Conn's Translational Neuroscience

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 28. September 2016
  • |
  • 776 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-802596-3 (ISBN)
 

Conn's Translational Neuroscience provides a comprehensive overview reflecting the depth and breadth of the field of translational neuroscience, with input from a distinguished panel of basic and clinical investigators. Progress has continued in understanding the brain at the molecular, anatomic, and physiological levels in the years following the 'Decade of the Brain,' with the results providing insight into the underlying basis of many neurological disease processes.

This book alternates scientific and clinical chapters that explain the basic science underlying neurological processes and then relates that science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment. Chapters cover disorders of the spinal cord, neuronal migration, the autonomic nervous system, the limbic system, ocular motility, and the basal ganglia, as well as demyelinating disorders, stroke, dementia and abnormalities of cognition, congenital chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, Parkinson's disease, nerve trauma, peripheral neuropathy, aphasias, sleep disorders, and myasthenia gravis.

In addition to concise summaries of the most recent biochemical, physiological, anatomical, and behavioral advances, the chapters summarize current findings on neuronal gene expression and protein synthesis at the molecular level. Authoritative and comprehensive, Conn's Translational Neuroscience provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, as well as a clear demonstration of their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importance.


  • Provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, while also clearly demonstrating their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importance
  • Features contributions from leading global basic and clinical investigators in the field
  • Provides a great resource for researchers and practitioners interested in the basic science underlying neurological processes
  • Relates and translates the current science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 18,09 MB
978-0-12-802596-3 (9780128025963)
0128025964 (0128025964)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • CONN'S TRANSLATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
  • CONN'S TRANSLATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • 1 - Cytology of the Central Nervous System
  • NEURONS
  • DENDRITES AND AXONS
  • NEUROGLIA
  • Acknowledgment
  • Further Reading
  • 2 - Ion Channels
  • Ion Channels
  • Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
  • Na+ Channels
  • Na+ Channel Structure and Function
  • Na+ Channel Isoforms
  • Na+ Channel ß-subunits
  • Na+ Channels and Disease
  • Epilepsy
  • Pain
  • Migraine
  • Pharmacological Block of Na+ Channels
  • Sodium Channel Toxins
  • Ca2+ Channels
  • Ca2+ Channel Families, Structure and Function
  • Ca2+ Channel Isoforms
  • CaVa1 Subunit
  • Auxiliary Ca2+ Channel Subunits
  • CaVß-Subunit
  • a2d-Subunit
  • CaV?-Subunit
  • Ca2+ Channels and Disease
  • Targeting Ca2+ Channels in Pain
  • Familial Hemiplegic Migraine
  • Epilepsy and Ataxia
  • K+ Channels
  • K+ Channel Structure and Function
  • K+ Channel Isoforms
  • Voltage-Gated K+ Channels
  • Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels
  • Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels
  • Two-Pore K+ Channels
  • Functional Roles of K+ Channels in Action Potential Firing
  • K+ Channels and Disease
  • Ataxias
  • Epilepsy
  • Dominant Nonsyndromic Autosomal Deafness
  • Pharmacological Modulation of K+ Channels
  • Epilepsy
  • Diabetes
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Other Voltage-Gated Channels
  • Chloride Channels
  • Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide Channels
  • Transient Receptor Potential Channels
  • Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
  • Cys-Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
  • Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
  • 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Gated Ion Channels
  • ?-Aminobutyric Acid-Gated Ion Channels
  • Glycine-Gated Ion Channels
  • Glutamate-Gated Cation Channels
  • Adenosine 5´-Triphosphate-Gated Ion Channels
  • Further Reading
  • 2.1 - Translational Correlation: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Hippocampal Sclerosis
  • TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY
  • HIPPOCAMPAL SCLEROSIS
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Further Reading
  • 3 - Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission in the Developing and Adult Nervous System
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NEUROTRANSMISSION: A GENERAL OVERVIEW
  • Neurotransmission in the Peripheral Versus Central Nervous System: Principles
  • Quantal Release
  • Neurotransmission Probability
  • NEUROTRANSMITTERS
  • Identification of Neurotransmitters
  • ACETYLCHOLINE
  • mAChRs and Subtypes
  • M1 mAChR
  • M2 mAChR
