Modernizing VATs in Africa

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 12. Juli 2019
  • |
  • 400 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-258236-2 (ISBN)
 
Most African countries are in dire need of more tax revenue. In 28 out of 45 countries with a value-added tax (VAT), total tax revenue as a percentage of GDP is around 15% or less, falling short of what is necessary to finance basic human and economic development. Far from being revenue-raising instruments, current African VATs are riddled with exemptions, exclusions, and zero rates on domestic goods and services that depress revenue, are highly distortionary, and greatly complicate the administration of VAT. Modernizing VATs in Africa enables policymakers, professionals, and students to analyse African tax systems to ascertain how they can be modernized. It explains the case for VAT base-broadening over rate-increasing, arguing that exemptions and zero rates mainly accrue benefits for higher-income groups. Even more persuasively, it demonstrates that the net result of fiscal systems can be equalizing if the revenue of broad-based VATs is used to finance in-kind transfers, such as healthcare and education. VAT modernization should be used to enable governments to finance development; Modernizing VATs in Africa puts a compelling case forward for how and why this can be achieved.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
978-0-19-258236-2 (9780192582362)
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Sijbren Cnossen is Professor of Economics at the University of Pretoria and Academic Partner of CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis. He is Professor Emeritus of Economics of the University of Maastricht and Professor Emeritus of Tax Law of Erasmus University Rotterdam. Prof Cnossen previously occupied the Henry Shattuck Chair at the Law School of Harvard University and the Global Law Chair at the University of New York. He has advised many countries on the design of their tax systems under the auspices of the IMF, the World Bank, USAID, OECD, EU Commission, HIID, and GTZ. He has published numerous books and articles on the effects of taxation and on tax policy, including issues pertaining to tax coordination, income and corporation taxes, value- added tax, and excise duties.
  • Cover
  • Modernizing VATs in Africa
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • List of Boxes
  • 1: Why VAT?
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 VAT's Role in Africa's Tax Systems
  • 1.3 Major VAT Policy Issues
  • 1.4 Organization of This Book
  • 1.5 Acknowledgements
  • 2: What Is VAT?
  • 2.1 Workings of the VAT
  • 2.2 VAT and the P&L Account
  • 2.3 Legal Features of the VAT
  • 2.4 Economic Nature of the VAT
  • 2.5 What Is a Best-Practice VAT?
  • 2.6 VAT versus Excise Taxes and Import Duties
  • 3: Other Broad-Based Consumption Taxes
  • 3.1 How Can Consumption Be Taxed?
  • 3.2 Accounting for Consumption Taxes
  • 3.3 Differences between Consumption Taxes
  • 3.4 Preferred Choice: VAT or RST?
  • 3.5 Prevalence of Consumption Taxes
  • 3.6 Lessons from Worldwide Experience with VAT
  • 4: Overview of VATs in Africa
  • 4.1 Regional Economic Communities
  • 4.2 Broad Characteristics of VATs
  • Types of VAT
  • Year VAT Introduced
  • Predecessor Sales Taxes
  • Non-Standard Exemptions
  • Rate Structures
  • Luxury Excises
  • 4.3 Issues to Be Explored
  • 5: Countries without VAT
  • 5.1 Overview of Sales Taxes in Non-VAT Countries
  • 5.2 Distortions
  • 5.3 Valuation Problems
  • 5.4 Definitional Issues
  • 5.5 Move to Wholesale Stage Not a Solution
  • 5.6 VAT Preferred
  • 6: Revenue Performance
  • 6.1 Overall Revenue Performance
  • 6.2 VAT Collection Efficiency
  • 6.3 Understanding VAT Performance
  • Economic Development
  • VAT Structure
  • Administration and Compliance
  • 6.4 Can VATs Replace Trade Taxes?
