]
10.1.2 - The Abdominal Aorta [Seite 91]
10.1.3 - What is an Aneurysm? [Seite 92]
10.1.4 - How to Scan the Abdominal Aorta and Iliac Arteries [Seite 95]
10.1.5 - Ultrasound Appearances of an Aneurysm [Seite 99]
10.1.6 - How to Measure an AAA [Seite 99]
10.1.7 - Ultrasound Appearances of Open Repair and Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR) Stent Grafts [Seite 100]
10.1.8 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 100]
10.1.9 - Further Reading [Seite 102]
10.2 - Chapter 8 Focussed Assessment with Sonography in Trauma - The FAST Exam [Seite 103]
10.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 103]
10.2.2 - The FAST Technique [Seite 104]
10.2.3 - Extended FAST Examination [Seite 116]
10.2.4 - Algorithm for FAST [Seite 116]
10.2.5 - Limitations and Discussion [Seite 117]
10.2.6 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 118]
10.2.7 - Further Reading [Seite 119]
10.3 - Chapter 9 Advanced Gastrointestinal Ultrasound: Identifying Appendicitis, Pneumoperitoneum, Intussusception and Diverticulitis [Seite 121]
10.3.1 - ACUTE APPENDICITIS [Seite 121]
10.3.2 - Introduction and History [Seite 121]
10.3.3 - Comparison with CT and MRI [Seite 122]
10.3.4 - Normal Sonographic Findings [Seite 122]
10.3.5 - Scanning Technique [Seite 123]
10.3.6 - Scanning Locations [Seite 123]
10.3.7 - Acute Appendicitis Findings [Seite 124]
10.3.8 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 125]
10.3.9 - PNEUMOPERITONEUM [Seite 127]
10.3.10 - Introduction and History [Seite 127]
10.3.11 - Scanning Technique and Location [Seite 127]
10.3.12 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 128]
10.3.13 - INTUSSUSCEPTION [Seite 129]
10.3.14 - Introduction [Seite 129]
10.3.15 - Scanning Technique and Location [Seite 129]
10.3.16 - Sonographic Findings [Seite 129]
10.3.17 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 129]
10.3.18 - DIVERTICULITIS [Seite 130]
10.3.19 - Introduction [Seite 130]
10.3.20 - Scanning Technique and Location [Seite 130]
10.3.21 - Pathology [Seite 131]
10.3.22 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 132]
10.3.23 - Further Reading [Seite 133]
10.4 - Chapter 10 Intravascular Volume Assessment by Ultrasound Evaluation of the Inferior Vena Cava [Seite 135]
10.4.1 - Background [Seite 135]
10.4.2 - Sonographic Technique [Seite 136]
10.4.3 - Acquiring IVC Measurements [Seite 138]
10.4.4 - Interpreting the Ultrasound Examination [Seite 140]
10.4.5 - Special Circumstances [Seite 143]
10.4.6 - The Effects of Positive?Pressure Ventilation [Seite 144]
10.4.7 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 144]
10.4.8 - Further Reading [Seite 144]
10.5 - Chapter 11 Emergency Ultrasound in First-Trimester Pregnancy [Seite 146]
10.5.1 - Introduction [Seite 146]
10.5.2 - Indications [Seite 146]
10.5.3 - Technique [Seite 146]
10.5.4 - Sonographic Findings [Seite 149]
10.5.5 - Pitfalls [Seite 157]
10.5.6 - The Integrated Algorithm [Seite 160]
10.5.7 - Further Reading [Seite 161]
10.6 - Chapter 12 Second- and Third-Trimester Pregnancy [Seite 163]
10.6.1 - Introduction [Seite 163]
10.6.2 - General Technique [Seite 163]
10.6.3 - Second and Third Trimester - Normal Findings [Seite 163]
10.6.4 - Second and Third Trimester Pregnancy - Pathology [Seite 168]
10.6.5 - Summary [Seite 170]
10.6.6 - Further Reading [Seite 170]
10.7 - Chapter 13 Gynaecological Ultrasound in Emergency Medicine: The Non-Pregnant Female Patient with Abdomino-Pelvic Pain [Seite 172]
10.7.1 - Introduction [Seite 172]
10.7.2 - Uterus, Ovary, Follicles and Cysts [Seite 172]
