Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages

Industrial Applications for Improving Food Color
 
 
Woodhead Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 20. April 2016
  • |
  • 538 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100392-3 (ISBN)
 

Handbook on Natural Pigments: Industrial Applications for Improving Food Colour is unique in its approach to the improvement of food colors. The book is written with industrial applications in mind, with each chapter focusing on a color solution for a specific commodity that will provide food scientists with a one-stop, comprehensive reference on how to improve the color of a particular food product.

The first section of the book looks at the legal frameworks which underpin natural food colorings, also investigating the consumer expectations of food color. The second section of the book focuses on specific industrial applications of natural colorants with chapters covering the use of natural colorants in aqueous food products, cereal-based foods, and meat products, amongst many other topics.

The various pigments which can be used to effectively color these commodities are presented with information on safety and testing included throughout. The final section in the book looks at recent developments and future perspectives in natural food colorings. There are chapters which cover the health benefits of natural pigments, the use of novel fruits and vegetables in pigments, and stable natural solutions for blue colorings.


  • Presents recent advances in consumer demand and worldwide legislation regarding natural food colorants
  • Discusses the use of natural food colorants for one specific product category per chapter rather than one pigment class per chapter - this makes the book extremely useable for industrialists working in a specific sector
  • Contains a comprehensive array of product-specific coloration approaches, from using pigment-enriched feed additives to the direct addition of color formulations
  • Englisch
  • Cambridge
Elsevier Science
  • 7,02 MB
978-0-08-100392-3 (9780081003923)
0081003927 (0081003927)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Handbook on Natural Pigmentsin Food and Beverages
  • Related titles
  • Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
  • Preface
  • One - Consumer Expectations and Legal Framework of Food Colorants
  • 1 - Food Color and Coloring Food: Quality, Differentiation and Regulatory Requirements in the European Union and the United States
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Why Color Food? A Historic Overview
  • 1.2 Why Color Food? The Situation Today
  • 2. Coloring Principles Used for Food Coloring
  • 2.1 Naturalness of Natural Food Coloring
  • 2.2 Coloring Principles From Food
  • 2.2.1 Coloring Food With Food
  • 2.2.2 Coloring Principles Selectively Extracted From Edible Natural Sources, not Modified
  • 2.3 Coloring Principles Derived From Nonedible Raw Material, not Modified
  • 2.4 Nature-Identical Colors (Organic Pigments)
  • 2.5 Colors Derived From Natural Raw Materials but With Modifications of the Coloring Principle
  • 2.6 Coloring Principle is Formed Through Heating
  • 2.6.1 Caramel
  • 2.6.2 Vegetable Carbon
  • 2.7 Inorganic Pigments
  • 2.8 Artificial Colors
  • 3. Coloring Food With Food
  • 3.1 Imparting Color to Food With Colorful Food That is Consumed as Such
  • 3.2 Imparting Color to Food With "Coloring Food"
  • 4. Food Colors: EU Regulations
  • 5. Guidance Notes
  • 6. Food Color Regulations in the United States
  • 7. Consumer Expectations
