Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles

 
 
Woodhead Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. August 2016
  • |
  • 362 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100678-8 (ISBN)
 

Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles provides systematic coverage of the fundamentals, properties, and current and emerging applications of carbon fiber textiles in a single volume, providing industry professionals and academics working in the field with a broader understanding of these materials. Part I discusses carbon fiber principles and production, including precursors and pyrolysis, carbon fiber spinning, and carbonization and activation. Part II provides more detailed analysis of the key properties of carbon fiber textiles, including their thermal, acoustic, electrical, adsorption, and mechanical behaviors. The final section covers applications of carbon fiber such as filtration, energy protection, and energy and gas storage.


  • Features input from an editor who is an expert in his field: Professor Jonathan Chen has a wealth of experience in the area of activated carbon fiber materials
  • Provides systematic and comprehensive coverage of the key aspects of activated carbon fiber textiles, from their principles, processing, and properties to their industrial applications
  • Offers up-to-date coverage of new technology for the fiber and textiles industries
  • Covers applications such as filtration, energy protection, and energy and gas storage
  • Englisch
  • Cambridge
Elsevier Science
  • 23,50 MB
978-0-08-100678-8 (9780081006788)
0081006780 (0081006780)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Activated Carbon Fiber and Textiles
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles
  • Section A: Fundamentals of Carbonized and Activated Carbon
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • 1.1. Brief history of activated carbon materials
  • 1.1.1. Activated carbon
  • 1.1.2. Activated carbon fiber
  • 1.2. Industrial and scientific matrix for ACF materials
  • 1.2.1. Textile processes
  • 1.2.2. Thermochemical processes
  • 1.2.3. ACF/CF structures and properties
  • 1.3. Production cost: ACF versus GAC
  • 1.4. Present market and future development
  • 1.4.1. Current market
  • 1.4.2. End-use applications
  • 1.4.3. Future trends
  • 1.5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Materials for activated carbon fiber synthesis
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Polymeric precursors
  • 2.2.1. Cellulose materials as precursor
  • 2.2.2. Phenolic resins (Kynol) as precursor
  • 2.2.3. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as precursor
  • 2.2.4. Lignin as precursor
  • 2.2.5. Polyethylene as precursor
  • 2.3. Polymer pyrolysis
  • 2.3.1. Oxidative stabilization
  • 2.3.2. Carbonization
  • 2.3.3. Graphitization
  • 2.3.4. Activation
  • 2.4. ACF structure
  • 2.5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Carbon fiber spinning
  • 3.1. Carbon fiber spinning
  • 3.1.1. PAN-based carbon fibers
  • 3.1.2. Pitch-based carbon fibers
  • 3.1.3. Phenolic-based carbon fibers
  • 3.1.4. Rayon-based carbon fibers
  • 3.1.5. Lignin-based carbon fibers
  • 3.2. Post-spinning modification
  • 3.2.1. Modification through coatings
  • 3.2.2. Catalytic modification
  • 3.2.3. Stretching with addition of plasticizer
  • 3.3. Pyrolysis process
  • 3.3.1. Oxidative stabilization
  • 3.3.2. Carbonization
  • 3.3.3. Graphitization/activation
  • 3.4. Activated carbon fibers prepared from biomass raw materials
  • 3.5. Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Carbonization and activation for production of activated carbon fibers
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. ACF industry
  • 4.3. Stabilization/pretreatment processes
  • 4.3.1. Thermooxidative stabilization of PAN fibers
  • 4.3.2. Infusibilization of pitch fibers
  • 4.3.3. Curing of As-spun phenolic fibers
  • 4.3.4. Pretreatments of cellulosic fibers
  • 4.3.5. Pretreatments of other fibers
  • 4.3.5.1. Lignin fibers
  • 4.3.5.2. Polyaramide (Kevlar and Nomex) fibers
  • 4.3.5.3. PVA fibers
  • 4.3.5.4. Poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) fibers
  • 4.3.5.5. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers
  • 4.3.5.6. Poly(vinylidene chloride) fibers
  • 4.3.5.7. Polymer-coated fiberglass
  • 4.4. Carbonization process
  • 4.4.1. Carbonization of PAN fibers
  • 4.4.2. Carbonization of pitch fibers
  • 4.4.3. Carbonization of phenolic fibers
  • 4.4.4. Carbonization of cellulosic fibers
  • 4.5. Activation process
  • 4.5.1. Physical activation
  • 4.5.1.1. Reactions with oxidizinggas
  • 4.5.1.2. Reactions with oxidizing gas in presence of catalysts
  • 4.5.1.3. Development of porosity
  • 4.5.2. Chemical activation
  • 4.5.2.1. Activation mechanism
  • 4.5.2.2. ACFs prepared with conventional methods
  • 4.5.2.3. ACFs prepared with fiber formation methods
  • 4.6. Modification process
  • 4.6.1. Modification of structures and surface functional groups
  • 4.6.1.1. Pore structure and surface chemistry
  • 4.6.1.2. Fiber morphology
  • 4.6.2. Modification with improved properties
  • 4.6.2.1. Fiber strength
  • 4.6.2.2. Additional functionality
  • 4.7. Major ACF products
  • 4.8. Future trends
  • 4.9. Conclusions
  • References
  • Section B: Properties of Activated Carbon Fibers
  • Chapter 5: Adsorption properties of activated carbon fibers
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. Principles of adsorption and desorption
  • 5.2.1. Basics and classifications
  • 5.2.2. Adsorptive forces
  • 5.2.3. Types of porosity
  • 5.2.4. Surface area, pore width, and pore volume
  • 5.2.5. Adsorption equilibrium, isotherm, and kinetics
  • 5.2.6. Enthalpy of adsorption