10.7.3 - Ovarian Cysts [Seite 172]
10.7.4 - Ovarian Torsion [Seite 176]
10.7.5 - Tubo-Ovarian Abscess and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease [Seite 178]
10.7.6 - TOA and PID in summary [Seite 180]
10.7.7 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 181]
10.7.8 - Further Reading [Seite 181]
10.8 - Chapter 14 Focused Hepatobiliary Ultrasound [Seite 182]
10.8.1 - Introduction [Seite 182]
10.8.2 - History of Hepatobiliary Ultrasound in the Emergency Department [Seite 182]
10.8.3 - Focused Ultrasound in Diagnosing Hepatobiliary Pathology [Seite 182]
10.8.4 - Radiology versus Clinician-Performed Ultrasound [Seite 183]
10.8.5 - Ultrasound versus Computed Tomography versus HIDA Scanning [Seite 183]
10.8.6 - The Normal Gallbladder [Seite 183]
10.8.7 - Cholelithiasis [Seite 186]
10.8.8 - Acute Cholecystitis [Seite 190]
10.8.9 - The Prognostic Value of Signs [Seite 191]
10.8.10 - Special Considerations [Seite 191]
10.8.11 - Biliary Duct Obstruction [Seite 191]
10.8.12 - Current Value of Ultrasound as a Clinical Decision?Making Tool [Seite 193]
10.8.13 - Summary [Seite 193]
10.8.14 - Further Reading [Seite 193]
10.9 - Chapter 15 Renal Ultrasound [Seite 195]
10.9.1 - Introduction [Seite 195]
10.9.2 - Anatomy and Sonoanatomy [Seite 195]
10.9.3 - Scanning Technique [Seite 196]
10.9.4 - Pathology [Seite 198]
10.9.5 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 207]
10.9.6 - Further Reading [Seite 213]
10.10 - Chapter 16 Ultrasound Evaluation of the Acute Scrotum [Seite 214]
10.10.1 - Introduction [Seite 214]
10.10.2 - Technique and Anatomy [Seite 214]
10.10.3 - Testicular Torsion [Seite 217]
10.10.4 - Other Causes of Testicular Complaints [Seite 217]
10.10.5 - Summary [Seite 222]
10.10.6 - Further Reading [Seite 222]
11 - Extremities [Seite 223]
11.1 - Chapter 17 The Lower Limb and the Upper Limb [Seite 225]
11.1.1 - The Lower Limb [Seite 225]
11.1.2 - The Upper Limb [Seite 233]
11.1.3 - Further Reading [Seite 240]
11.2 - Chapter 18 Ultrasonography of Deep Venous Thrombosis [Seite 241]
11.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 241]
11.2.2 - Clinical Indications [Seite 242]
11.2.3 - Scanning Technique and Normal Findings [Seite 242]
11.2.4 - Pathology [Seite 244]
11.2.5 - Secondary Findings/Advanced Techniques [Seite 244]
11.2.6 - Scanning Tips and Areas of Uncertainty [Seite 246]
11.2.7 - Summary [Seite 251]
11.2.8 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 251]
11.2.9 - Further Reading [Seite 251]
11.3 - Chapter 19 Transcranial Doppler [Seite 253]
11.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 253]
11.3.2 - Technique [Seite 253]
11.3.3 - Interpretation [Seite 256]
11.3.4 - Doppler findings in Common Pathological Conditions [Seite 257]
11.3.5 - Clinical Applications [Seite 257]
11.3.6 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 259]
11.3.7 - Further Reading [Seite 259]
11.4 - Chapter 20 Ocular Ultrasound [Seite 261]
11.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 261]
11.4.2 - Scanning Techniques [Seite 261]
11.4.3 - Normal Eye Anatomy on Ultrasound [Seite 262]
11.4.4 - Common Ocular Pathologies Visualised on Bedside Ultrasound [Seite 263]
11.4.5 - Extraocular Pathology [Seite 268]
11.4.6 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 269]
11.4.7 - Further Reading [Seite 270]
11.5 - Chapter 21 Airway/Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Sonography [Seite 271]
11.5.1 - Introduction [Seite 271]
11.5.2 - Scanning Technique [Seite 271]
11.5.3 - Odynophagia and Dysphagia [Seite 272]