  • 7.1 "Natural" in the Consumer's Perception
  • 7.2 Clean Labeling and the Future Beyond: Custom-Designed Food
  • References
  • 2 - The Psychological Effects of Food Colors
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Psychological Effects of Food Color: Setting Sensory Expectations
  • 2.1 Taste/Flavor Intensity
  • 2.2 Interim Summary
  • 2.3 Flavor Identity
  • 2.4 Interim Summary
  • 3. Names, Brands, and Colors
  • 4. Psychological Effects of Food Color on Behavior
  • 4.1 Off-Coloring in Food
  • 4.2 Artificial Versus Natural
  • 5. Marketing Color
  • 6. Individual Differences in the Psychological Effects of Color
  • 6.1 Cross-Cultural Differences
  • 6.2 Developmental Differences
  • 6.3 Expertise and the Psychological Effects of Food Coloring
  • 6.4 Genetic Differences in the Effect of Color
  • 6.5 Interim Summary
  • 7. The Future of Color in Food
  • 8. Conclusions
  • References
  • Two - General Considerations About Pigment Stability
  • 3 - Anthocyanins
  • 1. Structural Diversity of Anthocyanins and Their Occurrence in Food Plants
  • 2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Having an Impact on Color Evolution and Anthocyanin Stability
  • 2.1 Compound Structure
  • 2.2 pH Value
  • 2.3 Intramolecular and Intermolecular Copigmentation, Self-Association
  • 2.4 Metal Complexation
  • 2.5 Interaction of Anthocyanins With Food Hydrocolloids
  • 2.6 Deposition of Anthocyanins in Plant Cells
  • 2.7 Color Range in Intact Plant Matrices and in Processed Foods
  • 3. Factors Affecting Anthocyanin Stability Upon Processing and Storage
  • 3.1 Genuine Plant Enzyme Activities and Technical Enzyme Preparations
  • 3.2 General Effects of aw Value and Interaction With Saccharides
  • 3.3 Effects of Light on Anthocyanin Stability
  • 3.4 Susceptibility of Anthocyanins Toward Thermal Treatment
  • 3.5 Ascorbic Acid Effects on Anthocyanin Stability
  • 3.6 Sulfite Application in Food Processing and Its Effects on Anthocyanin Color
  • 3.7 Anthocyanin Stabilization by Technological Means: Microencapsulation
  • 3.8 Reactions of Anthocyanins With Other Food Components, Oxygen and Metal Ions
  • 3.9 Typical Anthocyanin Degradation Pathways
  • 4. Future Perspectives
  • References
  • 4 - Betalains
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Stability Related to Structure and Degradation Pathways
  • 2.1 Isomerization
  • 2.2 Deglycosylation
  • 2.3 Hydrolysis
  • 2.4 Decarboxylation
  • 2.5 Dehydrogenation
  • 3. Factors Affecting Betalain Stability
  • 3.1 Betalain Structure and Concentration
  • 3.2 Enzymes
  • 3.3 pH
  • 3.4 aw Value
  • 3.5 Metals
  • 3.6 Antioxidants and Other Additives
  • 4. Effect of Processing on Betalain Stability
  • 4.1 Matrix Effect
  • 4.2 Effect of Heat on Betalain Stability
  • 5. Effect of Storage Conditions on Betalain Stability
  • 5.1 Light Exposure
  • 5.2 Oxygen Exposure
  • 6. Improving Betalain Stability in the Production of Betalain-Based Natural Colorants
  • 6.1 Extraction Procedures
  • 6.2 Micro- and Ultrafiltration
  • 6.3 Drying and Pigment Encapsulation
  • 6.4 Fermentation
  • 7. Biological Effects of Betalains
  • 8. Conclusions
  • References
  • 5 - Carotenoids
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Biosynthesis and Distribution of Carotenoids
  • 1.2 Carotenoids in Food
  • 1.3 Bioavailability and Bioactivity
  • 2. Chemical and Physical Properties of Carotenoids
  • 2.1 Oxidation
  • 2.2 Cis-Trans Isomerization
  • 3. Effects of Food Processing on the Stability of Carotenoids
  • 3.1 Processing of Tomatoes
  • 3.2 Fruit Juice Production
  • 3.3 Red Pepper Spice
