Health, Safety, and Environmental Management in Offshore and Petroleum Engineering

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 29. Februar 2016
  • |
  • 256 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-22142-5 (ISBN)
 
This book shares the technical knowhow in the field of health, safety and environmental management, as applied to oil and gas industries and explains concepts through a simple and straightforward approach
* Provides an overview of health, safety and environmental (HSE) management as applied to offshore and petroleum engineering
* Covers the fundamentals of HSE and demonstrates its practical application
* Includes industry case studies and examples based on the author's experiences in both academia and oil and gas industries
* Presents recent research results
* Includes tutorials and exercises
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India
Dr. Chandrasekaran is a Professor in the Department of Ocean Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras. His main areas of research include dynamic analysis and design of offshore platforms, subsea engineering, rehabilitation and retrofitting of offshore platforms, structural health monitoring of ocean structures, seismic analysis and design of structures, risk analyses and reliability studies of offshore and petroleum engineering plants.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 1 Safety Assurance and Assessment
  • Introduction to Safety, Health, and Environment Management
  • 1.1 Importance of Safety
  • 1.2 Basic Terminologies in HSE
  • 1.2.1 What Is Safety?
  • 1.2.2 Why Is Safety Important?
  • 1.3 Importance of Safety in Offshore and Petroleum Industries
  • 1.4 Objectives of HSE
  • 1.5 Scope of HSE Guidelines
  • 1.6 Need for Safety
  • 1.7 Organizing Safety
  • 1.7.1 Ekofisk B Blowout
  • 1.7.2 Enchova Blowout
  • 1.7.3 West Vanguard Gas Blowout
  • 1.7.4 Ekofisk A Riser Rupture
  • 1.7.5 Piper A Explosion and Fire
  • 1.8 Risk
  • 1.9 Safety Assurance and Assessment
  • 1.10 Frank and Morgan Logical Risk Analysis
  • 1.11 Defeating Accident Process
  • 1.12 Acceptable Risk
  • 1.13 Risk Assessment
  • 1.13.1 Hazard Identification
  • 1.13.2 Dose-Response Assessment
  • 1.13.3 Exposure Assessment
  • 1.13.4 Risk Characterization
  • 1.14 Application Issues of Risk Assessment
  • 1.15 Hazard Classification and Assessment
  • 1.15.1 Hazard Identification
  • 1.15.2 Hazard Identification Methods
  • 1.16 Hazard Identification During Operation (HAZOP)
  • 1.16.1 HAZOP Objectives
  • 1.16.2 Common Application Areas of HAZOP
  • 1.16.3 Advantages of HAZOP
  • 1.17 Steps in HAZOP
  • 1.18 Backbone of HAZOP
  • 1.19 HAZOP Flowchart
  • 1.20 Full Recording Versus Recording by Exception
  • 1.21 Pseudo Secondary Words
  • 1.22 When to Do HAZOP?
  • 1.22.1 Types of HAZOP
  • 1.23 Case Study of HAZOP: Example Problem of a Group Gathering Station
  • 1.24 Accidents in Offshore Platforms
  • 1.24.1 Sleipner A Platform
  • 1.24.2 Thunder Horse Platform
  • 1.24.3 Timor Sea Oil Rig
  • 1.24.4 Bombay High North in Offshore Mumbai
  • 1.25 Hazard Evaluation and Control
  • 1.25.1 Hazard Evaluation
  • 1.25.2 Hazard Classification
  • 1.25.3 Hazard Control
  • 1.25.4 Monitoring
  • Exercises 1
  • Model Paper
  • Chapter 2 Environmental Issues and Management
  • 2.1 Primary Environmental Issues
  • 2.1.1 Visible Consequences
  • 2.1.2 Trends in Oil and Gas Resources
  • 2.1.3 World's Energy Resources
  • 2.1.4 Anthropogenic Impact of Hydrosphere
  • 2.1.5 Marine Pollution
  • 2.1.6 Marine Pollutants
  • 2.1.7 Consequence of Marine Pollutants
  • 2.2 Impact of Oil and Gas Industries on Marine Environment
  • 2.2.1 Drilling Operations and Consequences
  • 2.2.2 Main Constituents of Oil-Based Drilling Fluid
  • 2.2.3 Pollution Due to Produced Waters During Drilling
  • 2.3 Drilling Accidents
  • 2.3.1 Underwater Storage Reservoirs
  • 2.4 Pipelines
  • 2.5 Impact on Marine Pollution
  • 2.6 Oil Hydrocarbons: Composition and Consequences
  • 2.6.1 Crude Oil
  • 2.7 Detection of Oil Content in Marine Pollution
  • 2.8 Oil Spill: Physical Review
  • 2.8.1 Environmental Impact of Oil Spill
  • 2.9 Oil: A Multicomponent Toxicant
  • 2.9.1 Oil Spill
  • 2.10 Chemicals and Wastes from Offshore Oil Industry
  • 2.10.1 Drilling Discharges
  • 2.11 Control of Oil Spill
  • 2.12 Environmental Management Issues
  • 2.12.1 Environmental Protection: Principles Applied to Oil and Gas Activities
  • 2.12.2 Environmental Management: Standards and Requirements
  • 2.13 Ecological Monitoring
  • 2.13.1 Ecological Monitoring Stages
  • 2.14 Atmospheric Pollution
  • 2.14.1 Release and Dispersion Models
  • 2.14.2 Continuous Release and Instantaneous Release (Plume and Puff Models)
  • 2.14.3 Factors Affecting Dispersion
  • 2.15 Dispersion Models for Neutrally and Positively Buoyant Gas
  • 2.15.1 Plume Dispersion Models
  • 2.15.2 Maximum Plume Concentration
  • 2.16 Puff Dispersion Model
  • 2.16.1 Maximum Puff Concentration
  • 2.17 Isopleths
  • 2.18 Estimate of Dispersion Coefficients
  • 2.18.1 Estimates from Equations
  • 2.19 Dense Gas Dispersion
  • 2.19.1 Britter-McQuaid Dense Gas Dispersion Model
  • 2.20 Evaluation of Toxic Effects of Dispersed Liquid and Gas
  • 2.21 Hazard Assessment and Accident Scenarios
  • 2.21.1 Damage Estimate Modeling: Probit Model
  • 2.21.2 Probit Correlations for Various Damages
  • 2.22 Fire and Explosion Models
  • Exercises 2
  • Chapter 3 Accident Modeling, Risk Assessment, and Management
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Dose Versus Response
  • 3.2.1 Various Types of Doses
  • 3.2.2 Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Concentration
  • 3.3 Fire and Explosion Modeling
  • 3.3.1 Fundamentals of Fire and Explosion
  • 3.4 Fire and Explosion Characteristics of Materials
  • 3.4.1 Flammability Characteristics of Liquids
  • 3.4.2 Flammability Characteristics of Vapor and Gases
  • 3.5 Flammability Limit Behavior
  • 3.6 Estimation of Flammability Limits Using Stoichiometric Balance
  • 3.6.1 Stoichiometric Balance
  • 3.6.2 Estimation of Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC)
  • 3.7 Flammability Diagram for Hydrocarbons
  • 3.7.1 Constructing Flammability Diagram
  • 3.8 Ignition Energy
  • 3.9 Explosions
  • 3.10 Explosion Characteristics
  • 3.11 Explosion Modeling
  • 3.12 Damage Consequences of Explosion Damage
  • 3.13 Energy in Chemical Explosions
  • 3.14 Explosion Energy in Physical Explosions
  • 3.15 Dust and Gaseous Explosion
  • 3.16 Explosion Damage Estimate
  • 3.17 Fire and Explosion Preventive Measures
  • 3.17.1 Inerting and Purging
  • 3.18 Use of Flammability Diagram
  • 3.18.1 Placing a Vessel Out of Service
  • 3.18.2 Placing a Vessel into Service
  • 3.19 NFPA 69 Recommendations
  • 3.20 Explosion-Proof Equipments
  • 3.20.1 Class Systems
  • 3.20.2 Group Systems
  • 3.20.3 Division Systems
  • 3.21 Ventilation for Storage and Process Areas
  • 3.21.1 Storage Areas
  • 3.21.2 Process Areas
  • 3.22 Sprinkler Systems
  • 3.22.1 Anti-freeze Sprinkler System
  • 3.22.2 Deluge Sprinkler System
  • 3.22.3 Dry Pipe Sprinkler System
  • 3.22.4 Wet Pipe Sprinkler System
  • 3.23 Toxic Release and Dispersion Modeling
  • 3.23.1 Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)
  • 3.24 Industrial Hygiene
  • 3.25 Exposure Evaluation: Chemical Hazard
  • 3.25.1 Time Weighted Average Method
  • 3.25.2 Overexposure at Workplace
  • 3.25.3 TLV-TWA Mix
  • 3.26 Exposure Evaluation: Physical Hazards
  • 3.27 Industrial Hygiene Control
  • 3.27.1 Environmental Control
  • 3.27.2 Personal Protection
  • 3.28 Ventilation Hoods to Reduce Hazards
  • 3.29 Elements to Control Process Accidents
  • 3.30 Methods for Chemical Risk Analysis