11.5.4 - Swelling and Pain in the Face and Neck [Seite 273]
11.5.5 - Facial Trauma [Seite 275]
11.5.6 - Further Reading [Seite 277]
12 - Part 3 Paediatrics [Seite 279]
12.1 - Chapter 22 Paediatric Musculoskeletal Point-of-Care Ultrasound [Seite 281]
12.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 281]
12.1.2 - Technique [Seite 281]
12.1.3 - Normal Anatomy [Seite 282]
12.1.4 - Skin and Soft-Tissue Infection [Seite 282]
12.1.5 - Foreign Body [Seite 283]
12.1.6 - Dislocation/Subluxation [Seite 284]
12.1.7 - Ligament, Tendon and Muscle Injury [Seite 285]
12.1.8 - Procedures [Seite 285]
12.1.9 - Joint Effusions [Seite 286]
12.1.10 - Ultrasound in Assessment of the Paediatric Hip [Seite 286]
12.1.11 - Summary [Seite 288]
12.1.12 - Further Reading [Seite 289]
12.2 - Chapter 23 Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care [Seite 290]
12.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 290]
12.2.2 - Paediatric ICU Haemodynamic Management [Seite 290]
12.2.3 - Mechanical Ventilation [Seite 291]
12.2.4 - Procedure-Related Peculiarities [Seite 292]
12.2.5 - Vascular Access in Paediatrics [Seite 292]
12.2.6 - Abdominal Surgical Emergencies in the Newborn [Seite 293]
12.2.7 - Further Reading [Seite 299]
12.3 - Chapter 24 Paediatric Abdominal Ultrasound [Seite 300]
12.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 300]
12.3.2 - Pyloric Stenosis [Seite 300]
12.3.3 - Pylorospasm [Seite 302]
12.3.4 - Intussusception [Seite 302]
12.3.5 - Volvulus [Seite 303]
12.3.6 - Appendicitis [Seite 303]
12.3.7 - Further Reading [Seite 305]
13 - Part 4 Adjunct to Practical Procedures [Seite 307]
13.1 - Chapter 25 Ultrasound-Guided Vascular Access [Seite 309]
13.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 309]
13.1.2 - Technical Considerations [Seite 309]
13.1.3 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 314]
13.1.4 - Conclusions [Seite 315]
13.1.5 - Further Reading [Seite 315]
13.2 - Chapter 26 Pericardiocentesis, Paracentesis and Thoracentesis [Seite 316]
13.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 316]
13.2.2 - Pericardiocentesis [Seite 316]
13.2.3 - Paracentesis [Seite 318]
13.2.4 - Thoracentesis [Seite 319]
13.2.5 - Further Reading [Seite 320]
13.3 - Chapter 27 Suprapubic Aspiration and Catheterisation [Seite 322]
13.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 322]
13.3.2 - Indications [Seite 322]
13.3.3 - Contraindications [Seite 322]
13.3.4 - Technique [Seite 323]
13.3.5 - Further Reading [Seite 326]
13.4 - Chapter 28 Ultrasound in the Management of Fractures [Seite 327]
13.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 327]
13.4.2 - Fracture Diagnosis [Seite 327]
13.4.3 - Fracture Reduction [Seite 327]
13.4.4 - Obtaining POCUS Images of Bone [Seite 327]
13.4.5 - Technique [Seite 328]
13.4.6 - Toddler's Fracture [Seite 329]
13.4.7 - Guidance for Fracture Reduction [Seite 329]
13.4.8 - Training [Seite 331]
13.4.9 - Summary [Seite 331]
13.4.10 - Further Reading [Seite 331]
13.5 - Chapter 29 Ultrasound-Guided (USG) Peripheral Nerve Block (PNB) [Seite 334]
13.5.1 - Introduction [Seite 334]
13.5.2 - Evidence Basis of USG Nerve Blocks [Seite 334]
13.5.3 - Education in Regional Anaesthesia [Seite 335]
13.5.4 - Upper-Extremity Nerve Blocks [Seite 337]
13.5.5 - Lower-Extremity Nerve Blocks [Seite 341]
13.5.6 - Truncal Nerve Blocks [Seite 345]
13.5.7 - Further Reading [Seite 349]
13.6 - Chapter 30 Foreign Body and Abscess [Seite 351]
13.6.1 - Introduction [Seite 351]
13.6.2 - Technique [Seite 351]
13.6.3 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 351]