  • 3.4 Cooking of Green Vegetables
  • 3.5 Egg Yolk
  • 4. Analytical Perspectives
  • 5. Conclusions
  • References
  • 6 - Chlorophylls
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Structure, Localization, and Function
  • 3. Biosynthesis and Catabolism
  • 4. Structures Present in Foods
  • 5. Biological Actions
  • 6. Analysis
  • 6.1 Extraction
  • 6.2 Preparation of Standards
  • 6.3 Chromatographic Tools Applied in Chlorophyll Analysis
  • 6.4 Detection
  • 6.4.1 UV/Vis Spectroscopy
  • 6.4.2 Fluorescence Spectroscopy
  • 6.4.3 Mass Spectrometry
  • 6.4.4 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  • 7. Chlorophylls as Food Additives
  • 8. Future Trends
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Three - Specific Industrial Applications of Natural Colorants
  • One - Application Notes
  • 7 - Coloring Aqueous Food Types
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. General Note on Coloring Foods
  • 3. Aqueous Food Systems Challenges
  • 3.1 Water Activity
  • 3.2 pH Value or Acidity
  • 3.3 Ambient Storage Conditions
  • 3.4 Particularities of Curcumin, Beetroot, and Copper Chlorophyllin
  • 3.5 Liquid Foods From Dry Powder
  • 3.6 Labeling and Supply for the Global Marketplace
  • 4. Examples of Aqueous Food Systems
  • 4.1 Nonalcoholic Beverages
  • 4.1.1 Ready-to-Drink Beverages
  • 4.1.2 Dilute-to-Taste Drinks
  • 4.1.3 Water Enhancers
  • 4.1.4 Powdered Drinks
  • 4.2 Alcoholic Beverages
  • 4.3 Fruit Preparations
  • 4.4 Marinades
  • 4.5 Sauces (Savory)
  • 4.6 Sauces (Sweet)
  • 5. Summary
  • References
  • 8 - Coloring of Low-Moisture and Gelatinized Food Products
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Confectionery Products
  • 2.1 Jellies and Gum Confectionery
  • 3. Aerated Confectionery
  • 4. Hard-Boiled Candy
  • 5. Dragees
  • 6. Fruit Preparations, Jams, and Fruit-Based Spreads
  • 7. Conclusions
  • References
  • 9 - Ice Cream
  • 1. Definition and Classification of Frozen Desserts
  • 2. Legislation
  • 3. Ice Cream
  • 3.1 Ingredients and Recipe
  • 3.1.1 Further Interactions Between Color and Ice Cream
  • 3.2 Most Common Pigments Used for Ice Cream
  • 3.2.1 Yellow
  • 3.2.2 Orange
  • 3.2.3 Red
  • 3.2.4 Green
  • 3.2.4.1 Further Options
  • 3.2.5 Brown and Black
  • 3.3 Carmine Replacement
  • 3.4 Ice Cream Processing
  • 3.4.1 Mixing
  • 3.4.2 Homogenization
  • 3.4.3 Pasteurization
  • 3.4.4 Aging, Freezing, and Overrun
  • 3.4.5 Rework
  • 4. Sorbets
  • 4.1 Commonly Used Pigments for Low Acid Applications
  • 4.1.1 Red
  • 5. Packaging and Light Stability
  • 6. Distribution and Storage
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 10 - Applications of Different Curing Approaches and Natural Colorants in Meat Products
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. General Considerations and History
  • 3. Stabilization of Meat Color by Complexing Myoglobin
  • 3.1 Curing Without Nitrate/Nitrite Curing Salts and Natural Nitrate Sources
  • 3.1.1 Herbs and Vegetables
  • 3.1.2 Impurities of Table Salt
  • 3.1.3 Nitrate From a Consumer Point of View
  • 3.1.4 Chemical Principles of Meat Reddening With Nitrate/Nitrite
  • 3.1.5 Natural Reddening With Nitrate-Reducing Bacterial Starter Cultures
  • 3.1.5.1 Reddening of Boiled Sausage Without Nitrite Curing Salt
  • 3.2 Formation of Zinc-Porphyrin in Parma Ham
  • 4. Red Colorants of Animal Origin: Carmine/Cochenille
  • 5. Applications of Plant-Derived Colorants
  • 5.1 Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)
  • 5.2 Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.)