  • M3 mAChR
  • M4 mAChR
  • M5 mAChR
  • The nAChRs
  • Presynaptic Effects of nAChRs Activation
  • Postsynaptic Effects of nAChR Activation at the NMJ
  • GLUTAMATE
  • The AMPA Receptor
  • Presynaptic Effects of AMPARs
  • Postsynaptic Effects of AMPARs
  • AMPARs in Development
  • The Kainate Receptor
  • Presynaptic Effects of Kainate Receptors
  • Postsynaptic Effects of Kainate Receptors
  • Kainate Receptors in Development
  • The NMDA Receptor
  • Presynaptic Effects of NMDA Receptor Activation
  • Postsynaptic Effects of NMDA Receptor Activation
  • NMDA Receptors in Development
  • GABA
  • Postsynaptic Effects of GABAA Receptors
  • Extrasynaptic Effects of GABAA Receptors
  • The GABAA Receptor in Development
  • The GABAB Receptor
  • THE ENDOCANNABINOIDS
  • Presynaptic Effects of Endocannabinoids
  • GLIA AND SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
  • Astrocytes and Synaptic Transmission
  • Glia in Development
  • CONCLUSION
  • Further Reading
  • 3.1 - Translational Correlation: Myasthenia Gravis and Other Neuromuscular Junction Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Clinical Presentation of MG
  • Diagnosis
  • Management
  • Presynaptic NMJ Disorders
  • Further Reading
  • 4 - Synaptic Development
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SYNAPSES AT A GLANCE
  • STAGES OF SYNAPTIC DEVELOPMENT (EXCITATORY SYNAPSES)
  • Timing of Synaptogenesis Within Humans
  • Neurite Outgrowth
  • Axon Differentiation, Outgrowth, Pathfinding, and Targeting
  • Dendrite Differentiation and Growth
  • Synaptic Differentiation and Specialization
  • Dynamics of Synapse Formation
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Differentiation
  • Synaptic Refinement
  • Synaptic Maturation and Maintenance
  • Synaptic Maturation
  • Synaptic Maintenance
  • Molecules Involved in Synapse Maturation and Maintenance and Their Link to Neuropsychiatric Disorders
  • DIVERSITY OF SYNAPTIC DEVELOPMENT
  • Synapses of the Peripheral Nervous System
  • Inhibitory Synaptogenesis
  • Neuromodulatory Synapses
  • Electrical Synapses
  • THE ROLES OF GLIA IN SYNAPTOGENESIS
  • SYNAPTOGENESIS AND DISEASE
  • Disorders of Axon Guidance
  • Disorders of Differentiation, Refinement, and Maturation
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Intellectual Disabilities
  • Schizophrenia
  • Epilepsy
  • Disorders of Synaptic Maturation and Maintenance
  • Depressive Disorders
  • Addiction
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • Huntington's Disease
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Overlapping Etiology Within Neurodevelopmental Disorders
  • Further Reading
  • 5 - The Peripheral and Central Nervous System
  • THE NEUROCRANIUM
  • MENINGES OF THE BRAIN
  • Dura Sinuses
  • Brain Herniation: Clinical Correlate
  • DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN VESICLES
  • THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
  • Lobes of the Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Medial Surface
  • Basal Ganglia
  • DIENCEPHALON
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Subthalamus and Epithalamus
  • BRAINSTEM
  • Medulla
  • Pons
  • CEREBELLUM
  • Midbrain
  • VENTRICLES
  • BLOOD SUPPLY: THE BRAIN
  • Anterior Cerebral Artery
  • Middle Cerebral Artery
  • Vertebral Arteries
  • Venous Return
  • SPINAL CORD
  • MENINGES OF THE SPINAL CORD
  • BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE SPINAL CORD
  • Overview of the Neuroanatomy of the Spinal Cord
  • Gray Matter Versus White Matter
  • 5.1 - Translational Correlation: Peripheral Neuropathy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • WHAT IS THE TEMPORAL PROFILE (ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC)?
  • SYMMETRIC OR ASYMMETRIC?
  • WHAT IS THE TYPE OF NERVE FIBER AFFECTED?
  • IS IT AXONAL VERSUS DEMYELINATING?
  • IS THERE A FAMILY HISTORY OF NEUROPATHY?
  • IS THERE ASSOCIATED SYSTEMIC DISEASE?
  • RED FLAGS IN PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY
  • Further Reading
  • 5.2 - Translational Correlation: Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CLINICAL PICTURE
  • GBS Variants
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • PATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
  • MANAGEMENT
  • OUTCOME AND PROGNOSIS
  • Further Reading
  • 6 - The Blood-Brain Barrier: A Restricted Gateway to the Brain
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COMPONENTS OF THE NEUROVASCULAR UNIT
  • Brain Vascular Endothelial Cells
  • Astrocytes
  • Basement Membrane
  • Pericytes
  • Microglia
  • Further Reading
  • 7 - Autoregulation of Cerebral Blood Flow
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANISMS OF CEREBRAL AUTOREGULATION
  • Myogenic Factor
  • Metabolic Factor or Flow-Metabolism Coupling
  • Endothelial Factors
  • Neurogenic Factor
  • MODULATION OF AUTOREGULATION
  • Autonomic Nerves
  • The Renin-Angiotensin System
  • EFFECTS OF CHRONIC HYPERTENSION ON AUTOREGULATION OF CBF
  • WHEN CPP IS TOO LOW: IMPAIRED CEREBRAL VASCULAR PERFUSION
  • WHEN CPP IS TOO HIGH: DISRUPTION OF BBB
