The Complete Part Design Handbook

For Injection Molding of Thermoplastics
 
 
Hanser (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 18. März 2013
  • |
  • 100 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Wasserzeichen-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-3-446-41292-7 (ISBN)
 
This handbook was written for the injection molding product designer who has a limited knowledge of engineering polymers. It is a guide for the designer to decide which resin and design geometries to use for the design of plastic parts. It can also offer knowledgeable advice for resin and machine selection and processing parameters. Manufacturer and end user satisfaction is the ultimate goal.
This book is an indispensable, all inclusive, reference guide. New illustrations, graphs and equations have been included to provide additional clarity for complex ideas.
Contents:
- Plastic Materials Selection Guide
- Engineering Product Design
- Structural Design for Thermoplastics
- Thermoplastic Gearing Design
- Plastic Journal Bearing Design
- Thermoplastic Spring Design
- Thermoplastic Pressure Vessel Design
- Thermoplastic Assembly Methods
- Thermoplastic Effects on Design
- Thermoplastic Injection Mold Design
- Performance Testing of Thermoplastics
- Thermoplastic Product Cost Analysis
  • Englisch
  • München
  • |
  • Deutschland
  • 33,54 MB
978-3-446-41292-7 (9783446412927)
3446412921 (3446412921)
http://dx.doi.org/10.3139/9783446412927
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
1 - Dedication [Seite 6]
2 - Preface [Seite 8]
3 - Contents [Seite 10]
4 - 1 Polymeric Materials [Seite 24]
4.1 - 1.1 Introduction to Plastic Materials [Seite 24]
4.1.1 - 1.1.1 Beginning of Plastics [Seite 24]
4.1.2 - 1.1.2 Polymer Families [Seite 26]
4.2 - 1.2 Thermoplastic Polymers [Seite 27]
4.2.1 - 1.2.1 Classification of Polymers by Performance [Seite 27]
4.2.2 - 1.2.2 Molecular Structure of Plastic Materials [Seite 29]
4.2.3 - 1.2.3 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) [Seite 29]
4.2.4 - 1.2.4 Acetal (POM, Polyacetal) [Seite 32]
4.2.5 - 1.2.5 Polymethyl Metacrylate (Acrylic, PMMA) [Seite 35]
4.2.6 - 1.2.6 High Temperature Nylon (HTN) [Seite 37]
4.2.7 - 1.2.7 Ionomer Polymers [Seite 39]
4.2.8 - 1.2.8 Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) [Seite 41]
4.2.9 - 1.2.9 Polyamide (PA, Nylon) [Seite 43]
4.2.10 - 1.2.10 Polyetherimide (PEI) [Seite 46]
4.2.11 - 1.2.11 Polyarylate (PAR) [Seite 48]
4.2.12 - 1.2.12 Polyetherether Ketone (PEEK) [Seite 50]
4.2.13 - 1.2.13 Polycarbonate (PC) [Seite 51]
4.2.14 - 1.2.14 Modified Polyphenylene Oxide (PPO) [Seite 54]
4.2.15 - 1.2.15 Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) [Seite 56]
4.2.16 - 1.2.16 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) [Seite 57]
4.2.17 - 1.2.17 Polyethylene (PE) [Seite 59]
4.2.18 - 1.2.18 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) [Seite 62]
4.2.19 - 1.2.19 Polyphenylene Sulfi de (PPS) [Seite 67]
4.2.20 - 1.2.20 Polypropylene (PP) [Seite 69]
4.2.21 - 1.2.21 Polystyrene (PS) [Seite 71]
4.2.22 - 1.2.22 Polysulfone (PSU) [Seite 72]
4.2.23 - 1.2.23 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) [Seite 74]
4.2.24 - 1.2.24 Styrene Acrylonitrile (SAN) [Seite 76]
4.3 - 1.3 Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) [Seite 78]
4.3.1 - 1.3.1 Thermoplastic Elastomer Families [Seite 79]
4.3.2 - 1.3.2 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomer (TPU) [Seite 80]
4.3.3 - 1.3.3 Styrenic Block Copolymer (SBS) [Seite 83]
4.3.4 - 1.3.4 Polyolefin Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPO) [Seite 85]
4.3.5 - 1.3.5 Elastomeric Alloy Thermoplastic Vulcanized (TPV). [Seite 88]
4.3.6 - 1.3.6 Melt Processible Rubber (MPR) [Seite 92]
4.3.7 - 1.3.7 Copolyester Thermoplastic Elastomer [Seite 94]