  • 5.3 Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
  • 6. Applications of Microbial Pigments
  • 7. Toxicology, Food Safety Considerations, and Risk Assessment
  • 7.1 Toxicology of Nitrate and Nitrite
  • 8. Regulatory Aspects Regarding Natural Curing Agents and Meat Colorants
  • 8.1 Legal situation in the United States
  • 9. Conclusions
  • References
  • 11 - Coloration of Cereal-Based Products
  • 1. Definition and Classification of Cereal-Based Products
  • 2. Legislation
  • 3. Extruded Ready-To-Eat Cereals
  • 3.1 Principle and Process of Extrusion
  • 3.2 Color Addition During the Extrusion Process
  • 3.3 Impact of Ingredients on Color Appearance
  • 3.4 Heat Treatment
  • 3.5 Expansion
  • 3.6 Color Addition After the Extrusion Process
  • 3.7 Packaging/Light Stability
  • 4. Fine Bakery
  • 4.1 Industrially Processed Fine Bakery Products
  • 4.2 Challenge of Red Shades in Fine Bakery Products
  • 4.3 Most Commonly Used Pigments for Fine Bakery Wares
  • References
  • Two - Reviews
  • 12 - Improvement and Stabilization of Red Wine Color
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Chemistry of Red Wine Pigments
  • 2.1 Types of Free Anthocyanins in Wine
  • 2.2 Anthocyanin Reactivities in Wine
  • 2.3 Anthocyanin-Derived Pigments
  • 2.4 Factors Influencing the Composition of Anthocyanin-Derived Pigments
  • 3. Modulation of Anthocyanin Composition and Concentration in Red Wines
  • 3.1 Anthocyanin Fingerprints in Different Grape Varieties
  • 3.2 Changes in Anthocyanin Concentrations and Fingerprints During Winemaking and Maturation
  • 4. Enological Practices to Improve and Stabilize Red Wine Color
  • 4.1 Prefermentative Maceration
  • 4.2 Optimal Winemaking Conditions
  • 4.3 Aging in Oak Barrels
  • 4.4 Micro-oxygenation
  • 5. Conclusions and Outlook
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 13 - Feed Additives for Influencing the Color of Fish and Crustaceans
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Sources of Coloring Additives
  • 3. Legal Requirements for Fish Feed
  • 3.1 European Union
  • 3.1.1 Canthaxanthin
  • 3.1.2 Synthetic Astaxanthin
  • 3.1.3 Astaxanthin Dimethyldisuccinate
  • 3.1.4 Astaxanthin-Rich Phaffia rhodozyma
  • 3.1.5 Red Carotenoid-Rich Paracoccus carotinifaciens
  • 3.1.6 Astaxanthin-Rich Alga Haematococcus pluvialis
  • 3.2 United States
  • 3.3 Company Benchmark Standards
  • 4. Routine Analytical Methods for Measuring Color in Fish Flesh
  • 5. Analytical Methods Based on Differences in Color
  • 5.1 Different Carotenoids
  • 5.2 Free and Esterified Astaxanthin
  • 5.3 Stereoisomers
  • 5.4 Geometric Isomers
  • 6. Outlook
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 14 - Feed Additives for Influencing Chicken Meat and Egg Yolk Color
  • 1. Definition and Measurement of Color
  • 2. Consumer Preferences of Color
  • 3. Sources for Pigmentation and Legal Approval
  • 4. Coloring Efficiency
  • 5. Metabolism of Carotenoids in Poultry
  • 6. Deposition of Carotenoids in Egg Yolk and Tissues
  • 7. Factors Affecting Yolk and Tissue Pigmentation
  • 8. Human Intake Estimates
  • 9. Conclusions
  • References
  • Four - Recent Developments and Future Perspectives
  • 15 - Underutilized Fruits and Vegetables as Potential Novel Pigment Sources
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Present Regulatory Hurdles and Incentives for Application of Novel Pigment Sources
  • 2.1 Safety Aspects: Global Regulations of Novel Pigment Sources
  • 2.2 Natural Pigments and Their Potential Health Benefits as Incentives To Be Used as Functional Food
  • 3. Potential Novel Natural Pigment Sources
  • 3.1 Red: Anthocyanin-Rich Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) Berries
  • 3.1.1 Currently Available Natural Red Food Colorants and Their Drawbacks
  • 3.1.2 Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) berry and its legal status
  • 3.1.3 Maqui Anthocyanins, Their Color Stability, and Food Application
  • 3.2 Yellow-Orange: Zeaxanthin in Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) Berries
  • 3.2.1 Currently Available Yellow-Orange Natural Food Colorants and Their Drawbacks
  • 3.2.2 Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) Berry and Its Legal Status
  • 3.2.3 Color Stability and Food Application of Goji Berry and Its Main Pigment Zeaxanthin
  • 3.3 Blue: Genipin-Amino Acid-Based Colorant Derived from Genipa americana L
  • 3.3.1 Currently Available Natural Blue Food Colorants and Their Drawbacks
  • 3.3.2 Genipa americana L. and Its Legal Status
  • 3.3.3 Genipin, Its Blue Color Formation, and Color Characteristics
  • 3.3.4 Color Stability of Genipin-Based Blue Colorants and Food Application
  • 3.4 Green: Are Chlorogenic Acid-Based Pigments an Alternative to Chlorophylls?
