Children of Austerity

Impact of the Great Recession on Child Poverty in Rich Countries
Oxford University Press
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 7. April 2017
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  • 392 Seiten
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978-0-19-251888-0 (ISBN)
The 2008 financial crisis triggered the worst global recession since the Great Depression. Many OECD countries responded to the crisis by reducing social spending. Through 11 diverse country case studies (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States), this volume describes the evolution of child poverty and material well-being during the crisis, and links these outcomes with the responses by governments. The analysis underlines that countries with fragmented social protection systems were less able to protect the incomes of households with children at the time when unemployment soared. In contrast, countries with more comprehensive social protection cushioned the impact of the crisis on households with children, especially if they had implemented fiscal stimulus packages at the onset of the crisis. Although the macroeconomic 'shock' itself and the starting positions differed greatly across countries, while the responses by governments covered a very wide range of policy levers and varied with their circumstances, cuts in social spending and tax increases often played a major role in the impact that the crisis had on the living standards of families and children.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
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  • Großbritannien
Figures and Tables
  • 4,16 MB
978-0-19-251888-0 (9780192518880)
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Bea Cantillon is Professor of Social Policy and Director of the Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy at the University of Antwerp. She has acted as a consultant to, among others, the OECD, the European Commission, and the Belgian government. Next to being the Chair of the National Administration for Family Allowances, she also served as a Belgian senator (1995-1999) and she was the president of the National Reform Commission on the Belgian Social Security for independent workers (2000-2002). She is secretary-general of the Foundation for International Studies on Social Security and coordinator of FP7 funded ImPRovE project. She is also a Fellow of the Royal Belgian Academy and a member of the Belgian High Council for Employment and of the commission on pension reform 2020-2040.One of her recent publications are Reconciling Work and Poverty Reduction (with F. Vandenbroucke, OUP, 2014). Yekaterina Chzhen specializes in comparative social policy, focusing on the interplay between government policies and individual level outcomes, such as poverty, deprivation, and labour market participation. She currently leads UNICEF's Innocenti Report Card series on child well-being in OECD countries and is also part of the team studying multidimensional child poverty. She joined the Unicef Office of Research - Innocenti in February 2013 after two and a half years as a Post-Doctoral Fellow in Quantitative Methods in Social and Political Sciences at the University of Oxford (Nuffield College). She completed her PhD in Social Policy & Economics at the University of York in 2010. Sudhanshu Handa is an economist specializing in poverty, human resources, and public policy. Over the last seven years he has led several large-scale evaluations of national cash transfer programs in sub-Saharan Africa as part of the Transfer Project. Recently he has been part of the research team on UNICEF's Innocenti Report Card which assesses the status of child poverty and well-being in OECD countries. His previous positions include Lecturer at the University of the West Indies, Professor of Agricultural Economics at the Eduardo Mondlane University, and Social Development Specialist at the Inter-American Development Bank. He received his PhD in Economics from the University of Toronto and his BA in Political Economy from the Johns Hopkins University. Brian Nolan is Director of the Employment, Equity and Growth Programme at the Institute for New Economic Thinking, Oxford Martin School, Professor of Social Policy at the Department of Social Policy and Intervention, and Senior Research Fellow at Nuffield College Oxford. His main areas of research are income inequality, poverty, and the economics of social policy. He has contributed to a wide range of comparative studies on poverty, income inequality, social indicators and social policies, tax and transfer policies, the labour market, the minimum wage, and health inequalities and health economics.