  • CLINICAL CHALLENGES
  • 7.1 - Translational Correlation: Stroke
  • NORMAL CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW
  • PATHOLOGY AND ETIOLOGY OF STROKE
  • CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
  • ANTERIOR CIRCULATION STROKE
  • MCA STROKE SYNDROME
  • PROXIMAL MCA OCCLUSION
  • ACA STROKE SYNDROME
  • LACUNAR STROKE SYNDROME
  • POSTERIOR CIRCULATION STROKE
  • BRAIN STEM STROKE
  • CEREBELLAR STROKE
  • INITIAL EVALUATION
  • IMAGING AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
  • TREATMENT OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE
  • COMMON RISK FACTORS OF STROKES AND SECONDARY PREVENTION OF ISCHEMIC STROKES
  • Further Reading
  • 7.2 - Translational Correlation: Migraine
  • DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • Cortical Spreading Depression
  • Activation of the Trigeminovascular System and Neurogenic Inflammation
  • Sensitization
  • Role of Serotonin in Migraine Headache
  • Role of CGRP in Migraine Headache
  • GENETICS AND MIGRAINE HEADACHE
  • CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
  • EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSIS
  • TREATMENT
  • Abrtive Treatment
  • Triptans
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
  • Ergotamines and DHE
  • Other Medications for Acute Treatment
  • Preventive Treatment
  • Strong Evidence of Efficacy
  • Moderate Evidence of Efficacy
  • Further Reading
  • 8 - The Vestibular System
  • THE INNER EAR
  • HAIR CELLS
  • MACULAE AND CRISTAE
  • CENTRAL VESTIBULAR CONNECTIONS
  • EFFERENT CONNECTIONS OF THE VESTIBULAR NUCLEI
  • VESTIBULO-OCULAR REFLEX
  • NYSTAGMUS
  • CALORIC TESTING
  • SUMMARY
  • 8.1 - Translational Correlation: Vertigo
  • PERIPHERAL VERTIGO: BENIGN PAROXYSMAL POSITIONAL VERTIGO
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Symptoms
  • Evaluation and Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • CENTRAL VERTIGO: POSTERIOR CIRCULATION INFARCTS AND WALLENBERG SYNDROME (LATERAL MEDULLARY SYNDROME)
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Clinical Symptoms
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Further Reading
  • 9 - The Cerebellum
  • INTRODUCTION
  • OVERVIEW OF EVOLUTION AND FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION
  • STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CEREBELLUM
  • CYTOARCHITECTURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CEREBELLAR CORTEX
  • FIVE MAIN NEURONS OF THE CEREBELLAR CORTEX
  • AFFERENTS TO THE CEREBELLUM
  • THE OUTPUTS FROM THE CEREBELLUM ARE LIMITED
  • CEREBELLUM AND COORDINATED MOVEMENT
  • THE CEREBELLUM AND MOTOR LEARNING
  • THE CEREBELLUM AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES: CLINICAL STUDIES
  • CEREBELLUM AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES: ANIMAL MODELS
  • Lurcher Mutant Mice
  • Fmr1 Knockout Mice
  • CEREBELLUM AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES: A PUTATIVE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL SUBSTRATE FROM ANIMAL MODELS
  • SUMMARY
  • Further Reading
  • 9.1 - Translational Correlation: Disorders of the Cerebellum
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF CEREBELLAR DYSFUNCTION
  • CONTRIBUTION OF THE CEREBELLUM TO COGNITION
  • CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DISORDERS OF THE CEREBELLUM
  • ATAXIA WITH ACUTE ONSET
  • ATAXIA WITH SUBACUTE ONSET
  • Further Reading
  • 10 - The Basal Ganglia
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ANATOMY
  • MOTOR CONTROL THEORIES
  • THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT BASAL GANGLIA PATHWAYS
  • THE PRODUCTION OF LEARNED MOVEMENT SEQUENCES
  • INHIBITING COMPETING MOTOR PROGRAMS
  • EFFECTS OF BASAL GANGLIA LESIONS
  • DISORDERS OF THE BASAL GANGLIA
  • Further Reading
  • 10.1 - Translational Correlation: Disorders of the Basal Ganglia
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HYPOKINETIC MOVEMENT DISORDERS
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • HYPERKINETIC MOVEMENT DISORDERS
  • Chorea
  • Dystonia
  • Myoclonus
  • Tics
  • 11 - Choroid Plexus-Cerebrospinal Fluid Transport Dynamics: Support of Brain Health and a Role in Neurotherapeutics
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NEUROANATOMIC AND HISTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CHOROID PLEXUS-CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
  • BLOOD-CSF BARRIER VERSUS BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER: FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCES
  • BASIC TRANSPORT AND SECRETORY MECHANISMS IN CHOROID PLEXUS EPITHELIUM
  • UNIQUE FEATURES OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID CIRCULATION
  • CHOROID PLEXUS AS A MULTIFUNCTIONAL ORGAN SERVING THE BRAIN
  • Neurotrophic Stimulation of Fetal Brain Growth
  • Micronutritional and Trace Element Support
  • Neuroendocrine Regulation
  • Systemic Immunological Interfacing/Interaction with Neural Systems
  • Cross-Talking (Signaling) Among Blood, CP-CSF and Brain
  • Excretory Mechanisms for Catabolite Disposal
  • Choroid plexus Epithelial Transporters
