Urban Pollution

Science and Management
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 9. Oktober 2018
  • |
  • 464 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-26046-2 (ISBN)
 
Multidisciplinary treatment of the urgent issues surrounding urban pollution worldwide Written by some of the top experts on the subject in the world, this book presents the diverse, complex and current themes of the urban pollution debate across the built environment, urban development and management continuum. It uniquely combines the science of urban pollution with associated policy that seeks to control it, and includes a comprehensive collection of international case studies showing the status of the problem worldwide. Urban Pollution: Science and Management is a multifaceted collection of chapters that address the contemporary concomitant issues of increasing urban living and associated issues with contamination by offering solutions specifically for the built environment. It covers: the impacts of urban pollution; historical urban pollution; evolution of air quality policy and management in urban areas; ground gases in urban environments; bioaccessibility of trace elements in urban environments; urban wastewater collection, treatment, and disposal; living green roofs; light pollution; river ecology; greywater recycling and reuse; containment of pollution from urban waste disposal sites; bioremediation in urban pollution mitigation; air quality monitoring; urban pollution in China and India; urban planning in sub-Saharan Africa and more. * Deals with both the science and the relevant policy and management issues * Examines the main sources of urban pollution * Covers both first-world and developing world urban pollution issues * Integrates the latest scientific research with practical case studies * Deals with both legacy and emerging pollutants and their effects The integration of physical and environmental sciences, combined with social, economic and political sciences and the use of case studies makes Urban Pollution: Science and Management an incredibly useful resource for policy experts, scientists, engineers and those interested in the subject.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
SUSANNE M. CHARLESWORTH is a Professor of Urban Physical Geography in the Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience at Coventry University, United Kingdom.

COLIN A. BOOTH is Associate Head of Research and Scholarship for the School of Architecture and the Built Environment at the University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Chapter 1 Insights and Issues into the Impacts of Urban Pollution
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Examples of Urban Pollution
  • 1.2.1 Air Pollution in London, United Kingdom
  • 1.2.2 Air Pollution in Bhopal, India
  • 1.2.3 Water Pollution in London, United Kingdom
  • 1.2.4 Water Pollution in Minamata, Japan
  • 1.2.5 Soil Pollution in Missouri, United States
  • 1.3 Structure of This Book
  • 1.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Historical Urban Pollution
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Historical Pollution Monitoring using Environmental Archives
  • 2.3 Ancient Air Pollution
  • 2.4 Industrial Revolution
  • 2.4.1 Case Study: Chemicals in Merseyside, NW England
  • 2.5 Twentieth-Century Urban Pollution
  • 2.5.1 Coal Consumption and the Rise of Urban Smog
  • 2.5.2 Case Study: London Smog 1952
  • 2.5.3 Post-1950 Urban Pollution - A Complex Signal
  • 2.6 Industrial Emissions
  • 2.6.1 Metals
  • 2.6.2 Persistent Organic Pollutants
  • 2.7 Transport
  • 2.7.1 Road Transport
  • 2.7.2 Air Transport
  • 2.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Evolution of Air Quality Policy and Management in Urban Areas
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Sources of Urban Air Pollution
  • 3.3 Health Implications of Urban Air Pollution
  • 3.4 Historical Context of Air Quality Policy and Management
  • 3.4.1 Towards Modern Air Quality Management in Europe
  • 3.4.2 Towards Modern Air Quality Management in the United Kingdom
  • 3.5 Future Urban Challenges
  • 3.5.1 Current Vehicle Emission Factors
  • 3.5.2 Vehicle Fleet Dynamics
  • 3.5.3 Human Behaviour
  • 3.5.4 Environmental Justice
  • 3.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4 UK and EU Water Policy as an Instrument of Urban Pollution
  • Acronyms used in This Chapter
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Determining Water Quality
  • 4.3 UK Water Policy
  • 4.3.1 The EU Water Framework Directive
  • 4.3.2 Drinking Water Standards
  • 4.3.3 Regulations to Protect Groundwater
  • 4.3.4 Road Run-Off and the Development of Run-Off Specific Thresholds
  • 4.3.5 Heavily Modified Waterbodies and Artificial Waterbodies
  • 4.4 Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS)
  • 4.4.1 Run-Off Destination
  • 4.4.1.1 Discharge into the Ground
  • 4.4.1.2 Discharge to a Surface Waterbody
