Natural Oral Care in Dental Therapy

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erscheint ca. am 27. Februar 2020
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  • 448 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-61893-5 (ISBN)
 
Because of increasing antibiotic resistance, stronger antibiotics are reserved for serious active infection, paving the way for a greater use of herbal antibiotics. This book helps dentists in implementing safe and effective natural medicine therapies to complement the current practice guidelines.
Oral diseases continue to be a major health problem world-wide. Oral health is integral to general well-being and relates to the quality-of-life that extends beyond the functions of the craniofacial complex. The standard Western medicine has had only limited success in the prevention of periodontal disease and in the treatment of a variety of oral diseases.
The dentist needs to be more informed regarding the use, safety and effectiveness of the various traditional medicines and over-the-counter products.
Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis and thereby improving immunity.
The 26 chapters in this unique book explore all the measures to utilize the natural oral care obtained from plants, animals and mineral drugs for dental care.

Durgesh Nandini Chauhan completed her M.Pharma in pharmaceutics from Uttar Pradesh at the Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow in 2006. She is currently working as Assistant Professor in Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. She has written more than 10 articles in national and international journals, 15 book chapters, and edited 4 books.

Prabhu Raj Singh obtained his Master of Dental Surgery in Prosthodontics from Sardar Patel Post Graduate Institute of Dental and Medical Science, Lucknow in 2017. He is working in Sinhgad Education Society as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Prosthodontics.

Kamal Shah has more than 14 years of research and teaching experience and currently is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, India. He has completed B.Pharma from Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) in 2003. He was gold medalist in B.Pharm., M.Pharm. from the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sagar University, Sagar, India and PhD from APJ Kalam University Lucknow, India. He has written more than 30 articles published in national and international journals and 6 book chapters.

Nagendra Singh Chauhan obtained his M.Pharm, Ph.D from the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar in 2006 and 2011. He is currently working as a Senior Scientific Officer Grade-II and Government Analyst at the Drugs Testing Laboratory Avam Anusandhan Kendra, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. He has professional expertise in natural product isolation and phytopharmacology. He has written more than 50 articles published in national and international journals, 22 book chapters and edited one book. He has citations of more than 1400 with h-index 21 and i10 index of 32 (Google scholar) and Scopus h-index 15; 669 citations.

  • Englisch
  • Newark
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John Wiley & Sons Inc
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978-1-119-61893-5 (9781119618935)
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Durgesh Nandini Chauhan completed her M.Pharma in pharmaceutics from Uttar Pradesh at the Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow in 2006. She is currently working as Assistant Professor in Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. She has written more than 10 articles in national and international journals, 15 book chapters, and edited 4 books.

Prabhu Raj Singh obtained his Master of Dental Surgery in Prosthodontics from Sardar Patel Post Graduate Institute of Dental and Medical Science, Lucknow in 2017. He is working in Sinhgad Education Society as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Prosthodontics.

Kamal Shah has more than 14 years of research and teaching experience and currently is an Associate Professor at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, India. He has completed B.Pharma from Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) in 2003. He was gold medalist in B.Pharm., M.Pharm. from the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sagar University, Sagar, India and PhD from APJ Kalam University Lucknow, India. He has written more than 30 articles published in national and international journals and 6 book chapters.

Nagendra Singh Chauhan obtained his M.Pharm, Ph.D from the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar in 2006 and 2011. He is currently working as a Senior Scientific Officer Grade-II and Government Analyst at the Drugs Testing Laboratory Avam Anusandhan Kendra, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India. He has professional expertise in natural product isolation and phytopharmacology. He has written more than 50 articles published in national and international journals, 22 book chapters and edited one book. He has citations of more than 1400 with h-index 21 and i10 index of 32 (Google scholar) and Scopus h-index 15; 669 citations.