  • CSF Bulk Flow
  • Brain Microvessel Endothelial Transporters
  • ISF Flow Along Glymphatic Pathways
  • Stabilization of the Declining Brain in Aging
  • PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES TO GUIDE CSF TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH
  • CSF INVOLVEMENT IN BRAIN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND NEUROTHERAPEUTICS
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Intracranial Hypertension
  • Choroid Plexitis and Meningitis
  • Stroke/Ischemia
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Autism/Social Disorders
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Alzheimer's Disease
  • NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR MODIFYING THE CHOROID PLEXUS-CSF NEXUS IN BRAIN DISORDERS
  • SUMMARY AND OVERVIEW
  • Acknowledgments
  • Further Reading
  • 12 - The Cerebral Cortex
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CORTICAL ARCHITECTURE
  • CORTICAL LOBES
  • CEREBRAL CORTICAL ORGANIZATION
  • THE CORTICAL CIRCUIT
  • Excitatory Neurons
  • Pyramidal Neurons as Coincidence Detectors
  • Inhibition in the Cortex
  • NEUROMODULATION OF CORTICAL CIRCUITS
  • Acetylcholine
  • Serotonin
  • Catecholamines
  • TOPOGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION OF THE CORTEX
  • FRONTAL LOBE
  • PARIETAL LOBE
  • TEMPORAL LOBE
  • OCCIPITAL LOBE
  • INSULAR CORTEX/INSULAR LOBE
  • SUMMARY
  • Further Reading
  • 13 - The Thalamus
  • THERAPIES TARGETING THE THALAMUS
  • DEEP-BRAIN STIMULATION
  • Acknowledgments
  • Further Reading
  • 14 - Cranial Nerves and Brainstem
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COMMON CRANIAL NERVE PATHOLOGIES
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • Hemifacial Spasm
  • Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia
  • Vestibular Schwannomas
  • BRAIN STEM PATHOLOGIES
  • Brain Stem Cavernous Malformation
  • Chiari Malformation
  • CONCLUSION
  • Funding Statement
  • Competing Interests Statement
  • Further Reading
  • 14.1 - Translational Correlation: Bell's Palsy
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • ETIOLOGY
  • SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
  • DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
  • ASSESSMENT AND GRADING
  • DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
  • TREATMENT
  • PROGNOSIS
  • Further Reading
  • 15 - Hypothalamic-Pituitary Regulation
  • REGULATION OF PITUITARY HORMONE SECRETION
  • PITUITARY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
  • HYPOTHALAMIC FACTORS REGULATING PITUITARY FUNCTION
  • HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS
  • HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-THYROID AXIS
  • HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-GH AXIS
  • HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-GONADAL AXIS
  • SOMATOSTATIN
  • PROLACTIN
  • Further Reading
  • 16 - Neuroendocrinimmunology: A Primer
  • NEUROENDOCRINIMMUNOLOGY I: INNERVATION OF LYMPHOID ORGANS
  • NEUROENDOCRINIMMUNOLOGY II: CYTOKINES IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • NEUROENDOCRINE PEPTIDES IN IMMUNE CELLS
  • IMMUNOMODULATION BY NEUROENDOCRINE PEPTIDES
  • NEUROIMMUNE AUTOIMMUNITY
  • Further Reading
  • 16.1 - Translational Correlation: Clinical Neuroimmunology
  • NEUROMYELITIS OPTICA
  • IDIOPATHIC ACUTE TRANSVERSE MYELITIS
  • Distribution/Presentation
  • Urinary Effects
  • MRI Findings
  • Lumbar Puncture
  • Treatment
  • IMMUNE-MEDIATED NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS
  • CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • Peripheral Nerve
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome or Acute Inflammatory Polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Vasculitis
  • Sensory Ganglionopathy
  • Multifocal Motor Neuropathy
  • Autoimmune Autonomic Impairment
  • Neuromuscular Junction (Excluding Myasthenia Gravis)
  • Muscle
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Nonpharmacological Issues
  • Pharmacological Approach
  • General Principles of Immunosuppressive Therapy
  • Corticosteroids
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Cytotoxic Medications
  • Pregnancy Considerations
  • OTHER NEUROIMMUNOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
  • Neurosarcoidosis
  • Central Nervous System Vasculitis
  • Other Autoimmune Encephalopathies
  • AUTOIMMUNE EPILEPSY
  • New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus
  • Rasmussen Encephalitis
  • Further Reading
  • 16.2 - Translational Correlation: Multiple Sclerosis
  • THE ROLE OF IMMUNE SYSTEM IN MS
  • DIAGNOSING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
  • OTHER IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS
  • Clinical Isolated Syndrome
  • BALANCING RISK AND BENEFITS OF THERAPY
  • CONCLUSION
  • Further Reading
  • 17 - The Olfactory System
  • INTRODUCTION
  • OLFACTORY STIMULUS
  • PERIPHERAL OLFACTORY SYSTEM
  • The Main Olfactory System
  • Main Olfactory Epithelium
  • The Odorant Receptors
  • Signal Transduction
  • Accessory Olfactory System
  • Trigeminal System
