Geothermal Heat Pump and Heat Engine Systems

Theory And Practice
 
 
Wiley-ASME Press
  • erschienen am 8. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 496 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-96197-1 (ISBN)
 
A unique approach to the study of geothermal energy systems
This book takes a unique, holistic approach to the interdisciplinary study of geothermal energy systems, combining low, medium, and high temperature applications into a logical order. The emphasis is on the concept that all geothermal projects contain common elements of a "thermal energy reservoir" that must be properly designed and managed.
The book is organized into four sections that examine geothermal systems: energy utilization from resource and site characterization; energy harnessing; energy conversion (heat pumps, direct uses, and heat engines); and energy distribution and uses.
Examples are provided to highlight fundamental concepts, in addition to more complex system design and simulation.
Key features:
* Companion website containing software tools for application of fundamental principles and solutions to real-world problems.
* Balance of theory, fundamental principles, and practical application.
* Interdisciplinary treatment of the subject matter.
Geothermal Heat Pump & Heat Engine Systems: Theory and Practice is a unique textbook for Energy Engineering and Mechanical Engineering students as well as practicing engineers who are involved with low-enthalpy geothermal energy systems.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • |
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 28,84 MB
978-1-118-96197-1 (9781118961971)
1118961978 (1118961978)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Andrew Chiasson is a faculty member in the Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Dayton, where he teaches courses and conducts research in the areas of thermofluid sciences, and renewable and clean energy. He has academic and professional practice experience in a wide range of geothermal and hydrogeologic applications related to geothermal heat pumps (geoexchange), direct-use geothermal, small-scale electrical power generation, hydrogeological site evaluations, and groundwater flow and mass/heat transport modeling. Dr. Chiasson has been extensively involved in research and development of design and simulation tools for optimal earth heat exchanger coupling, hybrid geoexchange systems, and underground solar energy storage. As a Professional Engineer in the United States and in Canada, he has designed numerous closed and open-loop geoexchange systems and HVAC systems for a wide variety of building types. He is a member of ASHRAE Technical Committees and is an IGSHPA Accredited Ground Source Heat Pump Trainer.
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Series Preface
  • Preface
  • About the Companion Website
  • Chapter 1 Geothermal Energy Project Considerations
  • 1.1 Overview
  • 1.2 Renewable/Clean Energy System Analysis
  • 1.3 Elements of Renewable/Clean Energy Systems
  • 1.4 Geothermal Energy Utilization and Resource Temperature
  • 1.5 Geothermal Energy Project History and Development
  • 1.5.1 Geothermal Power Plants
  • 1.5.2 Direct Uses of Geothermal Energy
  • 1.5.3 Geothermal Heat Pumps
  • 1.6 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Part 1 Geothermal Energy - Utilization and Resource Characterization
  • Chapter 2 Geothermal Process Loads
  • 2.1 Overview
  • 2.2 Weather Data
  • 2.3 Space Heating and Cooling Loads
  • 2.3.1 Peak Design Loads
  • 2.3.2 Monthly and Annual Loads
  • 2.4 Hot Water Process Loads
  • 2.5 Swimming Pool and Small Pond Heating Loads
  • 2.6 Snow-Melting Loads
  • 2.7 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 3 Characterizing the Resource
  • 3.1 Overview
  • 3.2 Origin and Structure of the Earth
  • 3.3 Geology and Drilling Basics for Energy Engineers
  • 3.3.1 `Geology 101´ for Energy Engineers
  • 3.3.2 Overview of Drilling Methods
  • 3.4 Earth Temperature Regime and Global Heat Flows: Why is the Center of the Earth Hot?
  • 3.5 Shallow Earth Temperatures
  • 3.6 The Geothermal Reservoir Concept
  • 3.7 Geothermal Site Suitability Analysis
  • 3.7.1 Groundwater Resources
  • 3.7.2 Geoexchange Applications
  • 3.8 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Part 2 Harnessing the Resource
  • Chapter 4 Groundwater Heat Exchange Systems
  • 4.1 Overview
  • 4.2 Why Groundwater?