  • 4.4.1.3 Discharge to a Surface Water Sewer or Local Highway Drain
  • 4.4.1.4 Discharge to a Combined Sewer
  • 4.4.1.5 Effective Treatment
  • 4.4.1.6 Infiltration into the Ground
  • 4.4.1.7 Surface Waterbody
  • 4.4.2 Rainwater Harvesting
  • 4.5 European Policy
  • 4.5.1 The Water Framework Directive
  • 4.5.2 Drinking Water
  • 4.5.3 Groundwater
  • 4.5.4 Treatment of Urban Wastewater
  • 4.6 The Future
  • 4.6.1 Water Quality and Climate Change
  • 4.6.2 Potential Impacts of Brexit: Britain's Exit from the European Union
  • 4.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Soil Quality and Policy
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Soil Pollutants and Their Sources
  • 5.3 Consequences of Urban Soil Pollution
  • 5.3.1 Heavy Metals
  • 5.3.1.1 Sources
  • 5.3.1.2 Characterisation
  • 5.3.1.3 Health Risks
  • 5.3.2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • 5.3.2.1 Health Risks
  • 5.3.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)
  • 5.3.3.1 Health Risk
  • 5.3.4 Dioxins
  • 5.3.4.1 Health Risks
  • 5.3.5 Platinum Group Elements
  • 5.3.6 Rare Earth Elements
  • 5.3.7 Particulate Matter
  • 5.4 Soils Legislation
  • 5.4.1 The European Strategy for Soil Protection
  • 5.4.2 EU Legislation Related to Soil Contamination
  • 5.4.3 UK Soils Legislation
  • 5.4.3.1 Current UK Soils Legislatio
  • 5.4.3.2 Planning Policy
  • 5.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Ground Gases in Urban Environments - Sources and Solutions
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.1 Landfill Gas
  • 6.1.2 Mine Workings
  • 6.1.3 Minor Sources of Ground Gas
  • 6.2 The Biochemistry of Ground Gas Production
  • 6.2.1 Landfill Gas
  • 6.2.2 Natural Materials Producing Ground Gas
  • 6.2.3 Radon
  • 6.3 Ground Gas Monitoring and Risk Assessment
  • 6.3.1 Desk Top Study
  • 6.3.2 Intrusive Investigation
  • 6.3.2.1 Monitoring Gas in Wells
  • 6.3.2.2 Monitoring Instruments
  • 6.3.3 Risk Assessment Process
  • 6.3.4 Methane and Carbon Dioxide
  • 6.3.4.1 Low-Rise Housing with Ventilated Underfloor Void (Min 150 mm)
  • 6.3.4.2 All Other Developments
  • 6.5 Other Approaches
  • 6.6 Passive Barriers and Subfloor Ventilation
  • 6.6.1 The Effect of Development on Ground Gases
  • 6.6.2 Primary Receptor Protection - Ventilation Layer
  • 6.6.3 Secondary Protection - Low-Permeability Membranes
  • 6.7 Practical Examples of Gas Protection Details
  • 6.7.1 Quality Assurance, Verification, and Integrity Testing
  • 6.8 Pathway Interception Systems for Receptor Protection and Control of Historic Sources
  • 6.9 Examples of Other Techniques and Solutions: Biodegradation of Gaseous Pollutants
  • 6.10 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Insights and Issues of Trace Elements Found in Street and Road Dusts
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Sources of Street and Road Dusts
  • 7.2.1 Characteristics of Atmospheric Diffuse Sources
  • 7.2.2 Point Sources of Particulates and Pollutants to Street and Road Dust
  • 7.2.2.1 Sources Associated with Traffic
  • 7.2.2.2 Domestic Heating, Coal, and Oil Combustion
  • 7.2.2.3 Resuspension of Soil and Street Dust Particles
  • 7.2.2.4 Other Urban Sources
  • 7.3 House Dust
  • 7.4 Urban Soil
  • 7.5 Urban Geochemical Cycles
  • 7.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Bioaccessibility of Trace Elements in Urban Environments
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Analytical Protocols
  • 8.3 Bioaccessibility and Urban Environments
  • 8.3.1 Bioaccessibility in Urban Soil
  • 8.3.2 Lung Bioaccessibility
  • 8.4 Bioaccessibility and Human Health Risk Assessment
  • 8.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 9 The Necessity for Urban Wastewater Collection, Treatment, and Disposal
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Wastewater Collection in Developed Countries
  • 9.3 Wastewater Treatment and Disposal in Developed Countries
  • 9.4 Sludge Treatment and Disposal in Developed Countries
  • 9.5 WASH in Developing Countries
  • 9.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Living Green Roofs
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Increasing Urbanisation: Urban Growth
  • 10.3 Increasing Urbanisation: Soil, Water, and Air Pollution
  • 10.3.1 Soil Pollution
  • 10.3.2 Water Pollution
  • 10.3.3 Air Pollution
  • 10.4 Urban Heat Islands and Human Health
  • 10.5 Green Roof Options
  • 10.6 Case Study: University of Technology, Sydney, Food-Producing Roof and Urban Pollution
  • 10.7 Conclusions and Next Steps
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Light Pollution
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Environmental and Health Effects of Light Pollution
  • 11.3 How to Reduce Light Pollution
  • 11.4 The example of the Italian Regional Laws
  • 11.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12 The Role of Forensic Science in the Investigation and Control of Urban Pollution
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Types of Urban Pollutants