4.3.8 - 1.3.8 Polyamide Thermoplastic Elastomer [Seite 98]
4.4 - 1.4 Liquid Injection Molding Silicone (LIM®) [Seite 100]
4.4.1 - 1.4.1 LIM® Silicone Processing [Seite 102]
4.5 - 1.5 Thermoset Polymers [Seite 105]
4.5.1 - 1.5.1 Polyester Alkyd (PAK) [Seite 106]
4.5.2 - 1.5.2 Diallyl Phthalate/Isophthalate (DAP, DAIP) [Seite 108]
4.5.3 - 1.5.3 Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) [Seite 110]
4.5.4 - 1.5.4 Cellulosic Ester [Seite 111]
4.5.5 - 1.5.5 Cyanate [Seite 112]
4.5.6 - 1.5.6 Epoxy (EP) [Seite 115]
4.5.7 - 1.5.7 Phenol Formaldehyde (Phenolic, PF) [Seite 117]
4.5.8 - 1.5.8 Polybutadiene (PB) [Seite 120]
4.5.9 - 1.5.9 Bismaleimide (BMI) [Seite 120]
4.5.10 - 1.5.10 Unsaturated Polyester (UP) [Seite 121]
4.5.11 - 1.5.11 Polyimide (PI) [Seite 124]
4.5.12 - 1.5.12 Polyxylene [Seite 126]
4.5.13 - 1.5.13 Polyurethane (PUR) [Seite 127]
4.5.14 - 1.5.14 Silicone (SI) [Seite 130]
4.5.15 - 1.5.15 Urethane Hybrid [Seite 132]
4.5.16 - 1.5.16 Vinyl Ester (BPA) [Seite 134]
5 - 2 Engineering Product Design [Seite 138]
5.1 - 2.1 Understanding the Properties of Materials [Seite 138]
5.1.1 - 2.1.1 Plastics Selection Guidelines [Seite 140]
5.2 - 2.2 Structural Design of Thermoplastic Components [Seite 143]
5.2.1 - 2.2.1 Stress-Strain Behavior [Seite 144]
5.2.2 - 2.2.2 Tensile Testing of Viscoelastic Materials [Seite 145]
5.3 - 2.3 Mechanical Properties of Materials [Seite 149]
5.4 - 2.4 Tension and Compression Curves [Seite 152]
5.5 - 2.5 Modulus of Elasticity (E) [Seite 152]
5.6 - 2.6 Stress and Strain Analysis [Seite 153]
5.7 - 2.7 Thermoplastics Elastic Design Method [Seite 154]
5.7.1 - 2.7.1 Working Stress [Seite 155]
5.7.2 - 2.7.2 Compressive Stress [Seite 156]
5.7.3 - 2.7.3 Flexural Stress [Seite 157]
5.7.4 - 2.7.4 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (?) [Seite 158]
5.7.5 - 2.7.5 Poisson's Ratio (?) [Seite 159]
5.7.6 - 2.7.6 Moisture Effects on Nylon [Seite 159]
5.7.7 - 2.7.7 Effects of Temperature on the Behavior of Thermoplastics [Seite 160]
5.8 - 2.8 Stress-Strain Recovery (Hysteresis) [Seite 161]
5.8.1 - 2.8.1 Creep Behavior of Thermoplastics [Seite 161]
5.8.2 - 2.8.2 Creep and Rupture Under Long-Term Load [Seite 162]
5.8.3 - 2.8.3 Creep and Relaxation of Thermoplastics [Seite 162]
5.9 - 2.9 Flexural Beam Stress Distribution [Seite 168]
5.10 - 2.10 Viscoelastic Modulus Design Method [Seite 170]
5.11 - 2.11 Centroid, Section Area, and Moment of Inertia [Seite 173]
5.12 - 2.12 Radius of Gyration [Seite 181]
5.13 - 2.13 Stress Analysis of Beams [Seite 181]
5.13.1 - 2.13.1 Types of Loads [Seite 181]
5.13.2 - 2.13.2 Normal Stresses in Beams [Seite 182]
5.13.3 - 2.13.3 Shearing Force [Seite 187]
5.14 - 2.14 Beam Deflection Analysis [Seite 191]
5.14.1 - 2.14.1 Beam Deflection by Double Integration Method [Seite 192]
5.14.2 - 2.14.2 Beam Deflection Moment Area Method [Seite 201]
5.14.3 - 2.14.3 Applications of Moment Area and Double Integration Methods [Seite 202]
5.14.4 - 2.14.4 Beam Deflection Superposition Method [Seite 206]
5.15 - 2.15 Column Structural Analysis [Seite 211]
5.15.1 - 2.15.1 Long Slender Column Critical Load (PCr) [Seite 211]
5.15.2 - 2.15.2 Column Slenderness Ratio (L / r) [Seite 211]
5.15.3 - 2.15.3 Eccentrically Loaded Columns [Seite 211]
5.16 - 2.16 Flat Circular Plates [Seite 217]
5.16.1 - 2.16.1 Classification [Seite 218]
5.16.2 - 2.16.2 Stress Analysis Methods [Seite 218]
5.16.3 - 2.16.3 Flat Circular Plate Equations [Seite 219]
5.16.4 - 2.16.4 Flat Circular Plate Stresses [Seite 220]
5.16.5 - 2.16.5 Theory of Flexure Comparison [Seite 221]
5.16.6 - 2.16.6 Circular Plates Simply Supported, Concentrated center Load [Seite 221]
5.16.7 - 2.16.7 Flat Circular Plate under Concentrated Center Load [Seite 222]
5.16.8 - 2.16.8 Flat Circular Plate with Fixed Edge [Seite 222]
5.16.9 - 2.16.9 Flat Circular Plate Compensation Factor for Deflection [Seite 223]
5.16.10 - 2.16.10 Flat Circular Plate Bending under Edge Boundaries [Seite 223]
5.17 - 2.17 Torsion Structural Analysis [Seite 230]
6 - 3 Structural Designs for Thermoplastics [Seite 234]
6.1 - 3.1 Uniform and Symmetrical Wall Thickness [Seite 234]
6.1.1 - 3.1.1 Part Geometries Difficult to Mold [Seite 235]
6.1.2 - 3.1.2 Wall Draft Angle per Side [Seite 236]
6.2 - 3.2 Structural Rib Design [Seite 236]
6.2.1 - 3.2.1 Rib Strength Analysis Method [Seite 238]
6.3 - 3.3 Internal Sharp Corners and Notches [Seite 245]
6.4 - 3.4 Injection Molded Thermoplastic Bosses [Seite 245]
6.5 - 3.5 Injection Molded Thermoplastic Threads [Seite 247]
6.6 - 3.6 Collapsible Core for Molding Internal Threads [Seite 247]
6.7 - 3.7 Preferred Standard Thread Forms for Thermoplastics [Seite 248]
6.7.1 - 3.7.1 Thermoplastic Threads Creep Effects [Seite 250]
6.8 - 3.8 Injection Molded Products with Undercuts [Seite 250]
6.9 - 3.9 Injection Molded Integral Life Hinges [Seite 255]
6.9.1 - 3.9.1 Injection Molded Integral Life Hinge Design [Seite 256]
6.9.2 - 3.9.2 Mold Design Considerations for Hinges [Seite 258]
6.9.3 - 3.9.3 Proper Gate Design for Life Hinges [Seite 259]
6.10 - 3.10 Conventional Types of Pin Hinges [Seite 260]
6.11 - 3.11 Metal Inserts for Thermoplastic Encapsulation [Seite 262]
6.11.1 - 3.11.1 Machined Metal Threaded Insert Tolerances [Seite 263]
6.11.2 - 3.11.2 Thermoplastic Boss Wall Thickness for Metal Inserts [Seite 263]
6.11.3 - 3.11.3 Press/Lock Slotted Metal Insert Installation After Molding [Seite 265]
6.11.4 - 3.11.4 Cold Forged Metal Inserts for Encapsulation [Seite 266]
6.11.5 - 3.11.5 Threaded Female Metal Inserts [Seite 267]
6.11.6 - 3.11.6 Metal Inserts Anchorage for ThermoplasticEncapsulation [Seite 269]
6.11.7 - 3.11.7 Metal Insert Encapsulating Process Problems [Seite 272]
6.11.8 - 3.11.8 Special Metal Inserts Anchorage for Encapsulation [Seite 273]
6.11.9 - 3.11.9 Electrical Lead Inserts for Encapsulation [Seite 276]
6.11.10 - 3.11.10 Inserts Preparation for Molding Encapsulation [Seite 278]
7 - 4 Thermoplastic Gearing Design [Seite 280]
7.1 - 4.1 Classification of Gears [Seite 281]
7.1.1 - 4.1.1 Gears Parallel to the Shaft Axis [Seite 281]
7.1.2 - 4.1.2 Bevel Gears, Nonparallel and Intersecting Shafts [Seite 282]
7.1.3 - 4.1.3 Hypoid Gears, Nonparallel and Nonintersecting Shafts [Seite 284]
7.1.4 - 4.1.4 Gears for Straight Linear Motion [Seite 285]
7.2 - 4.2 Standard Injection Molded Thermoplastic Gears [Seite 286]
7.2.1 - 4.2.1 Selection of Thermoplastic Resins for Gears [Seite 287]
7.2.2 - 4.2.2 Horsepower Equations for Gears [Seite 289]
7.2.3 - 4.2.3 Spur Gear Terminology and Definitions [Seite 291]
7.3 - 4.3 Properties Required for Injection Molded Thermoplastic Gears [Seite 295]
7.4 - 4.4 Thermoplastic Spur Gear Design Requirements [Seite 296]
7.4.1 - 4.4.1 Gating Effects on Thermoplastic Gear Roundness Dimensions [Seite 298]
7.4.2 - 4.4.2 Multifunction Designs with Thermoplastic Gears [Seite 300]
7.4.3 - 4.4.3 Mounting Thermoplastic Gears on Metal Shafts [Seite 302]
7.4.4 - 4.4.4 Standard Spur Gears, Equations, and Calculations [Seite 302]
7.4.5 - 4.4.5 Spur Gear Pitch Backlash [Seite 304]
7.4.6 - 4.4.6 Standard Spur Gear Tooth Size Selection [Seite 305]
7.4.7 - 4.4.7 Standard Gear Total Composite Tolerances [Seite 306]
7.5 - 4.5 Tolerances and Mold Shrinkage of Thermoplastic Gears [Seite 310]
7.6 - 4.6 Standard Helical Gears [Seite 312]
7.7 - 4.7 Standard Straight Bevel Gears [Seite 313]
7.8 - 4.8 Standard Worm Gears [Seite 315]
7.8.1 - 4.8.1 Standard Worm Gear Analysis [Seite 316]
7.9 - 4.10 Plastic Gearing Technology Designs [Seite 317]
7.9.1 - 4.10.1 Spur and Helical Gears PGT-1 Tooth Design [Seite 318]
7.9.2 - 4.10.2 Spur and Helical Gears PGT-2 Tooth Design [Seite 320]
7.9.3 - 4.10.3 Spur and Helical Gears PGT-3 Tooth Design [Seite 321]
7.9.4 - 4.10.4 Spur and Helical Gears PGT-4 Tooth Design [Seite 322]
7.9.5 - 4.10.5 Plastic Gearing Technology Tooth Form Design Variables [Seite 323]
7.9.6 - 4.10.6 Maximum Allowable Outside Diameter DO (Max.) [Seite 325]
7.9.7 - 4.10.7 Spur Gear Tooth Form Comparison [Seite 326]
7.9.8 - 4.10.8 Mating Spur Gears Tooth Form Comparison [Seite 327]
7.9.9 - 4.10.9 PGT Spur Mating Gears Strength Balance [Seite 328]
7.9.10 - 4.10.10 PGT Close Mesh Center Distance Between Spur Gears [Seite 331]
7.9.11 - 4.10.11 Maximum Close Mesh Center Distance [Seite 332]
7.10 - 4.11 PGT Helical Thermoplastic Gearing [Seite 337]
7.10.1 - 4.11.1 PGT-1 Helical Mating Gears Strength Balance [Seite 342]
7.10.2 - 4.11.2 PGT-1 Helical Mating Gears Center Distance [Seite 345]
7.11 - 4.12 PGT Spur and Helical Gears Horsepower Rating [Seite 346]
7.11.1 - 4.12.1 PGT Gear Horsepower Equation Basic Parameters [Seite 347]
7.12 - 4.13 PGT Spur and Helical Gear Specifications [Seite 351]
8 - 5 Plastic Journal Bearing Design [Seite 358]
8.1 - 5.1 Introduction [Seite 358]
8.2 - 5.2 Materials Used for Journal Bearings [Seite 358]
8.2.1 - 5.2.1 Babbitt Journal Bearings [Seite 359]
8.2.2 - 5.2.2 Bronze Journal Bearings [Seite 359]
8.2.3 - 5.2.3 Sintered Porous Metal Journal Bearings [Seite 359]
8.2.4 - 5.2.4 Plugged Bronze Journal Bearings [Seite 359]
8.2.5 - 5.2.5 Carbon-Graphite Journal Bearings [Seite 360]
8.2.6 - 5.2.6 Cast-iron Journal Bearings [Seite 360]
8.2.7 - 5.2.7 Wooden Journal Bearings [Seite 360]
8.2.8 - 5.2.8 Rubber Journal Bearings [Seite 360]
8.2.9 - 5.2.9 Self-Lubricated Thermoplastic Journal Bearings [Seite 361]
8.3 - 5.3 Hydrodynamics of Lubrication [Seite 362]
8.4 - 5.4 Journal Bearings Design for Lubrication [Seite 365]
8.5 - 5.5 Journal Bearing Design Principles [Seite 368]
8.5.1 - 5.5.1 Journal Bearing Nomenclature and Equations [Seite 368]
8.5.2 - 5.5.2 Thermoplastic Journal Bearing Axial Wall Thickness [Seite 370]
8.5.3 - 5.5.3 Mounting Thermoplastic Journal Bearings [Seite 370]
8.6 - 5.6 Split Bushing Thermoplastic Journal Bearings [Seite 371]
8.7 - 5.7 Self-Centering Thermoplastic Journal Bearings [Seite 371]
8.8 - 5.8 Journal Bearing Load Carrying Contact Surface (C) [Seite 373]
8.9 - 5.9 Load Reaction Across the Length of Thermoplastic Bearing [Seite 373]
8.10 - 5.10 Injection Molded Journal Bearings Process Defects [Seite 374]
8.11 - 5.11 Factors Affecting Journal Bearing Performance [Seite 375]
8.12 - 5.12 Factors Affecting Journal Bearing Dimensions [Seite 376]
8.12.1 - 5.12.1 Length-to-Inside Diameter Ratio of Journal Bearings [Seite 377]
8.12.2 - 5.12.2 Types of Service and Motion of Journal Bearings [Seite 377]
8.12.3 - 5.12.3 Thermoplastic Journal Bearing Annealing Effects [Seite 377]
8.12.4 - 5.12.4 Acetal Homopolymer Moisture Absorption Effects [Seite 378]
8.12.5 - 5.12.5 TFE and Nylon 6/6 Moisture Absorption Effects [Seite 378]
8.12.6 - 5.12.6 Temperature Effects on Thermoplastic Journal Bearings [Seite 379]
8.12.7 - 5.12.7 Thermal Effects on Thermoplastic Journal Bearing Clearances [Seite 380]
8.13 - 5.13 Journal Bearing Pressure-Velocity (PV) Limits [Seite 381]
8.13.1 - 5.13.1 Methods to Determine the PV Limits of Plastics [Seite 382]
8.13.2 - 5.13.2 Journal Bearing Coefficient of Friction [Seite 382]
8.13.3 - 5.13.3 Journal Bearing Failures Due to Small Clearances [Seite 383]
8.13.4 - 5.13.4 Definition of Different Types of Wear [Seite 384]
8.14 - 5.14 Mating Material Hardness and Surface Finishing [Seite 385]
8.15 - 5.15 Self-Lubricated Thermoplastic Journal Bearings [Seite 386]
8.15.1 - 5.15.1 Vespel® Polyimide Bearings [Seite 389]
8.15.2 - 5.15.2 Journal Bearing Pressure Equation [Seite 390]
8.15.3 - 5.15.3 Vespel® Wear Factor Effects Caused by Temperature [Seite 391]