13.6.4 - Foreign Body Echogenicity, Shadowing and Reverberation Artefact [Seite 352]
13.6.5 - Summary [Seite 352]
13.7 - Chapter 31 Ultrasound of the Airway [Seite 357]
13.7.1 - Introduction [Seite 357]
13.7.2 - Pre-Intubation Evaluation [Seite 357]
13.7.3 - Endotracheal Tube Confirmation [Seite 358]
13.7.4 - Assessment of Sliding Lung Sign [Seite 361]
13.7.5 - Assessment of Diaphragmatic Movement [Seite 361]
13.7.6 - Pre-Extubation Evaluation [Seite 361]
13.7.7 - Alternative Evaluations [Seite 363]
13.7.8 - Further Reading [Seite 365]
14 - Part 5 Syndromic Approach [Seite 367]
14.1 - Chapter 32 Chest Pain and Dyspnea [Seite 369]
14.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 369]
14.1.2 - Chest Pain and Acute Coronary Syndrome [Seite 370]
14.1.3 - Non-Ischaemia-Related Chest Pain [Seite 370]
14.1.4 - Dyspnoea: Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) versus Non-CHF-Related [Seite 372]
14.1.5 - Further Reading [Seite 374]
14.2 - Chapter 33 Bedside Ultrasound as an Adjunct in the Evaluation and Management of Critically Ill Patients [Seite 375]
14.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 375]
14.2.2 - 'ABC: Airway .' [Seite 375]
14.2.3 - Intravascular Volume Assessment [Seite 376]
14.2.4 - Sonographic Evaluation of the Heart [Seite 379]
14.2.5 - Evaluation of the Lungs and Pleural Spaces [Seite 386]
14.2.6 - Bedside Ultrasound in the Setting of Cardiac Arrest [Seite 387]
14.2.7 - Further Reading [Seite 389]
14.3 - Chapter 34 Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Resuscitation and Cardiac Arrest: The FEEL Protocol [Seite 391]
14.3.1 - Echocardiography in the Context of Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) [Seite 391]
14.3.2 - Details of the FEEL Examination [Seite 392]
14.3.3 - Anatomical Structures and Associated Diagnostic Entities to be Identified [Seite 393]
14.3.4 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 393]
14.3.5 - Future Directions for Ultrasound in Resuscitation [Seite 394]
14.3.6 - Conclusions [Seite 394]
14.3.7 - Further Reading [Seite 394]
14.4 - Chapter 35 Non-Invasive Haemodynamics [Seite 395]
14.4.1 - Basic Haemodynamics [Seite 395]
14.4.2 - Practical Approach [Seite 396]
14.4.3 - Future Perspectives [Seite 396]
14.4.4 - Further Reading [Seite 397]
14.5 - Chapter 36 Doppler Assessment of Haemodynamics [Seite 399]
14.5.1 - Introduction [Seite 399]
14.5.2 - Principles of Doppler Measurements [Seite 399]
14.5.3 - Qualitative (Colour) Doppler [Seite 400]
14.5.4 - Quantitative Doppler [Seite 400]
14.5.5 - Doppler Measurement of Flow Volumes [Seite 401]
14.5.6 - Pulsatile Flow Measurements [Seite 401]
14.5.7 - Continuous-Wave Doppler and Pulsed-Wave Doppler [Seite 402]
14.5.8 - Quantifying Haemodynamics [Seite 402]
14.5.9 - Potential Energy to Kinetic Energy Ratio (PKR) [Seite 403]
14.5.10 - Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Volume (LVEDV) [Seite 403]
14.5.11 - Putting the Jigsaw Together [Seite 404]
14.5.12 - Summary [Seite 405]
14.5.13 - Further Reading [Seite 405]
14.6 - Chapter 37 Algorithmic Bedside Approach to the Major Trauma Patient in Extremis [Seite 406]
14.6.1 - Bedside Approach to Blunt Abdominal Trauma [Seite 406]
14.6.2 - Penetrating Torso Injury [Seite 408]
14.6.3 - Severe Head Injury [Seite 410]
14.6.4 - Further Reading [Seite 410]
14.7 - Chapter 38 A Syndromic Approach with Sonography to the Patient with Abdominal Pain [Seite 412]
14.7.1 - Introduction [Seite 412]
14.7.2 - Background [Seite 412]
14.7.3 - General Technique [Seite 413]