  • 12.3 Stages in the Forensic Investigation of Urban Pollution
  • 12.4 Methods Used to Identify Sources of Pollutants
  • 12.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 13 River Ecology and Urban Pollution
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 History of River Ecology Monitoring
  • 13.2.1 Macroinvertebrates
  • 13.2.2 Macrophytes
  • 13.2.3 Diatoms
  • 13.2.4 Fish
  • 13.3 Success Stories
  • 13.3.1 Case Study: Love Your Rivers Telford
  • 13.3.2 River Wandle, South West London
  • 13.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Urban Meadows on Brownfield Land
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Creating Flower-Rich Meadows
  • 14.3 Brownfield Soils for Meadow Creation
  • 14.4 Management of Created Meadows
  • 14.5 Opportunities for Urban Meadow Creation
  • 14.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Urban Pollution and Ecosystem Services
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Ecosystem Services (ES), the Ecosystem Approach, and Ecosystem Service Valuation
  • 15.3 Urban Impacts on ES
  • 15.4 ES and Urban Pollution in the UK Legislative Context
  • 15.5 Enhancing Urban ES to Mitigate Urban Pollution
  • 15.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Greywater Recycling and Reuse
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 The Ubiquitous Nature of Pollutants in Wastewater from Baths, Showers, and Handbasins
  • 16.3 The Quality of Untreated Greywater and Its Water Resource Value
  • 16.4 Greywater Terminologies Used in this Chapter
  • 16.5 Pollutants in Untreated Greywater
  • 16.6 Standardising Greywater Treatment Systems: Removing and Minimising Pollutant Concentrations
  • 16.7 Managing the Environmental Characteristics, Applications, and Urban Uses of Treated Greywater
  • 16.8 University of Reading's 2016 Experimental Irrigation of Sedum using Treated Greywater
  • 16.9 Soil Results Evaluated during Irrigation using Greywater Constituents
  • 16.10 Applying the Principles of Controlled Waters to Greywater Discharges for Sustaining Green Infrastructure
  • 16.11 Concluding Comments and Review
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Containment of Pollution from Urban Waste Disposal Sites
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Generation of Waste Worldwide
  • 17.3 Waste Management Issues
  • 17.3.1 Sorting, Collection, Reuse, and Recycling
  • 17.3.2 Disposal
  • 17.4 Landfill Liners
  • 17.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Mitigating Urban Pollution through Innovative Use of Construction Materials
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Recycled Materials
  • 18.3 Cement Replacement and Geopolymer-Based Materials
  • 18.4 Innovative Ways of Using Waste Clay
  • 18.5 Treatment and Stabilisation of Contaminated Sites
  • 18.6 Incineration of Municipal Solid Waste
  • 18.7 Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) Wastes
  • 18.8 Paper Industry Waste
  • 18.9 Shelled Compressed Earth
  • 18.10 Innovative Green Construction Materials
  • 18.11 Innovative Chemical Admixtures for Construction Materials
  • 18.12 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Application of Zeolites to Environmental Remediation
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Heavy Metal Removal
  • 19.3 Pesticide Removal
  • 19.4 Zeolites Used in Transport
  • 19.5 Zeolites Used in Wastewater Treatment
  • 19.6 Zeolites Used in Nuclear Clean-Up
  • 19.7 Zeolites in Organic Clean-Up
  • 19.8 Zeolites used in Agriculture
  • 19.9 Zeolites as Slow Release Agents
  • 19.10 Zeolite Safety
  • 19.11 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Bioremediation in Urban Pollution Mitigation: Theoretical Background and Applications to Groundwaters
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Essentials for Bioremediation
  • 20.3 Bioremediation of Groundwater
  • 20.4 In Situ Plume Treatment
  • 20.5 Electron Acceptor Management in Groundwater Bioremediation
  • 20.6 Oxygen Releasing Compounds
  • 20.7 Anaerobic Bioremediation of Groundwater
  • 20.8 Reductive Anaerobic Degradation
  • 20.9 PRBs and Bioremediation
  • 20.10 Reductive Biodegradation in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs)
  • 20.11 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Bioremediation in Urban Pollution Mitigation: Applications to Solid Media
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 In Situ Treatment above the Water Table
  • 21.3 Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation
  • 21.3.1 Landfarming
  • 21.4 Ex Situ Bioremediation in Unsaturated Strata
  • 21.4.1 Ex Situ Landfarming
  • 21.4.2 Turned Windrows
  • 21.4.3 Ventilated Biopiles
  • 21.4.4 Infrastructure Requirements
  • 21.4.5 Slurry Phase Biodegradation
  • 21.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Use of Environmental Management Systems to Mitigate Urban Pollution
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Why Is Environmental Management Important?