  • Septal Organ of Masera
  • The Gruenberg Ganglion
  • OLFACTORY BULB
  • CENTRAL OLFACTORY SYSTEM
  • OLFACTORY CODING
  • OLFACTORY DYSFUNCTION
  • Further Reading
  • 18 - Intranasal Trigeminal Chemoreception
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITIONS
  • NEUROANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Sensory and Somatosensory Branches
  • Trigeminal Nerve Fibers
  • Receptors
  • Polymodal Nociceptors
  • Solitary Chemoreceptor Cells
  • Function
  • Protective Mucosal Responses
  • Brain Stem Reflex Circuits
  • Breathing Control
  • Olfactory-Trigeminal Interactions
  • Perception of Food Quality and Pleasure Associated With Nutrition
  • CHEMOSENSORY PATHWAYS
  • Stimuli
  • Peripheral and Central Processing
  • INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OLFACTORY AND TRIGEMINAL SYSTEM
  • Associations Between Olfactory and Trigeminal System
  • Periphery
  • Central Nervous System
  • Behavior
  • NORMOSMIA
  • HYPOSMIA AND ANOSMIA
  • Model of Olfactory Trigeminal Interaction
  • Dissociation Between the Chemosensory and the Somatosensory Portion of the Trigeminal Nerve
  • ASSESSMENT
  • Psychophysical Tests
  • Ratings of Chemosensory Stimuli in Individuals With Normal Olfactory Function
  • Ratings of Chemosensory Stimuli in Individuals With Anosmia
  • Odor Localization
  • Respiratory Reflexes
  • Reflexive Changes in Nasal Blood Flow
  • Eye Irritation
  • Objective Techniques
  • Odorant Delivery Method
  • Negative Mucosa Potentials
  • Trigeminal Event-Related Potentials
  • Neuroimaging
  • TRIGEMINAL RESPONSES
  • Detection
  • Mixtures
  • Intensity
  • Mixtures
  • MIXTURES OF TRIGEMINAL STIMULI
  • MIXTURES OF TRIGEMINAL AND OLFACTORY STIMULI
  • MIXTURES OF STIMULI WITH DIFFERENT INTENSITIES
  • Hedonic Valence
  • Mixtures
  • Localization
  • Mixtures
  • FACTORS INFLUENCING TRIGEMINAL PERCEPTION/SYSTEM
  • Internal Factors
  • Intranasal Anatomy
  • Sex
  • Aging
  • Handedness
  • External Factors
  • Olfactory Status
  • Trigeminal Dysfunction
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK
  • Further Reading
  • 19 - Vision
  • INTRODUCTION
  • REFRACTION AND THE ANTERIOR SEGMENT
  • STRUCTURE OF THE RETINA
  • Vertebrate Retina Consists of Distinct Layers
  • SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION
  • Phototransduction Is Initiated by Activation of Opsin-Chromophore Complexes in the Photoreceptors
  • Cell Interaction in Neural Retina
  • VISUAL PATHWAYS
  • VISUAL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
  • ORGANIZATION OF THE VISUAL PATHWAY FROM RETINA TO CORTEX
  • Visual Pathway's Anatomical and Physiological Organization
  • ACTIVITY-INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT OF ORDER IN THE VISUAL SYSTEM: PATHWAY, TARGET, AND ADDRESS SELECTION
  • ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT OF ORDER IN THE VISUAL SYSTEM
  • Activity Influences Axon Segregation in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
  • Retinotopic Features in Cortical Layer IV
  • Influence of Visual Experience on the Establishment and Maintenance of Binocular Connections
  • Extraretinal "Enabling Factors" Influence the Development of Binocularity
  • Elementary Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity During the Critical Period May Involve NMDA Receptors
  • Plasticity of Visual Cortex After Critical Periods
  • Why Critical Periods End
  • OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM
  • FIVE EYE MOVEMENTS
  • EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES
  • MOTOR NUCLEI OF THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES
  • Oculomotor Complex
  • Trochlear Nucleus
  • Abducens Nucleus
  • PREOCULOMOTOR NUCLEI
  • Control of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex by the Vestibular Nuclei
  • Control of Vertical Gaze by the Mesencephalic Reticular Formation
  • Conjugate Horizontal Gaze Is Mediated by the Pontine Reticular Formation
  • CEREBRAL CORTEX AND CEREBELLUM EXERT CONTROL ON EYE MOVEMENT
  • BASAL GANGLIA AND EYE MOVEMENT
  • VERGENCE EYE MOVEMENTS
  • BASIS OF DISEASE STATES
  • Visual Pathway Lesions Produce Characteristic Visual Field Loss Patterns
  • Genetic Lesions Resulting in Defects in the Color Pigments Can Cause Loss of Color Vision
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
  • Causes of Ocular Motility Disorders
  • Supranuclear Systems: Saccadic, Pursuit, and Vestibular Systems
  • Conjugate Gaze Abnormalities Implicate the Brain Stem
  • Defects in Individual Cranial Nerves Cause Distinct Patterns of Ocular Motility Impairment
  • Disorders of Muscle or Neuromuscular Transmission
  • Nystagmus
  • Further Reading
  • 20 - Oculomotor Systems and Control
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ANATOMY OF THE PRIMATE OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM
  • ORBITAL ANATOMY AND MOTOR NUCLEI
  • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES
  • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF CONJUGATE SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENTS
  • HORIZONTAL SACCADES: BRAIN STEM CONTROL