  • 3.4.1 Currently Available Natural Green Food Colorants and Their Drawbacks
  • 3.4.2 Formation of Green Chlorogenic Acid-Based Colorants and Their Stability
  • 4. Conclusion
  • References
  • 16 - Current and Potential Natural Pigments From Microorganisms (Bacteria, Yeasts, Fungi, Microalgae)
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Carotenoids
  • 2.1 Lutein and Zeaxanthin
  • 2.2 Aryl Carotenoids (Orange Colors and Highly Active Antioxidants) Are Specific to Some Microorganisms
  • 2.3 C50 Carotenoids (Sarcinaxanthin, Decaprenoxanthin), Not Being Produced by Plants in Nature
  • 2.4 Directed Evolution and Molecular Breeding Techniques for the Production of Novel Carotenoids Exerting Improved Color Strengt...
  • 3. Azaphilones
  • 3.1 Toward Mycotoxin-Free Monascus Red
  • 3.2 Monascus-Like Pigments From Nontoxigenic Fungal Strains
  • 4. Anthraquinones
  • 4.1 Fungal Natural RedTM
  • 4.2 Other Fungal Anthraquinones
  • 5. Phycobiliproteins
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • 17 - Natural Solutions for Blue Colors in Food
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Spirulina
  • 2.1 Origin
  • 2.1.1 Source
  • 2.1.2 Cultivation
  • 2.1.3 Extraction
  • 2.2 Chemical Constitution and Related Color and Stability Properties
  • 2.2.1 Structure
  • 2.2.2 Color Properties
  • 2.2.3 Stability
  • 2.3 Field of Application
  • 2.4 Potential Health Benefits
  • 3. Anthocyanins
  • 3.1 Blue Anthocyanin Structures in Nature
  • 3.2 Anthocyanin-Metal Chelates for Application as Blue Food Colorants
  • 3.2.1 Structure and Fundamentals of Anthocyanin-Metal Chelate Formation
  • 3.2.2 Convenient Anthocyanin Sources
  • 3.2.3 Color Properties
  • 3.2.4 Stability
  • 3.3 Field of Application
  • 3.4 Potential Health Issues and Health Benefits
  • 4. Genipin
  • 4.1 Origin
  • 4.1.1 Sources
  • 4.1.2 Extraction
  • 4.2 Chemical Constitution and Related Color and Stability Properties
  • 4.2.1 Structure
  • 4.2.2 Color Properties
  • 4.2.3 Stability
  • 4.3 Field of Application
  • 4.4 Potential Health Benefits
  • 5. Further Potential Sources for Natural Blue Colorants
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • 18 - The "Carmine Problem" and Potential Alternatives1
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Synonyms and Natural Origin
  • 1.2 Production of Cochineal Extract and Carmine
  • 1.3 Export and Import Data
  • 1.4 History and Price Development
  • 1.5 Legal Requirements
  • 1.6 Fields of Application
  • 2. Carmine-Chemistry and Sources
  • 2.1 Chemistry and Occurrence of Anthraquinones
  • 2.2 Anthraquinones From Animal Origin
  • 2.2.1 Carminic Acid
  • 2.2.2 Carmine
  • 2.2.3 4-Aminocarminic Acid (Acid-Stable Carmine)
  • 2.2.4 Kermesic Acid
  • 2.3 Stability in Different Matrices and Processing
  • 3. Production of Cochineal
  • 3.1 Cochineal and Other Pigment-Producing Insects
  • 3.2 Metabolism of Carminic Acid in Dactylopius coccus COSTA
  • 3.3 Production Area and Host Cacti
  • 3.4 Farming and Harvesting Methods
  • 3.5 Carmine Processing, Quality Parameters, and Commercial Available Products
  • 4. Problems
  • 4.1 Arguments for the Use of Carmine
  • 4.2 Historical Milestones in Coloring Food (Scandals and Public Awareness)