8.15.4 - 5.15.4 Vespel® Wear Transition Temperature [Seite 392]
8.15.5 - 5.15.5 Frictional Behavior of Vespel® [Seite 392]
8.15.6 - 5.15.6 Vespel® Journal Bearings Length to Inside Diameter Ratio [Seite 393]
8.15.7 - 5.15.7 Vespel® Thrust Bearing Ratio Between Diameters [Seite 393]
8.15.8 - 5.15.8 Vespel® Journal Bearing Initial Clearance (cI) [Seite 393]
8.15.9 - 5.15.9 Vespel® Journal Bearing Inside Diameter (dB) [Seite 394]
8.16 - 5.16 Teflon® (TFE) Fabric Composite Bearings [Seite 396]
8.16.1 - 5.16.1 Bearing Physical Properties [Seite 397]
8.16.2 - 5.16.2 Bearing PV Limit Rating [Seite 397]
8.16.3 - 5.16.3 Journal Bearing Clearances (c) [Seite 398]
8.17 - 5.17 Thermoplastic Kevlar® Reinforced Bearings [Seite 398]
9 - 6 Thermoplastic Molded Spring Design [Seite 400]
9.1 - 6.1 Introduction [Seite 400]
9.2 - 6.2 Thermoplastic Molded Spring Design Considerations [Seite 401]
9.3 - 6.3 Thermoplastic Helical Compression Springs [Seite 401]
9.4 - 6.4 Thermoplastic Molded Cantilever Beam Springs [Seite 402]
9.5 - 6.5 Cantilever Beam Spring Design Analysis [Seite 404]
9.5.1 - 6.5.1 Initial Modulus of Elasticity Cantilever Beam Analysis Method [Seite 404]
9.5.2 - 6.5.2 Stress-Strain Curve Cantilever Beam Analysis Method [Seite 404]
9.5.3 - 6.5.3 Empirical Data Cantilever Spring Analysis Method [Seite 405]
9.6 - 6.6 Thermoplastic Cantilever Spring Applications [Seite 408]
9.7 - 6.7 Thermoplastic Belleville Spring Washers [Seite 411]
9.7.1 - 6.7.1 Acetal Homopolymer Belleville Spring Washer Analysis [Seite 412]
9.7.2 - 6.7.2 Belleville Spring Washer Loading Rate [Seite 415]
9.7.3 - 6.7.3 Belleville Spring Washer Long-Term Loading Characteristics [Seite 415]
10 - 7 Thermoplastic Pressure Vessel Design [Seite 416]
10.1 - 7.1 Thermoplastic Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels [Seite 416]
10.2 - 7.2 Thin-Walled Cylinder Basic Principles [Seite 417]
10.3 - 7.3 Thick-Walled Pressure Vessels [Seite 419]
10.3.1 - 7.3.1 Lame's Equation for Thick-Walled Cylinders [Seite 419]
10.3.2 - 7.3.2 Maximum Stresses with Internal and External Pressures [Seite 421]
10.3.3 - 7.3.3 Maximum Stresses for Internal Pressure Only [Seite 421]
10.4 - 7.4 Designing Cylinders for Cost Reduction [Seite 423]
10.5 - 7.5 Thermoplastic Pressure Vessels Design Guidelines [Seite 423]
10.5.1 - 7.5.1 Preliminary Pressure Vessel Design [Seite 423]
10.6 - 7.6 Testing Prototype Thermoplastic Pressure Vessels [Seite 425]
10.6.1 - 7.6.1 Redesign and Retesting the Pressure Vessels [Seite 425]
10.7 - 7.7 Pressure Vessel Regulations [Seite 425]
10.7.1 - 7.7.1 ASME Pressure Vessel Code [Seite 426]
11 - 8 Thermoplastic Assembly Methods [Seite 428]
11.1 - 8.1 Introduction [Seite 428]
11.2 - 8.2 Cold Heading Method [Seite 428]
11.2.1 - 8.2.1 Cold Heading Procedure and Equipment [Seite 429]
11.3 - 8.3 Electro Fusion Fitting System [Seite 431]
11.3.1 - 8.3.1 The SEF-System [Seite 432]
11.4 - 8.4 Hot Plate Welding Method [Seite 433]
11.4.1 - 8.4.1 Hot Plate Welding Joint Design [Seite 435]
11.4.2 - 8.4.2 Flash or Weld Bead [Seite 436]
11.5 - 8.5 Solvent and Adhesive Bonding Methods [Seite 436]
11.5.1 - 8.5.1 Solvents Used to Bond Thermoplastic Polymers [Seite 437]
11.6 - 8.6 Adhesive Bonding Method [Seite 439]
11.6.1 - 8.6.1 Adhesive Families [Seite 439]
11.6.2 - 8.6.2 Adhesive Concerns [Seite 442]
11.6.3 - 8.6.3 Adhesives Bonding Selection [Seite 443]
11.6.4 - 8.6.4 Ultra Violet Curable Adhesives [Seite 444]
11.6.5 - 8.6.5 Adhesive Surface Preparation [Seite 447]
11.6.6 - 8.6.6 Adhesive Application and Curing Methods [Seite 448]
11.6.7 - 8.6.7 Joint Design for Adhesive Bonding [Seite 448]
11.7 - 8.7 Metal Fasteners Method [Seite 450]
11.7.1 - 8.7.1 Thermoplastic Bosses and Self-Tapping Screws [Seite 452]
11.7.2 - 8.7.2 Thread Forming and Thread Cutting Screws [Seite 453]
11.8 - 8.8 Press Fitting Method [Seite 460]
11.8.1 - 8.8.1 Press Fitting Interference [Seite 462]
11.8.2 - 8.8.2 Circular Press Fitting Assembly Method [Seite 464]
11.9 - 8.9 Snap Fitting Methods [Seite 467]
11.9.1 - 8.9.1 Circular Undercut Snap Fitting Joints [Seite 468]
11.9.2 - 8.9.2 Suggestions for Stripping Circular Undercut Snap Fitting [Seite 469]
11.9.3 - 8.9.3 Cantilevered Latch Snap Fitting Joint [Seite 470]
11.9.4 - 8.9.4 Cantilever Snap Fit Latch Design Guidelines [Seite 472]
11.9.5 - 8.9.5 Cantilever Latch Snap Fit Mathematical Model [Seite 473]
11.9.6 - 8.9.6 Cantilever Snap Latch Beam Permissible Deflection (?) [Seite 475]
11.9.7 - 8.9.7 Cantilever Latch Beam Assembly Force (W) [Seite 476]
11.9.8 - 8.9.8 Design and Material Considerations [Seite 477]
11.9.9 - 8.9.9 Uniform Cross Section Cantilever Beam [Seite 477]
11.9.10 - 8.9.10 Tapered Cross Section Cantilever Beam [Seite 478]
11.10 - 8.10 Electromagnetic Welding Method [Seite 481]
11.10.1 - 8.10.1 Electromagnetic Welding Process [Seite 482]
11.10.2 - 8.10.2 Electromagnetic Welding Coil Design [Seite 483]
11.10.3 - 8.10.3 Electromagnetic Welding Joint Design [Seite 486]
11.10.4 - 8.10.4 Available Welding Gasket Shapes and Forms [Seite 487]
11.11 - 8.11 Vibration Welding Method [Seite 488]
11.11.1 - 8.11.1 High Frequency Vibration Welding [Seite 488]
11.11.2 - 8.11.2 Vibration Welding Modes [Seite 489]
11.11.3 - 8.11.3 Comparing Vibration Welding to Other Assembly Methods [Seite 492]
11.11.4 - 8.11.4 Vibration Welding Equipment [Seite 494]
11.11.5 - 8.11.5 Vibration Welding Joint Design [Seite 495]
11.11.6 - 8.11.6 Vibration Welding Aligning and Fixturing [Seite 496]
11.11.7 - 8.11.7 Vibration Welding Tolerances [Seite 497]
11.11.8 - 8.11.8 Vibration Welding Equipment [Seite 497]
11.12 - 8.12 Spin Welding Method [Seite 499]
11.12.1 - 8.12.1 Applications [Seite 499]
11.12.2 - 8.12.2 Basic Spin Welding Equipment [Seite 499]
11.12.3 - 8.12.3 Spin Welding Variables [Seite 500]
11.12.4 - 8.12.4 Types of Spin Welding Processes [Seite 500]
11.12.5 - 8.12.5 Spin Welding Joint Designs [Seite 503]
11.12.6 - 8.12.6 Spin Welding Process Suggestions [Seite 503]
11.13 - 8.13 Ultrasonic Welding Method [Seite 505]
11.13.1 - 8.13.1 Ultrasonic Welding Basic Principles [Seite 505]
11.13.2 - 8.13.2 Ultrasonic Welding Basic Components [Seite 506]
11.13.3 - 8.13.3 Ultrasonic Welding Equipment [Seite 506]
11.13.4 - 8.13.4 Ultrasonic Welding Process Variables [Seite 510]
11.13.5 - 8.13.5 Ultrasonic Welding Joint Designs [Seite 512]
11.13.6 - 8.13.6 Ultrasonic Welding Energy Director Butt Joint [Seite 515]
11.13.7 - 8.13.7 Ultrasonic Welding Method Design Limitations [Seite 517]
11.13.8 - 8.13.8 Weldability of Thermoplastic Materials [Seite 519]
11.13.9 - 8.13.9 Effects Caused by Thermoplastic Additives on Ultrasonic Welding [Seite 520]
11.14 - 8.14 Ultrasonic Insertion [Seite 523]
11.14.1 - 8.14.1 Applications [Seite 523]
11.14.2 - 8.14.2 Ultrasonic Insertion Configurations [Seite 524]
11.14.3 - 8.14.3 Ultrasonic Insertion Product Design [Seite 525]
11.14.4 - 8.14.4 Ultrasonic Insertion Equipment Requirements [Seite 525]
11.14.5 - 8.14.5 Ultrasonic Insertion Process Guidelines [Seite 526]
11.15 - 8.15 Ultrasonic Stud Staking Method [Seite 526]
11.15.1 - 8.15.1 Ultrasonic Stud Staking Joint Design [Seite 526]
11.16 - 8.16 Ultrasonic Stud Heading Method [Seite 529]
11.16.1 - 8.16.1 Thermoplastic Stud Profiles for Ultrasonic Heading [Seite 529]
11.17 - 8.17 Ultrasonic Spot Welding Method [Seite 532]
11.17.1 - 8.17.1 Hand-Held Ultrasonic Spot Welder [Seite 533]
12 - 9 Thermoplastic Effects on Product Design [Seite 534]
12.1 - 9.1 Polymer Melt Behavior [Seite 534]
12.1.1 - 9.1.1 Thermoplastics Glass Transition Temperature [Seite 536]
12.2 - 9.2 General Characteristics of Polymers [Seite 536]
12.2.1 - 9.2.1 Critical Properties of Thermoplastics [Seite 537]
12.3 - 9.3 Polymer Reinforcements [Seite 538]
12.3.1 - 9.3.1 Types of Fiber Reinforcements [Seite 539]
12.3.2 - 9.3.2 Isotropic Warpage of Fiber Reinforced Resins [Seite 540]
12.3.3 - 9.3.3 Fiber Glass Reinforcement Limitations [Seite 540]
12.3.4 - 9.3.4 Injection Molding Process Effects on Fiber Glass Orientation [Seite 540]
12.3.5 - 9.3.5 Tensile Stress Effects Caused by Fiber Glass Orientation [Seite 541]
12.3.6 - 9.3.6 Flexural Modulus Effects Caused by Fiber Glass Orientation [Seite 542]
12.4 - 9.4 Chemical and Environmental Resistance [Seite 543]
12.4.1 - 9.4.1 Effects of the Environment [Seite 544]
12.5 - 9.5 Types of Degradations [Seite 545]
12.5.1 - 9.5.1 Oxidative Degradation [Seite 545]
12.5.2 - 9.5.2 Radiation Degradation [Seite 545]
12.5.3 - 9.5.3 Photo Oxidation [Seite 545]
12.5.4 - 9.5.4 Mechanical Degradation [Seite 545]
12.5.5 - 9.5.5 Microbial Degradation [Seite 546]
12.6 - 9.6 Moisture Effects on Nylon Molded Parts [Seite 546]
12.7 - 9.7 Aqueous Potassium Acetate for Moisture Conditioning Nylon [Seite 550]
12.8 - 9.8 Injection Molding Cycles [Seite 551]
12.9 - 9.9 Mold Cavity Surface Temperature [Seite 552]
12.10 - 9.10 Mold Cavity Temperature Control [Seite 553]
12.10.1 - 9.10.1 Mold and Post-Mold Shrinkage [Seite 554]
12.11 - 9.11 Process Condition Effects on Mold Shrinkage [Seite 556]
12.12 - 9.12 Post-Mold Shrinkage [Seite 561]
12.13 - 9.13 Weld Lines [Seite 564]
13 - 10 Injection Mold Design [Seite 568]
13.1 - 10.1 Classification of Injection Molds [Seite 568]
13.2 - 10.2 Effects of Product Design on the Injection Molding Process [Seite 569]
13.2.1 - 10.2.1 Uniform Wall Thickness [Seite 570]
13.2.2 - 10.2.2 Balance Geometrical Configuration [Seite 570]
13.2.3 - 10.2.3 Smooth Internal Sharp Corners [Seite 570]
13.2.4 - 10.2.4 Draft Walls [Seite 570]
13.2.5 - 10.2.5 Feather Edges [Seite 570]
13.2.6 - 10.2.6 Proportional Boss Geometries [Seite 571]
13.2.7 - 10.2.7 Gate Type and Location [Seite 571]
13.2.8 - 10.2.8 Molded Product Ejection Surface Area [Seite 571]
13.2.9 - 10.2.9 Molded Product Tolerances [Seite 571]
13.2.10 - 10.2.10 Surface Finish of Molded Product [Seite 572]
13.3 - 10.3 Effects of Mold Design on the Injection Molding Process [Seite 572]
13.3.1 - 10.3.1 Runner System [Seite 572]
13.3.2 - 10.3.2 Mold Cooling System [Seite 572]
13.3.3 - 10.3.3 Ejector System [Seite 573]
13.3.4 - 10.3.4 Mold Venting [Seite 573]
13.3.5 - 10.3.5 Other Mold Devices [Seite 573]
13.4 - 10.4 Design Considerations for Injection Molds [Seite 573]
13.4.1 - 10.4.1 Preliminary Mold Design [Seite 574]
13.4.2 - 10.4.2 Detailed Mold Design [Seite 575]
13.5 - 10.5 Types of Steels Required for Injection Molds [Seite 576]
13.5.1 - 10.5.1 Major Steel Families [Seite 576]
13.6 - 10.6 Steels for Thermoplastic Injection Molds [Seite 580]
13.6.1 - 10.6.1 General Steel Selection Procedures [Seite 581]
13.6.2 - 10.6.2 Properties and Characteristics of Tool Steels [Seite 582]
13.6.3 - 10.6.3 Effects of Alloying Elements on Tool Steel Properties [Seite 582]
13.6.4 - 10.6.4 Chemical Composition of Steels Used for Molds [Seite 582]
13.6.5 - 10.6.5 Effects of Alloying on Tool Steels [Seite 583]
13.6.6 - 10.6.6 Effects of Heat Treatment on Tool Steel Properties [Seite 585]
13.6.7 - 10.6.7 Prehardened Tool Steels [Seite 587]
13.6.8 - 10.6.8 Carburizing Tool Steels [Seite 589]
13.6.9 - 10.6.9 Oil and Air Hardening Tool Steels [Seite 590]
13.6.10 - 10.6.10 Stainless Steels [Seite 591]
13.6.11 - 10.6.11 Steels Used in Thermoplastic Injection Mold Components [Seite 592]
13.7 - 10.7 Mold Cavity Surface Finishing [Seite 594]
13.7.1 - 10.7.1 Mold Surface Finishing Process Procedures [Seite 596]
13.8 - 10.8 Thermoplastic Injection Mold Bases [Seite 601]
13.8.1 - 10.8.1 Standard Mold Base Components [Seite 601]