  • VERTICAL SACCADES: BRAIN STEM PATHWAYS
  • SUPRANUCLEAR CONTROL OF SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENTS
  • POSTERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX
  • FRONTAL EYE FIELDS
  • SUPERIOR COLLICULUS
  • OCULOMOTOR VERGENCE
  • Significance of the Control of Binocular Movements
  • Neural Mechanism for Maintenance of Retinal Correspondence
  • Neural Mechanisms Underlying Fusional Vergence
  • Processing of Disparity Information Throughout the Visual System
  • The Müller Experiment Used to Test "Hering's Law of Equal Innervation"
  • Neural Substrate Supporting a Hering-Like "Horizontal Vergence System"
  • Parallel Pathway for Control of Horizontal Vergence
  • Evidence Supporting a Helmholtz Organization Into Right and Left Eye Signals
  • Role of the MRF in the Control of Saccades and Vergence
  • Role for the SC in the Control of Vergence
  • CEREBELLAR PATHWAYS FOR OCULOMOTOR CONTROL
  • Clinical Applications
  • SMOOTH PURSUIT
  • Clinical Applications
  • EYE MOVEMENTS IN HUMAN DISEASE
  • MOVEMENT DISORDERS: DEGENERATION OF NEURONS IN MOTOR CONTROL SYSTEMS (PARKINSON'S AND PROGRESSIVE SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY)
  • HEREDITARY, PARANEOPLASTIC, AND CEREBELLAR DEGENERATION: PARANEOPLASTIC DESTRUCTION OF PURKINJE CELLS
  • Further Reading
  • 21 - A Modern Clinicopathological Approach to Traumatic Brain Injury
  • INTRODUCTION: TBI AS HETEROGENEOUS MORBIDITY
  • KEY CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MAIN TYPES OF TBI
  • Focal TBI: Contusions
  • Diffuse TBI: Primary Traumatic Axonal Injury
  • The Complex Problem of Blast TBI
  • The Problem of TBI-Associated Neurodegeneration
  • NEUROBIOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND HYPOTHESES REGARDING TBI
  • Generalities
  • Contusion
  • DAI: Cellular and Molecular Approaches
  • DAI: Transsynaptic Degeneration and Disconnection
  • Neuroinflammation and TBI
  • Mechanisms of Blast TBI
  • Proteinopathy in TBI (CTE)
  • EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF TBI
  • Further Reading
  • 21.1 - Translational Correlation: Disorders of the Spinal Cord
  • PHENOTYPES OF SPINAL CORD INJURY
  • Transverse Myelopathy
  • Hemicord Syndrome (Brown-Sequard Syndrome)
  • Anterior Cord Syndrome
  • Posterior and Posterolateral Column Syndrome
  • Central Cord Syndrome
  • Conus Medullaris and Cauda Equine Syndromes
  • Radiculopathy
  • CAUSES OF SPINAL CORD INJURY
  • Spondylotic Myelopathy and Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury
  • Vascular Disorders of the Spinal Cord
  • Autoimmune Disorders of the Spinal Cord
  • Infections of the Spinal Cord
  • Neurodegenerative Disorders of the Spinal Cord
  • Neoplasms of the Spinal Cord
  • DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF SPINAL CORD DISORDERS
  • Further Reading
  • 21.2 - Translational Correlation: Abnormalities of the CSF System
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DISORDERS OF CSF CIRCULATION
  • ABNORMAL CSF PROFILES
  • 22 - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF TRAUMATIC STRESS
  • From Selye to Stressed Synapses
  • Effects of Acute Stress Are Mediated by Catecholamines
  • Sustained Stress Drives Structural Changes in the Brain
  • Fear Circuits and Traumatic Stress
  • ANIMAL MODELS OF PTSD
  • Pavlovian Fear Conditioning
  • Fear-Potentiated Startle
  • Models of Multiple Unpredictable Stress
  • Restraint With Tail Shock Paradigm
  • Warrior Stress Paradigm
  • BIOMARKERS OF PTSD
  • The Biomarker Concept
  • Potential PTSD Molecular Biomarkers
  • Glucocorticoids and the Glucocorticoid Receptor
  • FKBP5
  • LINE-1 and Alu
  • SLC6A3
  • PAC1
  • Corticotropin Releasing Factor
  • SLC6A4
  • BDNF
  • S100A10
  • PTSD AND SOMATIC HEALTH: CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • NEUROIMAGING AND PTSD
  • vmPFC and ACC
  • Amygdala
  • Hippocampus
  • Insula
  • Connectivity
  • NEUROSCIENCE AND TREATMENT
  • Psychotherapy
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • CONCLUSION
  • Further Reading
  • 23 - Somatosensation and Pain
  • BASIC CONCEPTS IN SENSORY PHYSIOLOGY
  • FIRST-ORDER SOMATOSENSORY NEURONS
  • SOMATIC SUBMODALITIES AND RECEPTOR MECHANISMS
  • Proprioception
  • Thermoception
  • Touch
  • Nociception
  • Itch
  • Visceral Sensations
  • CENTRAL PATHWAYS
  • Anterolateral Pathway
  • Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal Pathway
  • Thalamic and Cortical Regions Involved in Somatosensation
  • Descending Modulation
  • TYPES OF PAIN
  • Nociceptive Pain
  • Inflammatory Pain
  • Neuropathic Pain
  • NEUROPATHIC PAIN: AN UNMET CLINICAL CHALLENGE
  • SUMMARY
  • Further Reading
  • 23.1 - Translational Correlation: Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
  • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
  • DIAGNOSIS
  • DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
  • TREATMENT
  • Further Reading
  • 24 - Neurogenesis as a Factor in the Functional Plasticity of the Nervous System
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EMBRYONIC NEUROGENESIS, HOW DOES IT ALL START?