  • 4.3 Health Issues
  • 4.3.1 Allergenic Risks
  • 4.3.2 Aluminum Exposure
  • 4.3.3 Microbiological Issues
  • 4.4 Societal Issues
  • 4.5 Economic Restrictions
  • 5. Potential Substitutes and Future Trends
  • 5.1 Artificial Colors
  • 5.2 Colors of Plant Origin
  • References
  • 19 - Improving Color Sources by Plant Breeding and Cultivation
  • 1. Introduction to Plant Breeding
  • 1.1 Historical Perspective
  • 1.2 Breeding Aims
  • 1.3 Breeding Process
  • 1.4 Nongenetic Factors Affecting Pigment Yield
  • 2. Tomato Breeding for Lycopene Content
  • 2.1 General Historical Background of Tomato as a Crop
  • 2.2 Significance of Tomato as a Pigment Source
  • 2.3 Chemical Characteristics of Tomato Pigments
  • 2.4 Genetic Determinants of Tomato Carotenoid Biosynthesis
  • 2.5 Breeding Aims
  • 2.6 Available Genetic Resources Useful for Pigment Enhancement and Progress in Cultivar Development
  • 2.7 Breeding Methods
  • 2.8 Nongenetic Ways to Increase Pigment Yield During Crop Production
  • 3. Beetroot Breeding for Betalain Content
  • 3.1 Historical Background of Beetroot as a Crop
  • 3.2 Significance of Beetroot as a Betalain Source
  • 3.3 Chemical Characteristics of Beetroot Betalains
  • 3.4 Genetic Determinants of Betalain Biosynthesis
  • 3.5 Breeding Aims
  • 3.6 Genetic Resources Useful for Betalain Enhancement
  • 3.7 Breeding Methods
  • 3.8 Nongenetic Ways to Increase Betalain Yield During Crop Production
  • 4. Carrot Breeding for Anthocyanin Content
  • 4.1 Historical Background of Carrot as a Crop
  • 4.2 Significance of Carrot as an Anthocyanin Source
  • 4.3 Chemical Characteristics of Carrot Anthocyanins
  • 4.4 Genetic Determinants of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis
  • 4.5 Breeding Aims
  • 4.6 Genetic Resources Useful for Anthocyanin Enhancement
  • 4.7 Breeding Methods
  • 4.8 Nongenetic Ways to Increase Anthocyanin Yield During Crop Production
  • 5. Perspectives
  • References
  • 20 - Recent Insights Into Health Benefits of Carotenoids
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Carotenoid Chemistry
  • 1.2 Carotenoid Distribution in Nature
  • 1.3 Carotenoid Bioavailability and Distribution In Vivo
  • 2. Mechanisms of Action
  • 2.1 Provitamin A Activity
  • 2.2 Antioxidant Action
  • 2.3 Modulation of Gene Transcription
  • 2.4 Gap Junction Communication
  • 2.5 Induction of Phase II Enzymes
  • 2.6 Alterations of Immune Function
  • 3. Carotenoids and Diseases
  • 3.1 Carotenoids and Cancer
  • 3.2 Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Disease
  • 3.3 Carotenoids and Disease of the Eye
  • 3.4 Carotenoids, Skin, and Sun Sensitivity
  • 4. Conclusions
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Y
  • Z
  • Back Cover

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Dateiformat: PDF
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

214,20 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
PDF mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
Hinweis: Die Auswahl des von Ihnen gewünschten Dateiformats und des Kopierschutzes erfolgt erst im System des E-Book Anbieters
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung dieser Web-Seiten erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok