This book provides a detailed and up-to-dated information on the genomes belonging to three major life forms on Earth - archaea, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Each section describes about the genome of a specific group of organisms, such as viruses, archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes and organellar genomes. Individual chapters provide details of their organization, structure, evolution, sequencing strategies and functions. Further, this book discusses the technologies that are applied for genome sequencing; assembly, annotation and gene prediction. Other topics include the genomes of important model organisms, mitochondria genome of Neanderthal fossil, etc. This book also examines the evolution of chloroplast and mitochondria genomes by comparing with bacteria, addresses the diseases that occur in humans due to the mutations in mitochondrial genome, gene therapy and engineering of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Lastly, it features an overview of the role of proteomics, exposomics, connectomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics.
This book is a fascinating read for students, lecturers and researchers in the field of genetics, genomics, microbiology and life sciences.
Dr. K.V.Chaitanya is an Associate Professor at the Department of Biotechnology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam. He completed his Ph.D. in Life Sciences at Pondicherry University, and then received a fellowship from DBT to pursue post-doctoral studies at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. He has over 15 years of experience in research in the fields of genomics, molecular biology and plant biotechnology. He has worked in various capacities in internationally respected academic and research institutes and has published a number of articles in leading international journals. He has published one book on cell and molecular biology and has filed five patents. Dr. Chaitanya has received numerous academic awards and fellowships.
PART I: Viral Genomes
1.1 Introduction1.2 Organization and Structure of Viral genomes1.3 Viral Genomes1.4 Double stranded DNA Virus Genomes1.5 Single stranded DNA Virus Genomes1.6 RNA virus genomes1.7 Segmented Viral Genomes1.8 Multipartite Viral genomes1.9 Evolution of Viral Genomes1.10 Conclusions1.11. References
Part II: Archeal Genomes2.1 Introduction2.2 Archaea2.3 Unique features of archaea2.4 Archaea and Eukaryotes2.5 Archaeal genomes2.5.1 Structure and organization of archaeal genomes2.6 Plasmids of archaea2.7 Horizantal Gene Transfer2.8. Integrase mediated insertion and deletions in archaea2.9 Genome of methanogenic archeon Methanococcus Jannaschii2.10 Genome of the hyperthermophilic, sulphate-reducing archaeon, archaeoglobusfulgidus2.11 Conclusions2.12. References
PART III: Bacterial Genomes3.1 Introduction3.2 Structure and Organization of Bacterial Genomes3.3 Genome re-arrangements in Bacteria3.4 Evolution of bacterial genomes3.5 Genetic diversity of pathogenic bacteria3.6 Genome of E.coli3.7 Whole genome sequencing of pathogenic E.coli O157:H73.8 Genome of Mycoplasma genitalium3.9 Synthetic genome of Mycoplasma genitalium3.10 Conclusions3.11 References
Part IV: Organellar Genomes4.1 Introduction4.2. Resemblances of Chloroplast and Mitochondria with Bacteria4.3. Architecture of Organellar Genomes4.4. Organelle Genome Evolution4.5 Chloroplast Genomes4.6 Chloroplast Genome Engineering4.7 Chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis4.8 Mitochondrial genomes4.9. Structure of Mitochondrial Genomes4.10. Mutations in the Mitochondrial Genomes and Diseases4.11 Mitochondrial genome of Neandertal fossils4.12 Plant Mitochondrial Genome4.13 Conclusions4.14. References
Part V: Genomes of Eukaryotes5.1. Introduction5.2 Organization of nuclear genome in eukaryotic organisms5.3 Complexity of the Eukaryotic Genomes5.4 Yeast Genome5.5 Genome of C. elegans5.6. Genome of Drosophila melagastor5.7. Genome of Arabidopsis thaliana5.8 Genome of soybean5.9. rice Genome5.10 Human genome5.11 Conclusions5.12 References
Part VI: Genome sequencing and Annotation6.1 Introduction6.2 First Generation DNA sequencing6.3. Second Generation DNA sequencing6.4. Third Generation DNA sequencing6.5. Sequencing of Fungal Genomes6.6. Sequencing of Plant genomes6.7. Sequencing of Animal Genomes6.8. Whole Genome Sequencing6.9. Genome Sequencing by Mass Spectrometry6.10. Mapping of Genomes6.11. Genome Assembly6.12. Scaffolding6.13. Finishing6.14. Genome Annotation6.15. Applications of Next Generation Sequencing Systems6.16. Conclusions6.17. References
Part VII: Other Omics Integrated into Biosciences7.1. Introduction7.2. Transcriptomics7.3. Proteomics7.4. Metabolomics7.5. Exposomics7.6. Connectomics7.7. Microbiomics7.8. Conclusions7.9. References
Part VIII: Application of genomics8.1 Introduction8.2 Applications of genomics in agriculture8.3. Applications of genomics in genetic testing and molecular diagnostics8.4. Epigenetics and epigenomics8.5.Genomic medicine8.6. Genomics and cancer therapy8.7. Cytogeenomics8.8. Microarrays8.9.Comparitive genomics8.10. Conclusions8.11. References