  • ADULT NEUROGENESIS, WHERE DOES IT TAKE PLACE?
  • STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE OLFACTORY SYSTEM IN MAMMALS
  • IS THERE ADULT NEUROGENESIS IN THE OLFACTORY BULB OF HUMANS?
  • ADULT NEUROGENESIS, DOES IT IMPACT BEHAVIOR?
  • SUMMARY
  • Further Reading
  • 25 - Axonal Degeneration and Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems
  • INTRODUCTION
  • AXONAL AND NEURONAL CELL BODY RESPONSES TO NERVE INJURY AND DISEASE IN THE PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS
  • Axotomy and Anterograde Axonal Degeneration
  • Wallerian Degeneration: New Insights
  • Axonal Dieback and Wallerian Degeneration
  • Proximal Axonal Segment Following Axotomy
  • Axotomy Induces Responses at the Level of the Neuronal Cell Body
  • Fate of Axotomized Neurons in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems
  • REGENERATIVE RESPONSES AFTER PERIPHERAL AXOTOMY
  • Regeneration Is Initiated by the Formation of Growth Cones That Possess Selective Preferences for Certain Tissue Constituents
  • Nature of the Cellular Environment at the Site of Nerve Damage Can Influence the Ultimate Success of Regeneration by Affecting Growth Cone Behavior
  • Schwann Cells Provide a Permissive Substrate Essential for Axonal Elongation and Are Responsible for Myelination of Regenerated Axons in the Peripheral Nervous System
  • Inflammatory Responses to Nerve Injury and Regeneration
  • Regeneration and Remyelination
  • Functional Recovery After Peripheral Nerve Injury Is Dependent on the Rate of Axonal Elongation and Distance of the Lesion From the Original Targets
  • Summary of Post-axotomy Responses in the Peripheral Nervous System
  • REGENERATIVE FAILURE IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Extrinsic Factors Governing Axonal Regeneration in the Central Nervous System
  • Cellular and Molecular Inhibition of Axonal Outgrowth and Neuroplasticity in the Central Nervous System
  • Astroglial Impediments to Axonal Elongation
  • Other Cellular Constituents of the Glial Scar
  • CSPGs and Neuroplasticity
  • White Matter-Associated Inhibition
  • Microglia, Macrophages, and Inflammation After Central Nervous System Injury
  • CHAPTER OVERVIEW AND THERAPEUTIC PERSPECTIVES
  • Further Reading
  • 25.1 - Translational Correlation: Sarcopenia
  • SARCOPENIA
  • Further Reading
  • 26 - Audition
  • WHAT IS SOUND?
  • THE EAR
  • THE COCHLEA
  • THE AUDITORY NERVE
  • CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING: COCHLEAR NUCLEUS
  • THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS
  • THE MEDIAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS
  • THE AUDITORY CORTEX
  • DESCENDING CONNECTIONS IN THE AUDITORY SYSTEM
  • HOW DO WE LOCALIZE A SOUND?
  • SOUND IDENTIFICATION
  • SPEECH
  • AUDITORY SCENE ANALYSIS
  • HEARING LOSS
  • REHABILITATION
  • Further Reading
  • 27 - Body Clocks in Health and Disease
  • INTRODUCTION TO CIRCADIAN CLOCKS
  • Overview of Circadian Timing
  • Defining Circadian Rhythms
  • Molecular Basis of Circadian Clocks
  • Clock-Controlled Genes
  • The Master Clock Lies in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
  • Output Signals of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
  • Extra-Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Clocks in Central Nervous System and Periphery
  • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Clocks Differ From Other Tissue Clocks
  • Light Sets Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Phase
  • Photic Versus Visual Afferents to the Central Nervous System
  • COHERENT VERSUS DISRUPTED TEMPORAL ORDER
  • Temporal Order and Phase-Setting Signals in a Life Span Perspective
  • Sleep-Wake Cycles
  • METABOLISM AND OBESITY: PERIPHERAL CLOCKS CONTRIBUTE TO METABOLIC DISORDERS
  • Mechanistic Links Between Circadian and Metabolic Processes
  • Circadian Rhythms and Metabolic Function: A Two-Way Relationship
  • Environmental Disruption and Metabolic Dysregulation
  • CIRCADIAN DISRUPTION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION
  • Circadian Effects on Learning and Cognition
  • Modeling Circadian Disruption by Unusual Light Conditions
  • CIRCADIAN DISRUPTION AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
  • Depression
  • Mania and Bipolar Disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  • Further Reading
  • 27.1 - Translational Correlation: Sleep Disorders
  • SLEEP-RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS
  • SLEEP-RELATED MOVEMENT DISORDERS
  • PARASOMNIAS
  • INSOMNIA
  • HYPERSOMNIA
  • CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISORDERS
  • OTHER INTERESTING CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DISTURBED SLEEP
  • Further Reading
  • 28 - The Experience of Consciousness
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE PROBLEM WITH MEASUREMENT
  • Statement of the problem
  • THE PROBLEM WITH SCIENCE
  • THE PROBLEM WITH THE PROBLEM: INCOMPLETENESS
  • A CASE STUDY
  • WHAT DRIVES THE SEARCH? WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF INSOLUBILITY?
