X-ray computed tomography has been used for several decades as a tool for measuring the three-dimensional geometry of the internal organs in medicine. However, in recent years, we have seen a move in manufacturing industries for the use of X-ray computed tomography; first to give qualitative information about the internal geometry and defects in a component, and more recently, as a fully-quantitative technique for dimensional and materials analysis. This trend is primarily due to the ability of X-ray computed tomography to give a high-density and multi-scale representation of both the external and internal geometry of a component, in a non-destructive, non-contact and relatively fast way. But, due to the complexity of X-ray computed tomography, there are remaining metrological issues to solve and the specification standards are still under development. This book will act as a one-stop-shop resource for students and users of X-ray computed tomography in both academia and industry. It presents the fundamental principles of the technique, detailed descriptions of the various components (hardware and software), current developments in calibration and performance verification and a wealth of example applications. The book will also highlight where there is still work to do, in the perspective that X-ray computed tomography will be an essential part of Industry 4.0.
Simone Carmignato is Professor of Manufacturing Engineering and Manufacturing Metrology at the University of Padua, Italy. His research activities are in the area of precision engineering and dimensional metrology, with focus on industrial computed tomography and advanced coordinate metrology. In 2012, he was awarded the F. W. Taylor Medal from CIRP, the International Academy for Production Engineering.
holds a Professorship in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at KU Leuven, Belgium, where he is leading research groups on Sustainable Engineering and on Dimensional Metrology. In the latter field, his major research themes include X-ray computed tomography, multi-sensor metrology, and automated inspection planning. He was, amongst others, coordinating the highly successful INTERAQCT project, which provided an extensive industrial-academic training environment for young researchers in the field of X-ray CT metrology.
Richard Leach is Chair in Metrology at The University of Nottingham, UK, and heads up the Manufacturing Metrology Team. Richard's current interests are the dimensional measurement of precision and additive manufactured structures. His research themes include the measurement of surface topography, development of methods for measuring 3D structures, development of methods for controlling large surfaces to high resolution in industrial applications and x-ray computed tomography.
Introduction.- Principles of X-ray computed tomography.- Technical concepts and components.- Processing and visualization of CT data.- Computer simulation.- Error sources.- Performance verification.- Traceability of CT dimensional measurements.- CT for non-destructive testing and materials characterization.- CT for dimensional metrology.- Other industrial applications.