  • 7: VAT Incidence and Rate Structure
  • 7.1 The VAT Treatment of Foodstuffs
  • 7.2 VAT Burden Distribution in South Africa
  • Katz Commission
  • South African National Treasury
  • 7.3 Findings for Other Countries
  • Developing Countries
  • Higher-Income Countries
  • 7.4 Zero Rate, Lower Rate, or Exemption?
  • 7.5 Higher Taxes on Luxury Goods
  • 7.6 Are Excise Taxes on Luxury Goods Justified?
  • 7.7 Evaluation of Rate and Base Differentiation
  • Requirements for Progressivity in Product Taxation
  • Implications for VAT Exemptions and Lower-than-Standard Rates
  • Implications for Promoting Progressivity
  • 7.8 The Heart of the Matter
  • 8: Economic Integration and Tax Coordination in Regional Economic Communities
  • 8.1 Stages of Economic Integration and Tax Coordination
  • 8.2 Economic Policy Coordination
  • Customs Unions
  • Free Trade Areas
  • Evaluation
  • 8.3 Tax Coordination
  • VAT Cooperation and Coordination
  • Neutrality of intra-REC trade
  • Abolition of border controls
  • Excise Tax Approximation
  • Actual Tax Harmonization: The UEMOA Example
  • 8.4 Creating Common Markets with Tax Diversity
  • The Road Ahead
  • How Much Tax Coordination?
  • 9: Exemptions and Exclusions: The Achilles Heel of VAT
  • 9.1 Kinds of Exemptions and Exclusions
  • Standard Exemptions and Exclusions
  • Non-Standard Exemptions and Exclusions
  • 9.2 Economic Distortions and Administrative Complications
  • 9.3 Dealing with Exemptions and Exclusions: An Overview
  • Non-Standard Exemptions
  • Out-of-Scope Supplies
  • Activities in the Public Interest
  • Conceptually Difficult to Tax: Immovable Property
  • Conceptually Difficult to Tax: Financial Services, Insurance, and Gambling
  • Administratively Difficult to Tax
  • Industrial Free Zones
  • Foreign Aid Projects
  • 10: Non-Standard Exemptions and Zero Rates
  • 10.1 Consumer Items
  • 10.2 Producer Goods
  • 10.3 Services
  • Why Services Should Be Taxed Comprehensively
  • Review of Individual Services
  • Laundry, dry-cleaning, and dyeing services, as well as various personal care services provided by hairdressers, beauty shops, etc.
  • Hotels, restaurants, and similar establishments providing food, drink, and shelter
  • Amusement and entertainment services, such as theatre performances, amusement parks, circuses, bowling alleys, night clubs, and discotheques
  • Supply of electricity and gas
  • Telecommunication services, such as telephone calls, cable, telex, and facsimile services
  • Public transportation of passengers
  • Transportation of goods and storage
  • Leasing and letting of movable property, such as cars, boats, computers, and other equipment
  • Leasing and letting of immovable property, such as buildings and apartments
  • Repair and maintenance services provided by repair shops and garages for movable goods (business equipment and household appliances, cars, boats, etc.)
  • Repair and maintenance of immovable property
  • Engineering and architectural work
  • designing and decorating buildings
  • Publicity, advertising, marketing, and various administrative services, including data processing, printing, etc.
  • Legal services, accountancy, consulting, and other similarprofessional services
  • Transfer and exploitation of copyrights, patents, trademarks, and other proprietary rights
  • Preferred Solution
  • 10.4 African Countries that Have Led the Way in VAT Modernization
  • 11: Governments and Activities in the Public Interest
  • 11.1 Nature of Supplies by Public Bodies
  • 11.2 EU-African Legacy
  • 11.3 African Situation
  • SACU Countries
  • Public Sector Utilities
  • Cultural Goods and Services
  • 11.4 Refund Systems in Europe and Canada
  • European Union
  • Canadian Solution
  • 11.5 Full Taxation in New Zealand and Australia
  • 11.6 What Is Best Practice for African Countries?
  • What Is Best Practice?
  • What Should African Countries Do?