  • 4.3 Theoretical Considerations
  • 4.3.1 Equations of Groundwater Flow
  • 4.3.2 Well Hydraulics
  • 4.3.3 Heat Transport in Groundwater
  • 4.4 Practical Considerations
  • 4.4.1 Equipment Needed
  • 4.4.2 Groundwater Quality
  • 4.5 Groundwater Heat Pump Systems
  • 4.5.1 Small Residential Systems
  • 4.5.2 Large Commercial Distributed Heat Pump Systems
  • 4.5.3 System Energy Analysis and the Required Groundwater Flow Rate
  • 4.5.4 Well Pump Control
  • 4.5.5 Single Supply-Return Well Systems
  • 4.6 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 5 Borehole Heat Exchangers
  • 5.1 Overview of Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs)
  • 5.2 What is a Borehole Heat Exchanger?
  • 5.3 Brief Historical Overview of BHEs
  • 5.4 Installation of BHEs
  • 5.5 Thermal and Mathematical Considerations for BHEs
  • 5.5.1 General BHE Thermal Considerations
  • 5.5.2 Mathematical Models of Heat Transfer around BHEs
  • 5.5.3 Determining the BHE Fluid Temperature
  • 5.5.4 Fluctuating Thermal Loads
  • 5.5.5 Effects of Groundwater Flow on BHEs
  • 5.5.6 Mathematical Models of the Borehole Thermal Resistance
  • 5.6 Thermal Response Testing
  • 5.6.1 Field Methods
  • 5.6.2 Analysis Methods of Field Test Data
  • 5.7 Pressure Considerations for Deep Vertical Boreholes
  • 5.8 Special Cases
  • 5.8.1 Standing Column Wells Revisited
  • 5.8.2 Heat Pipes
  • 5.9 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 6 Multi-Borehole Heat Exchanger Arrays
  • 6.1 Overview
  • 6.1.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.2 Vertical GHX Configurations
  • 6.2 Vertical GHX Design Length Equation and Design Parameters
  • 6.2.1 The Vertical GHX Design Length Equation
  • 6.2.2 The Undisturbed Ground Temperature (Tg)
  • 6.2.3 Soil/Rock Thermal Properties
  • 6.2.4 The Ground Loads
  • 6.2.5 The Average BHE Fluid Temperature (Tf)
  • 6.2.6 The Ground Thermal Resistances
  • 6.3 Vertical GHX Simulation
  • 6.4 Hybrid Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
  • 6.5 Modeling Vertical GHXs with Software Tools
  • 6.5.1 Vertical GHX Modeling with Basic Load Input
  • 6.5.2 Vertical GHX Modeling with Hourly or Monthly Load Input
  • 6.6 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 7 Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers
  • 7.1 Overview
  • 7.1.1 Horizontal GHX Configurations
  • 7.2 Horizontal GHX Design Length Equation and Design Parameters
  • 7.2.1 Mathematical Contrasts Between Vertical and Horizontal GHXs
  • 7.2.2 The Horizontal GHX Design Length Equation
  • 7.2.3 The Seasonal Ground Temperature (Tg,winter and Tg,summer)
  • 7.2.4 Ground Thermal Properties
  • 7.2.5 The Ground Loads
  • 7.2.6 The Average GHX Fluid Temperature (Tf)
  • 7.2.7 The Trench Thermal Resistance (RT)
  • 7.2.8 The Ground Thermal Resistances
  • 7.3 Modeling Horizontal GHXs with Software Tools
  • 7.4 Simulation of Horizontal GHXs
  • 7.5 Earth Tubes
  • 7.5.1 Introduction
  • 7.5.2 Practical Considerations
  • 7.5.3 Mathematical Considerations
  • 7.5.4 Earth Tube Analysis with Software Tools
  • 7.6 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 8 Surface Water Heat Exchange Systems