  • 22.3 Organisational Benefits and Barriers of Implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS)
  • 22.4 What can Companies do in Relation to their Environmental Impacts?
  • 22.5 What Happens when Things Go Wrong?
  • 22.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 23 Role of Citizen Science in Air Quality Monitoring
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Air Pollution in Urban Environments
  • 23.3 Citizen Science and New Advances in Air Quality Monitoring
  • 23.4 Citizen Science, Biomonitoring, and Plants
  • 23.5 Social Dimensions of Citizen Science Air Quality Monitoring
  • 23.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Unique Environmental Regulatory Framework Streamlines Clean-Up and Encourages Urban Redevelopment in Massachusetts, United States
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 LSPs and the Privatised System
  • 24.3 The Risk-Based Clean-Up Programme
  • 24.4 Brownfield Redevelopment Incentives
  • 24.5 Case Studies
  • 24.5.1 Case Study 1 - East End Veteran's Memorial Park
  • 24.5.1.1 Peabody, Massachusetts
  • 24.5.1.2 Porous Pavement Cap
  • 24.5.1.3 Top Soil Cap
  • 24.5.1.4 Mesh Grass Cap
  • 24.5.2 Case Study 2 - Affordable Housing, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 24.5.2.1 The Community Builders
  • 24.5.3 Case Study 3 - Thomas J. Butler Freight Corridor and Memorial Park
  • 24.5.3.1 South Boston, Massachusetts
  • 24.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Urban Pollution in China
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Urban Air Pollution in China
  • 25.3 Urban Land/Soil Pollution
  • 25.4 Municipal Waste Contamination in Urban China
  • 25.5 A Case Study of Urban Pollution in Beijing
  • 25.5.1 Air Pollution in Beijing
  • 25.5.2 Soil/Land Pollution in Beijing
  • 25.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 26 Urban Pollution in India
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Issues Related to Urban Pollution in India
  • 26.3 Pollution from Solid Waste and Wastewater in Indian Urban Areas
  • 26.4 Air Pollution in Urban Areas of India
  • 26.5 Water Pollution in Urban Areas of India
  • 26.7 Noise Pollution in Urban Areas of India
  • 26.8 Ways to Reduce Urban Pollution in India
  • 26.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 27 Urban Aquatic Pollution in Brazil
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 Current Brazilian Environmental Regulations
  • 27.3 Ecological Risk Assessment Approaches in Brazil
  • 27.4 Environmental Studies in Brazil
  • 27.4.1 The State of Paraná
  • 27.4.2 The State of Rio Grande do Sul
  • 27.4.3 The State of São Paulo
  • 27.5 A Case Study of Curitiba, Paraná
  • 27.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 28 Potentially Toxic Metal-Bearing Phases in Urban Dust and Suspended Particulate Matter: The Case of Budapest, Hungary
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 Materials and Methods
  • 28.2.1 Sampling
  • 28.2.2 Geochemical and Mineralogical Analyses
  • 28.3 Results and Discussion
  • 28.3.1 Urban Dust (UD)
  • 28.3.1.1 Metals' Enrichment
  • 28.3.1.2 Phase Composition of the Dust Material
  • 28.3.1.3 Metal-Bearing Phases
  • 28.3.2 Suspended Particulate Matter (PM)
  • 28.3.2.1 Metals' Enrichment
  • 28.3.2.2 Phase Composition of PM
  • 28.3.3.3 Metal-Bearing Phases
  • 28.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 29 The Role of Urban Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa Urban Pollution Management
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 Overview of Urban Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
  • 29.3 Urban Planning as a Panacea
  • 29.4 Lessons for SSA Urban Planning
  • References
  • Chapter 30 Water Pollution and Urbanisation Trends in Lebanon: Litani River Basin Case Study
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 Water Resources in Lebanon
  • 30.3 Urbanisation Trends
  • 30.4 Wastewater Management
  • 30.5 Water Quality
  • 30.6 The Case of the Litani River Basin
  • 30.7 Urbanisation and Water Pollution Trends
  • 30.8 Pollution Impact
  • 30.9 Current Management Efforts and Strategies
  • 30.10 Conclusions and Recommendations
  • References
  • Chapter 31 Closing Comments on Urban Pollution
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.2 The Future for Towns and Cities
  • Reference
  • Index
  • Supplemental Images
  • EULA

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