  • Cover
  • Children of Austerity
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • List of Contributors
  • 1: Introduction: Scope and Methods
  • 1.1. Introduction
  • 1.2. Scope and Motivation of the Book
  • 1.3. Case Studies
  • 1.4. Summary and Conclusions
  • References
  • 2: Impact of the Economic Crisis on Children in Rich Countries
  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Nature of the Crisis and Recovery across Forty-one Countries
  • 2.2.1. Macroeconomic Trends
  • 2.2.2. Labour Market Trends
  • 2.3. Children in Crisis
  • 2.4. Social Spending
  • 2.5. Conclusion
  • References
  • 3: Belgium: Creeping Vulnerability of Children
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. The `Great Recession´ and its Aftermath
  • 3.3. Child Poverty before, during and after the Crisis
  • 3.3.1. Trends in Living Conditions of Children in Belgium
  • 3.3.2. The Role of the Labour Market
  • 3.3.3. Gauging the Impact of the Crisis
  • 3.3.4. Sociodemographic Characteristics
  • 3.3.5. Work Intensity and Sociodemographic Characteristics
  • 3.4. Policies
  • 3.4.1. Policies before the Crisis
  • 3.4.2. Policies during the Crisis
  • 3.4.3. Policy Discourse
  • 3.4.4. The Way Forward
  • 3.5. Conclusion
  • References
  • 4: Child Poverty during the Recession in Germany
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. The Impact of the Crisis
  • 4.3. Child Poverty before, during, and after the Great Recession
  • 4.3.1. Development of Inequality and Poverty
  • 4.3.2. Children: Economic Well-being, Risks of Poverty, and Social Policy Impacts
  • 4.3.3. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Children in Poverty
  • 4.4. Policies and Debates
  • 4.4.1. Difficult Integration into Work
  • 4.4.2. Low Earnings
  • 4.4.3. Inadequate Social Protection
  • 4.4.4. Unequal Educational Opportunities
  • 4.5. Summary and Conclusions
  • References
  • 5: The Impact of the Great Recession on Child Poverty in Greece
  • 5.1. Introduction
  • 5.2. The Economic Crisis
  • 5.2.1. The Boom Years
  • 5.2.2. The Bailout
  • 5.2.3. Record Fiscal Consolidation
  • 5.2.4. A Low-performing Economy
  • 5.2.5. The Failures of Austerity
  • 5.2.6. Elusive Alternatives
  • 5.2.7. Political Instability
  • 5.2.8. Stagnation and Divergence
  • 5.3. The Social Crisis
  • 5.3.1. Jobs
  • 5.3.2. Earnings
  • 5.3.3. Income Distribution
  • 5.3.4. Child Poverty
  • 5.3.5. Access to Services
  • 5.3.6. Healthcare
  • 5.3.7. Education
  • 5.3.8. Food Aid
  • 5.4. Policy Responses
  • 5.4.1. Greek Welfare prior to 2009
  • 5.4.2. Social Protection under Austerity (2010-14)
  • Unemployment Benefits
  • Child Benefit
  • Social Dividend
  • Minimum Income Pilot
  • Retrenchment vs Expansion
  • 5.4.3. Dealing with the `Humanitarian Crisis´ (2015-)
  • 5.4.4. Assessing the Poverty Impact
  • 5.4.5. The Policy Discourse
  • 5.5. Conclusions
  • References
  • 6: Recession, Recovery, and Regime Change: Effects on Child Poverty in Hungary
  • 6.1. Introduction
  • 6.2. Hungary´s Economic Crisis
  • 6.2.1. Introduction: A Short Account of How Hungary Faced the Outbreak of the Crisis
  • 6.2.2. Economic Developments in the Period 2007-2014
  • 6.2.3. Institutional Legacy of Social and Family Policies
  • 6.2.4. Policy Changes: General Social Policy and Family Policy Measures
  • The Political Context
  • Shift in Policy Regimes in the Making: From Austerity to Workfare
  • 6.3. Children in Hungary´s Crisis
  • 6.3.1. Background and Underlying Structural Trends
  • 6.3.2. Children in Crisis: Characteristics of Child Poverty and Trends over Time
  • 6.4. An Analysis of the Impact of Policies on Children during the Crisis Times
  • 6.4.1. The Poverty Reduction Effect of Cash Benefits
  • 6.4.2. Change of Incidence of Social Transfers over Time
  • 6.5. Conclusions and Implications
  • References
  • 7: Children of the Celtic Tiger during the Economic Crisis: Ireland
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Ireland´s Economic Crisis
  • 7.3. Children in Ireland´s Crisis
  • 7.4. Policy and the Impact of the Crisis on Children
  • 7.5. Conclusions and Implications
  • References
  • 8: The Impact of the Great Recession on Child Poverty: The Case of Italy
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. The Nature of the Crisis: Origins and Transmission Channels