  • `Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Foreword
  • Part I Natural Oral Care
  • Chapter 1 Natural Oral Care in Dental Therapy: Current and Future Prospects
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Safety of Natural Oral Care
  • 1.3 Advantage of Natural Oral Care
  • 1.4 Limitations of Natural Oral Care
  • 1.5 Future Prospects of Natural Oral Care
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Herbal Products for Oral Hygiene: An Overview of Their Biological Activities
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Oral Hygiene and Current Treatments
  • 2.3 Plants Traditionally Used in Oral Hygiene
  • 2.4 Clinically-Studied Plant Products for Oral Hygiene
  • 2.5 In Vitro-Studied Herbal Products for Oral Hygiene
  • 2.6 Discussion
  • 2.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Go Green-Periodontal Care in the Natural Way
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Plaque Control
  • 3.3 Dant Dhavani (Brushing)
  • 3.4 Jivha Lekhana (Tongue Scrapping)
  • 3.5 Gandusha (Gargling) or Oil Pulling
  • 3.6 Oxidative Stress in Periodontitis
  • 3.7 Green Tea
  • 3.7.1 Components
  • 3.7.2 Beneficial Effects of Various Tea Components
  • 3.7.2.1 Antioxidative Effect
  • 3.7.3 Role in Managing Periodontitis
  • 3.8 Turmeric (Curcumin longa, Haldi)
  • 3.8.1 Applications of Turmeric in Dentistry
  • 3.9 Amala (Emblica officinalis, Amalaki, Phyllanthus emblica, Indian Gooseberry, Dhatriphala)
  • 3.10 Anar/Dalima (Punica granatum)
  • 3.11 Launga/Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • 3.12 Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica)
  • 3.13 Amra/Mango (Magnifera indica)
  • 3.14 Neem (Azadirachta indica)
  • 3.15 Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum)
  • 3.16 Nilgiri (Eucalyptus globulus)
  • 3.17 Tila/Sesame (Sesamum indicum)
  • 3.18 Triphala
  • 3.19 Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil)
  • 3.20 Rumi Mastagi/Mastic Gum (Pistacia lentiscus)
  • 3.21 Wheat Grass
  • 3.22 Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)
  • 3.23 Licorice Root
  • 3.24 Myrrh (Commiphora glileadenis)
  • 3.25 Psidium guajava
  • 3.26 Ginkbo Biloba
  • 3.27 Honey
  • 3.28 Other Herbs Which Can Be Potentially Used for Treating Periodontitis
  • 3.29 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Role of Herbal and Natural Products in the Management of Potentially Malignant Oral Disorders
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF)
  • 4.2.1 Background
  • 4.2.2 Beta-Carotene
  • 4.2.3 Lycopene
  • 4.2.4 Aloe Vera
  • 4.2.5 Colchicine
  • 4.2.6 Tea Pigments
  • 4.2.7 Spirulina
  • 4.2.8 Chinese Herbal Medicines
  • 4.2.9 Turmeric and Derivatives, Nigella sativa, Ocimum
  • 4.2.10 Polyherbal Formulations
  • 4.2.11 Ayurvedic Formulations
  • 4.2.12 Conclusion
  • 4.3 Oral Leukoplakia (OL)
  • 4.3.1 Background
  • 4.3.2 Green Tea and Extracts
  • 4.3.3 Beta-Carotene (ßC)
  • 4.3.4 Lycopene
  • 4.3.5 Curcumin
  • 4.3.6 Miscellaneous
  • 4.3.6.1 Alpha-Tocopherol
  • 4.3.6.2 Chinese Herbs
  • 4.3.6.3 Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC)
  • 4.3.7 Conclusion
  • 4.4 Oral Lichen Planus (OLP)
  • 4.4.1 Conclusion
  • References
  • Part II Studies of Plants Used in Dental Disease
  • Chapter 5 Studies on the Anticariogenic Potential of Medicinal Plant Seed and Fruit Extracts
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Materials and Methods