14.7.4 - Clinical Applications [Seite 413]
14.7.5 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 415]
14.7.6 - Further Reading [Seite 419]
14.8 - Chapter 39 A Syndromic Approach to the Pregnant Patient [Seite 420]
14.8.1 - Introduction [Seite 420]
14.8.2 - Abdominal Pain [Seite 420]
14.8.3 - Nausea/Vomiting [Seite 421]
14.8.4 - Dyspnoea [Seite 421]
14.8.5 - Trauma [Seite 421]
14.8.6 - Vaginal Bleeding [Seite 422]
14.8.7 - Difficult Labour in a Resource-Poor/Austere Environment [Seite 422]
14.8.8 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 422]
14.8.9 - Further Reading [Seite 422]
14.9 - Chapter 40 The Use of Ultrasound in Evaluating Dyspnoea/Respiratory Distress in Infants and Children [Seite 424]
14.9.1 - Lung Diseases of the Newborn [Seite 424]
14.9.2 - Lung Diseases of the Infant and Child [Seite 426]
14.9.3 - Further Reading [Seite 429]
14.10 - Chapter 41 Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Human Immune-Deficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) Co-Infection: The FASH Scan [Seite 430]
14.10.1 - Introduction [Seite 430]
14.10.2 - Relationship Between HIV and TB [Seite 430]
14.10.3 - Role of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in High?Prevalence HIV and TB Co-Infection Settings [Seite 430]
14.10.4 - Focussed Assessment with Sonography in HIV/TB (FASH Scan) [Seite 431]
14.10.5 - FASH Scan and Diagnosis of AIDS [Seite 431]
14.10.6 - Role of the FASH Scan in Low?Prevalence HIV and TB Co-infection Settings [Seite 431]
14.10.7 - Pearls and Pitfalls [Seite 436]
14.10.8 - Further Reading [Seite 436]
14.11 - Chapter 42 Fever and Ultrasound [Seite 438]
14.11.1 - Introduction [Seite 438]
14.11.2 - Pneumonia [Seite 438]
14.11.3 - Endocarditis [Seite 439]
14.11.4 - Biliary [Seite 439]
14.11.5 - Splenic Infarct and Abscess [Seite 439]
14.11.6 - Intra-Abdominal Abscess [Seite 441]
14.11.7 - Thrombophlebitis [Seite 441]
14.11.8 - Cutaneous Abscess [Seite 441]
14.11.9 - Further Reading [Seite 441]
15 - Part 6 Different Environments [Seite 443]
15.1 - Chapter 43 The Role of Ultrasound in Pre-Hospital Care [Seite 445]
15.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 445]
15.1.2 - Why is There an Interest in Ultrasound in Pre?Hospital Care? [Seite 445]
15.1.3 - The Evidence Base for Pre-Hospital Ultrasound? [Seite 446]
15.1.4 - Established Roles for US and their Applications in PHC [Seite 446]
15.1.5 - Cardiac Ultrasound for Trauma [Seite 447]
15.1.6 - Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm [Seite 447]
15.1.7 - Lung Ultrasound [Seite 448]
15.1.8 - Emerging Roles for Ultrasound in Trauma Care [Seite 449]
15.1.9 - Ultrasound and Vascular Access [Seite 450]
15.1.10 - Cranial Ultrasound [Seite 451]
15.1.11 - Stroke [Seite 452]
15.1.12 - Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Fractures [Seite 452]
15.1.13 - The Role of Ultrasound in Mass?Casualty Situations [Seite 453]
15.1.14 - Further Reading [Seite 454]
15.2 - Appendix A1 Selected Protocols for Cardiac and Critical Care Ultrasound [Seite 460]
15.2.1 - A1.1 DEFG for Basic Echocardiography [Seite 460]
15.2.2 - A1.2 The FATE (Focus-Assessed Transthoracic Echocardiography) Tool [Seite 461]
15.2.3 - A1.3 ACES (Abdominal and Cardiac Evaluation with Sonography in Shock) [Seite 466]
15.2.4 - A1.4 RUSH (Rapid Ultrasound for Shock and Hypotension) Examination [Seite 468]
15.2.5 - A1.5 Patients in Cardiopulmonary Arrest [Seite 469]
15.2.6 - A1.6 The SHoC Protocols [Seite 470]
16 - Index [Seite 474]
17 - EULA [Seite 484]

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