  • Further Reading
  • 29 - The Emotional Brain
  • INTRODUCTION
  • REGIONS OF THE EMOTIONAL BRAIN
  • Amygdala
  • The Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and the Extended Amygdala
  • Hypothalamus
  • Periaqueductal Gray
  • Cingulate Cortex
  • Orbitofrontal Cortex
  • Anterior Insula
  • FROM REGIONS TO CIRCUITS
  • Large-Scale Amygdala Networks
  • Interactions Between the Amygdala and Medial Prefrontal Cortex
  • Hypothalamic Circuits
  • Basal Forebrain
  • Lateral Prefrontal Cortex
  • Distributed Circuits and the Evolution of the Emotional Brain
  • HOW ARE EMOTIONS ORGANIZED IN THE BRAIN?
  • Principle 1: Massive Anatomical Connectivity
  • Principle 2: Anatomical Connectivity to and From the Body
  • PRINCIPLE 3: HIGH FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY WITH MOST OF THE BRAIN
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • Further Reading
  • 29.1 - Translational Correlation: Limbic Encephalitis
  • LIMBIC ENCEPHALITIS: OVERVIEW
  • Infectious Encephalitis of the Limbic System: Herpes Encephalitis
  • Paraneoplastic Encephalitis of the Limbic System
  • Autoimmune Encephalitis of the Limbic System
  • DIAGNOSIS OF LIMBIC ENCEPHALITIS
  • THERAPIES FOR LIMBIC ENCEPHALITIS
  • Further Reading
  • 30 - Stress, Mood, and Pathways to Depression
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Theories of Biology of Depression
  • Vulnerability and Development of Depression
  • Paths to Vulnerability State
  • NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF DEPRESSION PATHWAYS
  • The Structural and Functional Localization of Neuroticism
  • HPA Axis
  • Human Studies
  • Role of Serotonin
  • Neurobiological Model for Vulnerability Paths to Depression
  • SUMMARY
  • Further Reading
  • 31 - Language Processing, Development and Evolution
  • INTRODUCTION
  • LANGUAGE CORTEX
  • Human Adults
  • Classical Cortical Regions
  • Other Cortical Regions
  • Subcortical Regions
  • Nonhuman Primates
  • LANGUAGE WHITE MATTER
  • Human Adults
  • Classical Model
  • Dual-Network Model
  • Extended Network
  • Nonhuman Primates
  • LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • Cortical Development
  • White Matter Development
  • Functional Development
  • SOCIAL COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT MODEL
  • Level 1: A Frontoparietal Network for Informative Actions
  • Level 2: A Frontal Aslant Network for Communicative Intentions
  • Level 3: Anterior Temporal Networks for Lexical and Semantic Processing
  • Level 4: A Frontotemporal Network for Syntactic Analysis
  • Level 5: A Temporoparietal Network for Pragmatic Integration
  • DISORDERS AFFECTING LANGUAGE IN CHILDHOOD, ADOLESCENCE, AND ADULT LIFE
  • Autism Spectrum Condition
  • Schizophrenia
  • Acknowledgment
  • Further Reading
  • 32 - Memory
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY
  • DECLARATIVE MEMORY
  • EMOTIONAL MEMORY
  • MOTOR MEMORY
  • Learning Action Sequences in the Basal Ganglia
  • Adjusting Movement in the Cerebellum
  • WORKING MEMORY
  • Further Reading
  • 32.1 - Translational Correlation: Alzheimer's Disease
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: OVERVIEW
  • TYPICAL ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: AMNESIA PHENOTYPE
  • ATYPICAL ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
  • Frontal/Behavioral Variant of Alzheimer's Disease
  • Logopenia/Language Variant of Alzheimer's Disease
  • Posterior Variant of Alzheimer's Disease
  • DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
  • THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
  • Further Reading
  • 33 - Neurobiology of Drugs of Abuse
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Neurocircuitry
  • BRAIN SITES
  • Ventral Tegmental Area
  • Nucleus Accumbens
  • Prefrontal Cortex
  • Hippocampus
  • Amygdala
  • Caudate Nucleus
  • Locus Coeruleus
  • Raphe Nuclei
  • GENETICS
  • NEUROCHEMISTRY
  • DRUG OF ABUSE
  • Drug Changed Brain and Morphology
  • Further Reading
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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