  • 5.2.1 Plant Materials
  • 5.2.2 Preparation of Plant Seed and Fruit Extracts
  • 5.2.3 Cariogenic Bacterial Strains
  • 5.2.4 Preparation of Inoculums
  • 5.2.5 Anticariogenic Activity Screening of Plant Extracts
  • 5.2.5.1 Agar Well Diffusion Assay
  • 5.2.5.2 Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
  • 5.2.6 Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis
  • 5.2.7 Analytical Thin Layer Chromatography
  • 5.2.8 TLC-Bioautography
  • 5.3 Result and Discussion
  • 5.3.1 MIC Value of Effective Plant Extracts
  • 5.3.2 Phytochemical Screening and Bioautography
  • 5.4 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Turmeric and Aloe Vera in a Gingivitis Model
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Gingivitis and Periodontitis
  • 6.3 Aloe Vera
  • 6.3.1 Aloe Vera for Gingivitis and Periodontitis
  • 6.3.2 Aloe Vera: Other Oral Applications
  • 6.4 Turmeric
  • 6.4.1 Turmeric for Gingivitis and Periodontitis
  • 6.4.2 Turmeric: Other Oral Applications
  • 6.5 Methodology
  • 6.5.1 Materials and Methods
  • 6.5.1.1 Authorization
  • 6.5.1.2 Cell Culture
  • 6.5.1.3 Cell Subculture
  • 6.5.1.4 Cytotoxicity Test
  • 6.5.1.5 Anti-Inflammatory Activity in a Gingivitis Model
  • 6.5.1.6 Statistical Analysis
  • 6.5.2 Results
  • 6.5.2.1 Cytotoxicity
  • 6.5.2.2 Anti-Inflammatory Activity in a Gingivitis Model
  • 6.5.3 Discussion
  • 6.5.3.1 Cytotoxicity
  • 6.5.3.2 Anti-Inflammatory Activity
  • 6.6 Perspectives for the Future
  • 6.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Effects of Bauhinia forficata Link in Reducing Streptococcus mutans Biofilm on Teeth
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Materials and Methods
  • 7.2.1 Recognition, Production, and Chemical Characterization of Ethanolic Tincture From B. forficata L. Leaves
  • 7.2.2 Microbial Strains and Preparation of Inoculum
  • 7.2.3 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC)
  • 7.2.4 Kill-Kinetic Assay
  • 7.2.5 Cytotoxic Potential
  • 7.2.6 Tooth Selection and Preparation for Microbiologic Assay Using an S. mutans Biofilm
  • 7.2.7 Statistical Analysis
  • 7.3 Results and Discussion
  • 7.4 Final Considerations
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Antimicrobial Effect of a Cardamom Ethanolic Extract on Oral Biofilm: An Ex Vivo Study
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Materials and Methods
  • 8.2.1 Cardamom Extract Production
  • 8.2.2 Physical Analyses
  • 8.2.3 Bacterial Strains and Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration
  • 8.2.4 Salivary Collection for Biofilm Formation (Ex Vivo Experiment)
  • 8.2.5 Biofilm Formation and Treatment
  • 8.2.6 Statistical Analyses
  • 8.3 Results and Discussion
  • 8.4 Final Considerations
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Effect of Punica granatum Peel Extract on Growth of Candida albicans in Oral Mucosa of Diabetic Male Rats
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Materials and Methods
  • 9.2.1 Hydro-Methanolic Extract
  • 9.2.2 Candida albicans Inoculation
  • 9.2.3 Animal
  • 9.2.4 Statistical Analysis
  • 9.3 Results and Discussion
  • 9.4 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Part III: Applications of Natural Products in Oral Care
  • Chapter 10 Effect of Oil Pulling on Oral Health
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 What is Oil Pulling (Snaihik Gandoosh)?
  • 10.3 How Does Oil Pulling Work?