  • 5.3. Measurement methods in adsorption
  • 5.3.1. General principles of adsorption measurement
  • 5.3.2. Experimental techniques of measuring surface area and porosity
  • 5.3.3. Nonconventional measurements
  • 5.4. Surface properties of ACF
  • 5.4.1. Generalities
  • 5.4.2. Topographical description of surface
  • 5.4.3. Effects of the process of activation on the pore system
  • 5.5. Adsorption properties of ACFs
  • 5.6. Conclusions and future scope
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Mechanical properties of activated carbon fibers
  • 6.1. The common characteristics of ACF's mechanical behavior
  • 6.2. Influencing factors of ACF's mechanical properties
  • 6.2.1. The impact of microstructure on ACF's mechanical performance
  • 6.2.2. The impact of raw materials on ACF's mechanical properties
  • 6.2.3. Impact of pore diameter and structural defects on ACF's mechanical properties
  • 6.2.4. The relation between fiber diameter and ACF's mechanical properties
  • 6.3. The mechanical properties of ACF products
  • 6.3.1. The mechanical properties of ACF felt
  • 6.3.2. The mechanical properties of ACF cloth
  • 6.3.3. The mechanical properties of ACF paper
  • 6.4. Methods for improving the mechanical performance of ACF products
  • 6.4.1. Improving the mechanical properties of precursor fiber
  • 6.4.2. Improving the activation process
  • 6.4.3. Enhancing the performance of ACF products
  • 6.4.4. Preparing ACF composite materials
  • 6.5. Future trends in improvement of ACF mechanical properties
  • 6.6. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Electrical and thermal properties of activated carbon fibers
  • 7.1. Electrical and thermal properties of different activated carbon fiber types
  • 7.1.1. Electrical properties
  • 7.1.2. Thermal property
  • 7.2. Improving electrical and thermal properties
  • 7.3. Testing methods for electrical and thermal properties ofACF
  • 7.4. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Sound absorptive properties of activated carbon fibers
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.1.1. Introduction to sound absorption materials
  • 8.1.2. Introduction to activated carbon fiber
  • 8.2. The influence of technological conditions on properties of ACF
  • 8.3. Testing method for sound absorption of ACF
  • 8.4. Sound absorption properties of ACF
  • 8.4.1. Absorption properties related to different technological conditions of ACF
  • 8.4.1.1. Effect of carbonization temperature
  • 8.4.1.2. Effect of carbonization rate
  • 8.4.1.3. Effect of activated temperature
  • 8.4.1.4. Effect of activation time
  • 8.4.2. Improving absorption performance
  • 8.5. Future trends
  • 8.6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Section C: Applications of Activated Carbon Fiber Textiles
  • Chapter 9: Activated carbon filters for filtration-adsorption
  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. Gas filtration
  • 9.2.1. Design of filters
  • 9.2.2. Aerodynamics and pressure drops
  • 9.2.3. Elimination of volatile organic compounds
  • 9.2.3.1. Competitive adsorption
  • 9.2.3.2. Comparison with usual forms of activated carbon
  • 9.2.3.3. Modeling breakthrough curves
  • 9.2.3.4. Enhancing performance for VOC removal by physical and chemical modifications of the ACF
  • 9.2.4. Chemical recovery and reuse
  • 9.2.4.1. Temperature-swing adsorption
  • 9.2.4.2. Pressure-swing adsorption
  • 9.2.4.3. Electrical-swing adsorption
  • 9.2.4.4. Electromagnetic induction swing adsorption
  • 9.3. Liquid filtration
  • 9.3.1. Design of filters
  • 9.3.2. Hydrodynamics and pressure drops
  • 9.3.3. Organic micropollutant removal
  • 9.3.4. Inorganic micropollutant removal
  • 9.3.5. Coupling UF/ACFC
  • 9.4. Future trends
  • 9.5. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Activated carbon fiber for environmental protection
  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.1.1. Background of carbon materials
  • 10.1.2. Carbon fiber classification
  • 10.1.3. Activated carbon fibers
  • 10.1.4. Preparation of ACFs
  • 10.2. Environmental applications of ACF
  • 10.2.1. Removing hazardous contaminants from air
  • 10.2.2. Water and wastewater treatment
  • 10.3. Future trends
  • 10.4. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Activated carbon fiber for energy storage
  • 11.1. Energy storage devices
  • 11.2. Supercapacitors
  • 11.2.1. Historical background of supercapacitors
  • 11.2.2. Working principles of supercapacitors
  • 11.2.3. Types of supercapacitors
  • 11.2.4. ACF as electrodes in supercapacitors
  • 11.3. Fuel cells
  • 11.3.1. Working principle of fuel cells
  • 11.3.2. Types of fuel cells
  • 11.3.3. Application of ACFs in fuel cells
  • 11.4. Future trends
  • 11.5. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Activated carbon fibers for gas storage
  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Fiber performance: General observations on structure and texture factors that control fiber performance
  • 12.3. Modeling
  • 12.3.1. Hydrogen
  • 12.3.2. Methane
  • 12.4. Manufacture and properties of ACF-based monoliths for NG storage
  • 12.4.1. Monolith manufacture
  • 12.4.1.1. Raw materials
  • 12.4.1.2. Isotropic pitch-derived fibers
  • 12.4.1.3. Preform manufacturing process
  • 12.4.1.4. Hot pressing
  • 12.4.1.5. Activation
  • 12.4.2. Monolith structure, properties, and performance
  • 12.4.2.1. Structure
  • 12.4.2.2. Testing
  • 12.4.2.3. NG storage performance
  • 12.4.2.4. Thermal management
  • 12.4.3. Demonstration of methane storage vessel
  • 12.5. Conclusions
  • 12.6. Further work and future trends
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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