  • 8.3. Children in Crisis: Characteristics of Child Poverty and Trends over Time
  • 8.3.1. Child Poverty in Italy before the Crisis
  • 8.3.2. Trends and Drivers of Child Poverty since the Onset of the Crisis
  • 8.4. Policies: Structural Features of the Policy Framework and Responses during the Crisis
  • 8.4.1. The Social Safety Net before the Onset of the Crisis
  • 8.4.2. Policy Responses throughout the Crisis at the General Level
  • 8.4.3. Specific Policy Innovations Concerning Children´s Poverty
  • 8.5. Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 9: The Recession and the Policy Response for Child Poverty in Japan
  • 9.1. Introduction
  • 9.2. The Economic Crisis
  • 9.2.1. Japan´s Changing Labour Market before the Crisis
  • 9.2.2. The Double Crisis of 2008 and 2011
  • 9.3. How Children Fared
  • 9.3.1. Change in the Relative and Anchored Poverty Rates and Material Deprivation
  • 9.3.2. Material Deprivation
  • 9.4. Mechanisms Explaining the Poverty Trends
  • 9.4.1. Household and Child Characteristics
  • 9.4.2. Child Poverty Rate by Household Structure
  • 9.4.3. Work Intensity
  • 9.4.4. Work Status (Seiki/Hiseiki)
  • 9.5. Policy Response
  • 9.5.1. The Change of Government in 2009
  • 9.5.2. Reform of Child Benefit
  • Child Benefit
  • Tax Increase for Households with Children
  • 9.5.3. Failure of the DPJ Government
  • 9.6. Conclusion
  • References
  • 10: Growing up in Poverty: Children and the Great Recession in Spain
  • 10.1. Introduction
  • 10.2. Nature of the Crisis
  • 10.3. Spanish Children during the Crisis
  • 10.3.1. Relative and Anchored Child Poverty Trends
  • 10.3.2. Low Work Intensity and Poverty among Children
  • 10.3.3. Material Deprivation Trends among Children
  • 10.3.4. Children at Most Risk during the Great Recession
  • 10.4. Policy Changes during the Economic Downturn and the Effectiveness of the Monetary Transfer System
  • 10.5. Conclusions
  • References
  • 11: Sweden: Child Poverty during Two Recessions
  • 11.1. Introduction
  • 11.2. The Nature of the Crises
  • 11.3. Child Poverty across the Crises
  • 11.3.1. Trends in Poverty among Families with Children
  • 11.3.2. Trends in Child Poverty in Vulnerable Groups
  • 11.3.3. The Importance of Labour Market Attachment
  • 11.3.4. Who are the Poor Children?
  • 11.3.5. Trends in Child Poverty Measured by Children´s Own Economy
  • 11.3.6. Child Poverty from the Children´s Perspective: Does Parental Poverty Translate to Child Deprivation?
  • 11.4. Policy and Political Debate around Child Poverty
  • 11.4.1. Responses, Retrenchments, and Reforms
  • 11.4.2. Discourse around Protecting Vulnerable Families/Children in the Policy Debate
  • 11.5. Conclusions: Improving Outcomes for Children
  • References
  • 12: Impact of the Recession on Children in the United Kingdom
  • 12.1. Introduction
  • 12.2. Financial and Economic Crisis
  • 12.3. How Did Children Fare during the Crisis?
  • 12.3.1. Child Poverty in the UK before the Financial Crisis
  • 12.3.2. Child Poverty in the UK after the Financial Crisis
  • 12.4. Policies
  • 12.5. Summary: Improving Outcomes for Children and Learning from Experience
  • References
  • 13: USA Child Poverty: The Impact of the Great Recession
  • 13.1. Introduction: The Nature of the Crisis-Origins and Transmission Channels Relevant to Children
  • 13.2. Poverty: Concepts, Especially for Children
  • 13.3. Data, Measures, and Methods
  • 13.3.1. Data
  • 13.3.2. Measures
  • 13.4. Results
  • 13.4.1. Relative Child Poverty by Demographic Characteristics
  • 13.4.2. Understanding Impacts on Children: The US Policy Response to the Great Recession
  • 13.5. Lessons Learned from the US Experience
  • References
  • 14: Learning the Lessons: Enhancing Capacity to Protect Children
  • 14.1. Introduction
  • 14.2. Learning from Diverse Countries and Country Experiences
  • 14.3. The Varying Impact of the Crisis on Child Poverty
  • 14.4. Responding to the Crisis
  • 14.5. The Centrality of Social Protection
  • 14.6. Social Protection and Social Spending as the Crisis Unfolded
  • 14.7. Tackling Child Poverty and Promoting Protective Capacity for the Future
  • 14.8. Legacies of the Crisis and Putting Children First
  • Index

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