  • 10.4 Composition and Various Activities of Most Commonly Used Oils for Oil Pulling
  • 10.4.1 Sesame Oil
  • 10.4.1.1 Antioxidant Activity
  • 10.4.1.2 Antimicrobial Activity
  • 10.4.2 Coconut Oil
  • 10.4.2.1 Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Antiviral Activity
  • 10.4.2.2 Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Anti-Ulcer Activity
  • 10.5 Procedure of Oil Pulling
  • 10.6 Effects of Oil Pulling on Oral Health
  • 10.6.1 Dental Caries
  • 10.6.2 Plaque-Induced Gingivitis
  • 10.6.3 Halitosis
  • 10.6.4 Oral Thrush
  • 10.6.5 Xerostomia and Burning Mouth Syndrome
  • 10.7 Drawbacks of Oil Pulling
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Role of Proteolytic Enzymes in Dental Care
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Role of Proteolytic Enzymes in Oral Surgery
  • 11.2.1 Post-Extraction Management
  • 11.2.2 Post-Surgical Facial Ecchymosis and/or Edema
  • 11.2.3 Enhanced Action of Antibiotics
  • 11.2.4 Effect of Bromelain on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis
  • 11.3 Role of Proteolytic Enzymes in Cancer and Oral Mucositis
  • 11.3.1 Cancer
  • 11.3.2 Management in Oral Mucositis
  • 11.4 Osteoarthritis
  • 11.5 Anti-Microbial Action
  • 11.6 Treatment of Dental Carious Lesions
  • 11.6.1 Laboratory Studies
  • 11.6.2 Clinical Studies
  • 11.7 Improvement in Bonding of Orthodontics Brackets
  • 11.8 Role on Biofilm Control (Plaque, Gingivitis, and Oral Malodor)
  • 11.9 Extrinsic Stain Removal on the Teeth
  • 11.10 Role in Replantation of the Avulsed Tooth
  • 11.11 Effect of Bromelain on Immunogenicity
  • 11.12 Other Possible Applications and Scope for Future Research
  • References
  • Chapter 12 The Effect of Probiotics on Oral Health
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Overview of Oral Communities and Probiotic-Based Therapy to Oral Dysbiosis
  • 12.3 Probiotics Mechanisms of Action
  • 12.4 Dental Caries
  • 12.4.1 Definition and Etiopathology
  • 12.4.2 Probiotics and Dental Caries
  • 12.4.3 Probiotic-Contained Dairy Products and Dental Caries
  • 12.4.4 Probiotic Powder and Dental Caries
  • 12.4.5 Probiotic Tablets and Lozenges and Dental Caries
  • 12.4.6 Probiotic Mouthwashes and Dental Caries
  • 12.5 Periodontal Disease
  • 12.5.1 Definition and Etiopathology
  • 12.5.2 Probiotics and Periodontal Diseases
  • 12.6 Oral Candidiasis
  • 12.6.1 Definition and Etiopathology
  • 12.6.2 Probiotics and Oral Candidiasis
  • 12.7 Halitosis
  • 12.7.1 Definition and Etiopathology
  • 12.7.2 Probiotics and Halitosis
  • 12.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Charcoal in Dentistry
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Charcoal Production Methods
  • 13.2.1 The Traditional Method
  • 13.2.2 The Modern Methods
  • 13.3 Uses of Charcoal
  • 13.3.1 Medicinal Uses
  • 13.3.2 Non-Medicinal Uses
  • 13.4 Charcoal Containing Oral and Dental Care Products
  • 13.5 Benefits of Using Charcoal Containing Oral and Dental Care Products
  • 13.5.1 Removes Stains and Whitens Teeth
  • 13.5.2 Removes Acidic Plaque
  • 13.5.3 Gives Fresh Breath and Improves Halitosis
  • 13.5.4 Remineralize Teeth
  • 13.5.5 Helps Overall Dental Health
  • 13.5.6 Protects From Infection
  • 13.5.7 Cost Effective for Regular Basis Use
  • 13.6 Precautions to be Taken While Using Charcoal Containing Oral and Dental Care Products
  • 13.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Propolis Benefits in Oral Health
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Types of Propolis
  • 14.2.1 Brown Propolis
  • 14.2.2 Green Propolis
  • 14.2.3 Red Propolis
  • 14.3 Biological Properties of Propolis
  • 14.3.1 Oral Antibacterial Activity
  • 14.3.2 Oral Antifungal Activity
  • 14.4 Other Biological Properties of Propolis
  • 14.4.1 Anti-Inflammatory Activity
  • 14.4.2 Antioxidant Activity
  • 14.4.3 Anticancer Activity
  • 14.5 Benefits for Oral Health and Applications in Dentistry
  • 14.6 Final Considerations
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Grape Seed Extracts in Dental Therapy
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Part I: Basics About Grape Seed Extracts
  • 15.2.1 Components of Grape Seed Extracts
  • 15.2.2 Chemical Structure
  • 15.2.3 Types of GSEs
  • 15.2.4 Methods of Separation
  • 15.2.5 Factors Influencing the Quality and Quantity of Polyphenols in the GSEs
  • 15.2.6 Physical Properties of Polyphenols
  • 15.2.7 Biochemical Properties (Biological and Pharmacological) of polyphenols
  • 15.3 Part II: Biological Applications in Dentistry
  • 15.3.1 GSEs in Dental Caries
  • 15.3.2 Anti-Erosive Agent (Prevention of Enamel Erosion)
  • 15.3.3 Antiplaque Effect
  • 15.3.4 Antibacterial Agent
  • 15.3.5 Biomodifier
  • 15.3.6 GSEs as a Remineralizing Agent-Existing Dilemma
  • 15.4 GSEs in Restorative Dentistry
  • 15.4.1 GSEs as a Cross-Linking Agent
  • 15.4.2 GSE in Bonding
  • 15.5 GSEs in Endodontic Treatment
  • 15.5.1 Endodontic Irrigants
  • 15.5.2 Post Endodontic Restorations
  • 15.6 GSEs in Periodontics
  • 15.6.1 Anti-Inflammatory Action in Periodontitis
  • 15.6.2 Anti-Oxidative Action in Periodontitis
  • 15.6.3 Antibacterial Action Against Periodontal Pathogens
  • 15.6.4 Antimicrobial Activity in Peri-Implantitis
  • 15.7 GSEs in Oral Cancer
  • 15.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Ocimum Sanctum L: Promising Agent for Oral Health Care Management
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 History of Ocimum sanctum
  • 16.3 Chemical Constituents of Ocimum sanctum
  • 16.4 Therapeutic Significance of Ocimum in Dental Health and Preventive Care Management
  • 16.5 Novel Drug Delivery Formulations and Its Application in Dentistry
  • 16.5.1 Nanofibers
  • 16.5.2 ß-Cyclodextrin Complexes
  • 16.5.3 Biocompatible Ocimum sanctum-Coated Silver Nanoparticles
  • 16.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.): A Natural Gift to Humans for Dental Ministration
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Traditional Usage and Ethnopharmacological Relevance
  • 17.3 Pharmacological Properties of Coconut
  • 17.4 Role of a Coconut Tree in Dental Ministrations
  • 17.5 Exemplary Potential of Coconut Water in Dentistry
  • 17.6 Other Significance of Coconut
  • 17.6.1 Economic Value of Coconut Leaves
  • 17.6.2 Use of Coconut Heart
  • 17.6.3 Significance of Spathe and Inflorescence
  • 17.6.4 Potential of Coconut Fruits
  • 17.6.5 Usage of Coconut Milk
  • 17.6.6 Importance of Coconut Shell
  • 17.6.7 Commercial Usage of Husk Fibers
  • 17.6.8 Economic Importance of Coconut Stems
  • 17.6.9 Convention of Coconut Roots
  • 17.7 Active Constituent Identified from Coconut
  • 17.8 Future Prospective
  • 17.9 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Salvadora persica L. (Miswak): An Effective Folklore Toothbrush
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 History
  • 18.3 Chemical Constituents
  • 18.4 Extraction, Isolation, Identification of Chemical Constituents
  • 18.5 Pharmacology-Therapeutic Activity of Salvadora persica L.
  • 18.5.1 Theories for Miswak Activities
  • 18.5.2 Antibacterial and Antifungal
  • 18.5.3 Anti-Viral Effect
  • 18.5.4 Anti-Cariogenic Effect
  • 18.5.5 Antiplaque Effect
  • 18.5.6 Antiperiodontitis Effect
  • 18.5.7 Whitening Effect
  • 18.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Triphala and Oral Health
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Taxonomical Classification
  • 19.3 Chief Phytoconstituents
  • 19.4 Role of Triphala in Dentistry (Table 19.1)
  • 19.4.1 Anti-Caries Activity
  • 19.4.2 Triphala as a Root Canal Irrigant
  • 19.4.3 Anti-Microbial and Anti-Oxidant Effect of Triphala
  • 19.4.4 Role of Triphala in Periodontal Diseases
  • 19.4.5 Triphala as a Mouth Rinse
  • 19.4.6 Anti-Candida Activity of Triphala
  • 19.4.7 Anti-Collagenase Activity of Triphala
  • 19.5 Pharmacological Activities of Triphala and Future Research
  • 19.5.1 Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Triphala
  • 19.5.2 Wound Healing Properties
  • 19.5.3 Antibacterial Activity of Triphala
  • 19.5.4 Anti-Diabetic Effect
  • 19.5.5 Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Effect
  • 19.5.6 Immunomodulatory Effect
  • 19.6 Public Health Importance
  • 19.7 Formulation Using Triphala
  • 19.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Azadirachta indica (Neem): An Ancient Indian Boon to the Contemporary World of Dentistry
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Vital Bioactive Compounds of Neem
  • 20.2.1 Nimbidin
  • 20.2.2 Azadirachtin
  • 20.2.3 Nimbolide
  • 20.2.4 Gedunin
  • 20.2.5 Mahmoodin
  • 20.2.6 Tannins
  • 20.2.7 Diterpenoids
  • 20.3 How to Distinguish Azadirachta Indica (Neem) from its Common Adulterant Melia Azedarach
  • 20.4 Therapeutic Applications of Neem
  • 20.4.1 Neem as an Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic Agent
  • 20.4.2 Antioxidant Activity
  • 20.4.3 Anticancerous Activity
  • 20.4.4 Antimicrobial Activity
  • 20.4.4.1 Antibacterial Activity
  • 20.4.4.2 Antiviral Activity
  • 20.4.4.3 Antifungal Activity
  • 20.4.4.4 Antimalarial Activity
  • 20.4.5 Wound Healing Effect
  • 20.5 Applications of Neem in Dentistry
  • 20.5.1 Neem in Treatment of Periodontal Diseases
  • 20.5.2 Role of Neem in Endodontics
  • 20.5.3 Potent Role of Neem in Preventive Dentistry
  • 20.5.3.1 Application in Dental Erosion Therapy
  • 20.5.3.2 Anti-Microbial Activity
  • 20.5.3.3 Anticaries Activity of Neem
  • 20.5.3.4 Anti-Candidiasis Property
  • 20.5.3.5 Anti-Cancer Property
  • 20.6 Literature Supporting the Use of Neem in Dentistry
  • 20.7 Toxicity and Safety
  • 20.8 Contamination and Adulteration
  • 20.9 Drug Interactions
  • 20.10 Neem's Prospects in Dentistry
  • 20.11 Action Points and Recommendations for Health Care Professionals
  • 20.12 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Ginger in Oral Care
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Description
  • 21.3 Macroscopic Characteristics
  • 21.4 Pharmacognostic Standards
  • 21.5 Nutrient Composition
  • 21.6 Pharmacological and Medicinal Effects
  • 21.6.1 Oral Analgesic Effect
  • 21.6.2 Antimicrobial Effect
  • 21.6.3 Anti-Carries Activity
  • 21.6.4 Anti-Decay Effect
  • 21.6.5 Healing Effect in Root Canal Therapy
  • 21.6.6 Anti-Xerostomia Effect
  • 21.6.7 Anti-Pyorrhea Effect
  • 21.6.8 Anti-Thrush
  • 21.6.9 Anti-Herpes Effect
  • 21.6.10 Tooth Polishing
  • 21.6.11 Mouth Deodorizing Effect
  • 21.6.12 Anticancer Effect
  • 21.6.13 Protection Against Aphthous Stomatitis
  • 21.6.14 Effect on Dentin Hardness
  • 21.7 Pharmacokinetics
  • 21.8 Toxicological Studies
  • 21.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Effectiveness of Allium sativum on Bacterial Oral Infection
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.1.1 History and Origin of Garlic
  • 22.1.2 Medicinal Values of Garlic
  • 22.2 Types of Allium sativum
  • 22.2.1 Allium sativum Ophisocorodon/Hard-Necked Garlic
  • 22.2.2 Allium sativum Sativum/Soft-Necked Garlic
  • 22.3 Chemical Constituents
  • 22.3.1 Allicin
  • 22.3.2 Ajoenes
  • 22.3.3 Alliin
  • 22.4 Dental Infections and Epidemiology
  • 22.5 Dental Infection and Antibiotic Resistance
  • 22.6 The Antibacterial Application of Garlic in Dentistry
  • 22.6.1 The Use of Garlic to Treat Oral Infections
  • 22.6.1.1 Periodontitis
  • 22.6.1.2 Pediatric Endodontitis
  • 22.6.1.3 Dental Caries
  • 22.6.1.4 Denture Stomatitis
  • 22.6.1.5 Protection Against Fibrosis
  • 22.6.1.6 Garlic Chewing Gum
  • 22.6.1.7 Garlic Used as a Breath-Freshening Agent
  • 22.7 Additional Use of Garlic in Dentistry-Oral Cancer
  • 22.7.1 High Blood Pressure
  • 22.7.2 Skin Disorders
  • 22.7.3 Anti-Allergic
  • 22.7.4 Anti-Obesity
  • 22.8 Garlic Mechanism of Action
  • 22.9 Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Part IV Ethnobotany and Ethanopharmacology
  • Chapter 23 Curative Plants Worn in the Healing of Mouth Evils
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Materials and Methods
  • 23.3 Results and Discussion
  • 23.4 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Ethnopharmacological Applications of Chewing Sticks on Oral Health Care
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.1.1 Background
  • 24.1.2 Historical Perspectives
  • 24.1.3 Sources and Types of Chewing Sticks
  • 24.2 Applications of Chewing Sticks in Oral Health Care
  • 24.2.1 Chewing Sticks for Oral Hygiene
  • 24.2.2 Ethnopharmacological Applications of Chewing Sticks in Oral Health
  • 24.2.2.1 Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)
  • 24.2.2.2 Periodontal Disease
  • 24.2.2.3 Oral Candidiasis
  • 24.2.2.4 Oral Ulcers and Halitosis
  • 24.2.2.5 Other Oral Conditions
  • 24.3 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology for Dental Diseases in Indochina
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology in Indochina
  • 25.3 Locally Available Naturally Derived Dental Products in Indochina
  • 25.4 Ethnopharmacology for Dental Diseases in Indochina
  • 25.5 Ethnomedicine for Dental Diseases in Indochina
  • 25.6 Future Trend of Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology for Dental Diseases in Indochina
  • 25.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 26 Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in Anti-Halitosis
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Materials and Methods
  • 26.3 Results and Discussion
  • 26.4 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

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