  • 3.30.1 Qualitative Risk Analysis
  • 3.30.2 Quantitative Risk Analysis
  • 3.31 Safety Review
  • 3.32 Process Hazards Checklists
  • 3.33 Hazard Surveys
  • 3.34 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines
  • 3.35 Chemical Exposure Index
  • 3.36 Guidelines for Estimating Amount of Material Becoming Airborne Following a Release
  • 3.36.1 Example Problem on Ammonia Release
  • 3.36.2 Example Problem on Chlorine Release
  • 3.37 Quantified Risk Assessment
  • 3.38 Hazard Identification (HAZID)
  • 3.39 Cause Analysis
  • 3.40 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
  • 3.41 Event Tree Analysis (ETA)
  • 3.42 Disadvantages of QRA
  • 3.43 Risk Acceptance Criteria
  • 3.44 Hazard Assessment
  • 3.45 Identify Hazards
  • 3.45.1 Prioritizing Hazards
  • 3.46 Risk Assessment
  • 3.46.1 Identify and Implement Hazard Controls
  • 3.46.2 Communicate
  • 3.47 Evaluate Effectiveness
  • 3.48 Fatality Risk Assessment
  • 3.48.1 Statistical Analysis
  • 3.48.2 Phenomena-Based Analysis
  • 3.48.3 Averaging of FAR Values
  • 3.49 Marine Systems Risk Modeling
  • 3.49.1 Ballast System Failure
  • 3.50 Risk Picture: Definitions and Characteristics
  • 3.51 Fatality Risk
  • 3.51.1 Platform Fatality Risk
  • 3.51.2 Individual Risk
  • 3.52 Societal Risk
  • 3.53 Impairment Risk
  • 3.54 Environmental Risk
  • 3.55 Asset Risk
  • 3.56 Risk Assessment and Management
  • 3.57 Probabilistic Risk Assessment
  • 3.58 Risk Management
  • 3.58.1 Risk Preference
  • Exercises 3
  • Chapter 4 Safety Measures in Design and Operation
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Inerting or Purging
  • 4.3 Terminologies
  • 4.4 Factors Affecting Purging
  • 4.5 Causes of Dilution or Mixing
  • 4.5.1 Area of Contact
  • 4.5.2 Time of Contact
  • 4.5.3 Input Velocities
  • 4.5.4 Densities of Gases
  • 4.5.5 Temperature Effects
  • 4.6 Methods of Purging
  • 4.6.1 Siphon Purging
  • 4.6.2 Vacuum Purging
  • 4.6.3 Pressure Purging
  • 4.6.4 Sweep-Through Purging
  • 4.6.5 Fixed-Rate Purging
  • 4.6.6 Variable-Rate or Demand Purging
  • 4.7 Limits of Flammability of Gas Mixtures
  • 4.8 Protection System Design and Operation
  • 4.9 Explosion Prevention Systems
  • 4.10 Safe Work Practices
  • 4.10.1 Load Lifting
  • 4.10.2 Confined Space, Excavations, and Hazardous Environments
  • 4.10.3 Lockout/Tagout
  • 4.10.4 Well Pumping Units
  • 4.11 Hot Work Permit
  • 4.12 Welding Fumes and Ventilation
  • 4.13 Critical Equipments
  • 4.13.1 Changes to Critical Equipment
  • 4.14 Fire Prevention
  • 4.15 Fire Protection
  • 4.16 Grounding and Bonding
  • 4.17 Other General Requirements
  • 4.17.1 Performance-Based Design
  • 4.17.2 Inspection of Protection Systems
  • 4.18 Process Safety Management (PSM) at Oil and Gas Operations
  • 4.18.1 Exemptions of PSM Standards in Oil and Gas Industries
  • 4.18.2 Process Safety Information
  • 4.19 Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)
  • 4.20 Safe Operating Procedures
  • 4.21 Safe Work Practice Procedures
  • 4.21.1 Training
  • 4.21.2 Pre-startup Review
  • 4.22 Mechanical Integrity
  • 4.23 Management of Change
  • 4.24 Incident Investigation
  • 4.25 Compliance Audits
  • 4.26 Software Used in HSE Management
  • 4.26.1 CMO Compliance
  • 4.26.2 Spiramid's HSE Software
  • 4.26.3 Integrum
  • 4.26.4 Rivo HSE Management Software
  • Exercises 4
  • Application Problem: Quantified Risk Assessment of LPG Filling Station
  • Introduction
  • Dispersion
  • Jet Fire
  • Fireball
  • Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE)
  • Methodology
  • Results and Discussions
  • Dispersion
  • Thermal Radiation Due To Jet Fire
  • Thermal Radiation Due To Fireball
  • Overpressure Effects Due To BLEVE
  • Risk Estimates
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

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