  • 12: Immovable Property
  • 12.1 How Should Immovable Property Be Taxed?
  • Treatment under a Pure VAT
  • A Second-Best Approach
  • 12.2 Exemption Method versus Tax Method
  • 12.3 Taxation of Immovable Property in Africa
  • 12.4 Directions for Reform
  • Moving Closer to Best Practice
  • Margin Scheme and Transfer Duty
  • 12.5 Recapitulation of Policy Proposals
  • 13: Financial Services
  • 13.1 VAT's 'Last Frontier'
  • 13.2 Categories of Financial Services
  • 13.3 How Are Financial Services Taxed in African Countries?
  • 13.4 Difficulties in Taxing Financial Services under the VAT
  • 13.5 The EU's Exemption Approach
  • Definitions
  • Evaluation
  • European Commission's 2007 'Three Pillars' Proposal
  • 13.6 Taxing What Can Be Taxed
  • 13.7 Mitigating Cascading Effects
  • Full or Partial Recovery of Input VAT
  • Option to Tax
  • 13.8 Accounts-Based Methods of Taxing Value Added
  • Addition Method
  • Subtraction Approach
  • 13.9 Out-of-the-Box Approaches: Cash-Flow Method and Modified Reverse-Charging
  • Cash-Flow Method
  • Modified Reverse-Charging
  • 13.10 What to Do?
  • 14: Insurance
  • 14.1 Insurance and the EU's Common Directive
  • 14.2 How Is Insurance Taxed in African Countries?
  • Insurance Premium Taxes
  • VAT Exemption
  • 14.3 Application of VAT to Insurance
  • Insurance Companies
  • Insured Individuals and Businesses
  • 14.4 Life and Health Insurance
  • 14.5 Comparative Evaluation
  • 15: Lotteries and Gambling
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Types of Lotteries and Gambling Activities
  • 15.3 Lotteries
  • 15.4 Casinos: Slot Machines and Table Games
  • 15.5 Some Answers
  • 16: Small Businesses and Farmers
  • 16.1 Small Businesses
  • Threshold Levels
  • What Is the Optimal or Best-Practice Level for the Threshold?
  • Presumptive Taxation Schemes
  • 16.2 Farmers
  • VAT and Agriculture
  • VAT Treatment of Agriculture in African Countries
  • Preferred Choice
  • 16.3 A Generous Threshold
  • 17: Basic Administrative Processes
  • 17.1 Registration
  • 17.2 Filing
  • 17.3 Payment
  • 17.4 Enforcement
  • 17.5 Audit
  • 17.6 Fraud
  • 17.7 Balancing Enforcement and Assisting Taxpayers
  • 18: Agenda for VAT Modernization
  • 18.1 Need for VAT Base-Broadening
  • 18.2 Abolishing Non-Standard Exemptions and Exclusions
  • Foodstuffs and Medical Supplies
  • Public Utilities and Petroleum Products
  • Newspapers and Printed Materials
  • Services: Why Enumerate?
  • Agricultural Inputs
  • Industrial Machinery and Equipment
  • Economic Free Zones
  • 18.3 Reviewing Standard Exemptions and Exclusions
  • Governments and Their Agencies
  • Healthcare, Education, and Social Services
  • Immovable Property
  • Financial Services
  • Property and Casualty Insurance
  • Lotteries and Gambling
  • Small Businesses and Agriculture
  • 18.4 The Reason for Modernization
  • APPENDICES A, B, AND C AFRICA: VATs, EXCISE TAXES, AND SALES TAXES, 2018
  • APPENDIX A: Africa: VAT Treatment of Essential Goods and Services, 2018
  • APPENDIX B: Africa: VAT and Excise Tax Treatment of Selected Goods and Services, 2018
  • APPENDIX C: Africa: Sales Taxes and Excise Systems in Non-VAT Countries, 2018
  • APPENDIX D: Africa: Basic Economic and Institutional Indicators in VAT Countries, 2016
  • References
  • Index

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