  • 8.1 Overview
  • 8.2 Thermal Processes in Surface Water Bodies
  • 8.2.1 Governing Modes of Heat Transfer
  • 8.2.2 Seasonal Dynamics
  • 8.3 Open-Loop Systems
  • 8.4 Closed-Loop Systems
  • 8.4.1 Mathematical Models of Closed-Loop Heat Exchangers
  • 8.4.2 Modeling Closed-Loop Surface Water Heat Pump Systems with Software Tools
  • 8.5 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 9 Opportunistic Heat Sources and Sinks
  • 9.1 Overview
  • 9.2 Use of Existing Water Wells
  • 9.3 Heat Exchange With Building Foundations
  • 9.3.1 Shallow Foundations and Basements
  • 9.3.2 Deep Foundations
  • 9.4 Utilization of Infrastructure from Other Energy Sectors
  • 9.4.1 Underground Coal Fires
  • 9.4.2 Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells
  • 9.4.3 Water-Filled Abandoned Mines
  • 9.5 Cascaded Loads and Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
  • 9.6 Integrated Loads and Load Sharing with Heat Pumps
  • 9.6.1 Swimming Pool Heating
  • 9.6.2 Simultaneous Need for Hot and Chilled Liquids
  • 9.6.3 Sewer Heat Recovery
  • 9.6.4 District Energy Systems
  • 9.7 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 10 Piping and Pumping Systems
  • 10.1 Overview
  • 10.2 The Fluid Mechanics of Internal Flows
  • 10.2.1 The Fluid Power Equation
  • 10.2.2 Pressure and Head
  • 10.2.3 Dimensional Equations for Fluid Power
  • 10.2.4 Inlet-Outlet Pressure Changes
  • 10.2.5 Pressure Loss Due to Friction
  • 10.3 Pipe System Design
  • 10.3.1 Initial Selection of Pipe/Duct Diameter
  • 10.3.2 Parallel Flow Piping Arrangements
  • 10.4 Configuring a Closed-Loop Ground Heat Exchanger
  • 10.4.1 Laying Out the Pipe Network
  • 10.4.2 Pipe Materials and Joining Methods
  • 10.4.3 Manifolds in GHXs
  • 10.4.4 Air and Dirt Management
  • 10.5 Circulating Pumps
  • 10.5.1 Pump Curves
  • 10.5.2 System Curves
  • 10.5.3 Pump Motor Work
  • 10.5.4 Pump/Fan Affinity Laws
  • 10.5.5 Energy-Efficient Pumping
  • 10.6 Chapter Summary
  • Exercise Problems
  • Part 3 Geothermal Energy Conversion
  • Chapter 11 Heat Pumps and Heat Engines: A Thermodynamic Overview
  • 11.1 Overview
  • 11.2 Fundamental Theory of Operation of Heat Pumps and Heat Engines
  • 11.3 The Carnot Cycle
  • 11.4 Real-World Considerations: Entropy and Exergy
  • 11.5 Practical Heat Engine and Heat Pump Cycles
  • 11.5.1 Practical Heat Engine Cycles
  • 11.5.2 Practical Heat Pump Cycles
  • 11.6 The Working Fluids: Refrigerants
  • 11.7 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 12 Mechanical Vapor Compression Heat Pumps
  • 12.1 Overview
  • 12.2 The Ideal Vapor Compression Cycle
  • 12.3 The Non-Ideal Vapor Compression Cycle
  • 12.3.1 Principal Irreversibilities and Isentropic Efficiency
  • 12.3.2 Engineering Model of Geothermal Heat Pumps
  • 12.3.3 Graphical Representation on Pressure-Enthalpy (P-h) Diagrams
  • 12.3.4 Heat Exchanger Analysis
  • 12.4 General Source-Sink Configurations
  • 12.5 Mechanics of Operation
  • 12.5.1 The Compressor
  • 12.5.2 The Condenser
  • 12.5.3 The Expansion Valve
  • 12.5.4 The Evaporator
  • 12.5.5 Other Components
  • 12.5.6 Heat Pump Power Requirements
  • 12.5.7 Performance Modeling
  • 12.6 Transcritical Cycles
  • 12.7 Vapor Compression Heat Pump Performance Standards and Manufacturer´s Catalog Data
  • 12.7.1 International Standards
  • 12.7.2 Data from Manufacturer´s Catalogs
  • 12.8 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 13 Thermally Driven Heat Pumps
  • 13.1 Overview
  • 13.2 Cycle Basics
  • 13.3 Absorption Cycles
  • 13.3.1 Source-Sink Configurations and Refrigerant-Absorbent Pairs
  • 13.3.2 Mechanics of Operation
  • 13.3.3 Thermodynamic Considerations
  • 13.3.4 Heat Transfer Considerations
  • 13.3.5 Performance Modeling
  • 13.4 Adsorption Cycles
  • 13.5 Thermally Driven Heat Pump Performance Standards and Manufacturer´s Catalog Data
  • 13.6 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 14 Organic Rankine Cycle (Binary) Geothermal Power Plants
  • 14.1 Overview
  • 14.2 The Ideal Rankine Cycle
  • 14.3 The Non-Ideal Rankine Cycle
  • 14.3.1 Principal Irreversibilities and Isentropic Efficiency
  • 14.3.2 Engineering Model of ORC Geothermal Power Plants
  • 14.3.3 Graphical Representation on Pressure-Enthalpy (P-h) Diagrams
  • 14.3.4 Heat Exchanger Analysis
  • 14.3.5 Parasitic Loads
  • 14.4 Organic Rankine Cycle Performance Modeling
  • 14.5 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Part 4 Energy Distribution
  • Chapter 15 Inside the Building
  • 15.1 Overview
  • 15.2 Heat Pump Piping Configurations
  • 15.2.1 Single-Zone Systems
  • 15.2.2 Distributed Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
  • 15.2.3 Central Plant Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
  • 15.3 Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems
  • 15.4 Forced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems
  • 15.5 Ventilation Air and Heat Pumps
  • 15.5.1 Ventilation with Outdoor Air
  • 15.5.2 Outdoor Air and Single-Zone Geothermal Heat Pumps
  • 15.5.3 Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems
  • 15.6 Chapter Summary
  • Discussion Questions and Exercise Problems
  • Chapter 16 Energy Economics and Environmental Impact
  • 16.1 Overview
  • 16.2 Simple Payback Period and Rate of Return
  • 16.3 Time Value of Money
  • 16.3.1 Present Value of a Future Amount
  • 16.3.2 Present Value of a Series of Annuities
  • 16.3.3 Present Value of an Escalating Series of Annuities
  • 16.3.4 The Discount Rate and Inflation
  • 16.4 Cost Considerations for Geothermal Energy Systems
  • 16.4.1 Economic Indicators of Merit
  • 16.4.2 Costs of Geothermal Energy Systems
  • 16.5 Uncertainty in Economic Analyses
  • 16.6 Environmental Impact
  • 16.6.1 Fossil Fuel Combustion and CO2 Emissions
  • 16.6.2 Water Consumption
  • 16.7 Chapter Summary
  • Appendix A Software Used in this Book
  • A.1 The GHX Tool Box
  • A.2 Engineering Equation Solver (EES)
  • A.3 Installing and Using the Excel Solver for Optimization Problems
  • What is the Excel Solver?
  • Installing the Excel Solver
  • Using the Excel Solver
  • Appendix B Hydraulic and Thermal Property Data
  • Appendix C Solar Utilizability Method
  • Nomenclature
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA
Dewey Decimal Classfication (DDC)

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