13.8.2 - 10.8.2 Functions of the Mold Base Components [Seite 602]
13.8.3 - 10.8.3 Types of Standard Mold Bases [Seite 605]
13.9 - 10.9 Types of Thermoplastic Injection Molds [Seite 606]
13.9.1 - 10.9.1 Two-Plate Molds [Seite 607]
13.9.2 - 10.9.2 Round Mate® Interchangeable Insert Molds [Seite 608]
13.9.3 - 10.9.3 Master Unit Die Interchangeable Insert Molds [Seite 608]
13.9.4 - 10.9.4 Three-Plate Mold Cold Runner System [Seite 609]
13.9.5 - 10.9.5 Vertical Insert Mold for Thermoplastic Encapsulations [Seite 610]
13.9.6 - 10.9.6 Hot Runner Molding Systems [Seite 611]
13.9.7 - 10.9.7 Hot Runner Mold Temperature Control Systems [Seite 612]
13.9.8 - 10.9.8 Hot Runner Mold Gates (Drops) [Seite 613]
13.9.9 - 10.9.9 Types of Hot Runner Molding Systems [Seite 616]
13.9.10 - 10.9.10 Thermoplastic Stack Injection Molds [Seite 624]
13.9.11 - 10.9.11 Lost Core Thermoplastic Injection Molds [Seite 625]
13.10 - 10.10 Number of Mold Cavities [Seite 629]
13.10.1 - 10.10.1 Cavity Number Limitations [Seite 629]
13.10.2 - 10.10.2 Number of Mold Cavities Equation [Seite 629]
13.11 - 10.11 Mold Parting Line [Seite 630]
13.11.1 - 10.11.1 Flat Mold Parting Line [Seite 630]
13.11.2 - 10.11.2 Non-Flat Mold Parting Line [Seite 631]
13.11.3 - 10.11.3 Balancing of Mold Parting Line Surfaces [Seite 633]
13.12 - 10.12 Mold Ejection Systems [Seite 633]
13.12.1 - 10.12.1 Ejector Plate Assembly [Seite 634]
13.12.2 - 10.12.2 Ejector Plate [Seite 634]
13.12.3 - 10.12.3 Retaining Plate [Seite 634]
13.12.4 - 10.12.4 Ejector Sleeves [Seite 634]
13.12.5 - 10.12.5 Types of Mold Ejection Systems [Seite 635]
13.13 - 10.13 Injection Mold Cooling [Seite 638]
13.13.1 - 10.13.1 Mold Temperature Control [Seite 639]
13.13.2 - 10.13.2 Factors Affecting Mold Cooling [Seite 640]
13.13.3 - 10.13.3 Effects Caused by Elevated Mold Temperature [Seite 640]
13.13.4 - 10.13.4 Effects Caused by Too Low a Mold Temperature [Seite 641]
13.13.5 - 10.13.5 Mold Heat Transfer Methods [Seite 641]
13.13.6 - 10.13.6 Mold Cavity Insert Cooling [Seite 654]
13.14 - 10.14 Injection Molding Machine Nozzle [Seite 662]
13.14.1 - 10.14.1 Mold Cold Runner System [Seite 662]
13.14.2 - 10.14.2 Determining the Injection Pressure Needed [Seite 676]
13.14.3 - 10.14.3 Cold Runner Flow Tab [Seite 677]
13.15 - 10.15 Mold Cavity Gating [Seite 678]
13.15.1 - 10.15.1 Types of Mold Cavity Gates [Seite 679]
13.15.2 - 10.15.2 Different Types of Hot Runner Gates [Seite 686]
13.16 - 10.16 Gate Molding Effects [Seite 687]
13.17 - 10.17 Mold Venting Systems [Seite 689]
13.17.1 - 10.17.1 Product Design for Venting [Seite 690]
13.17.2 - 10.17.2 Venting Characteristics of Thermoplastic Polymers [Seite 692]
13.17.3 - 10.17.3 Mold Deposit Problems [Seite 692]
13.17.4 - 10.17.4 How to Avoid Venting Problems [Seite 693]
13.17.5 - 10.17.5 Planning Mold Venting [Seite 694]
13.17.6 - 10.17.6 Mold Venting Process Problems [Seite 695]
13.17.7 - 10.17.7 Mold Venting Design [Seite 697]
13.17.8 - 10.17.8 Mold Venting Using Sintered Porous Insert Plugs [Seite 713]
13.17.9 - 10.17.9 Logic Seal (Negative Coolant Pressure) Mold Venting [Seite 714]
13.17.10 - 10.17.10 Mold Cavity Vacuum Venting System [Seite 716]
13.18 - 10.18 Mold Cavity Insert Contact Area Strength [Seite 721]
13.18.1 - 10.18.1 Cavity Insert Sidewall Strength [Seite 722]
13.18.2 - 10.18.2 Methods to Calculate the Strength of Cavity Insert Sidewall [Seite 723]
13.19 - 10.19 Mold Layout Case Studies [Seite 727]
13.20 - 10.20 Mold Support Pillars [Seite 728]
13.21 - 10.21 Tolerances for Thermoplastic Molded Parts [Seite 728]
13.21.1 - 10.21.1 Factors Affecting Dimensional Control Tolerances [Seite 730]
13.22 - 10.22 General Specifications for Mold Construction for Thermoplastic Injection Molding Resins [Seite 732]
13.22.1 - 10.22.1 Mold Design Requirements [Seite 732]
13.22.2 - 10.22.2 Mold Drawing Standards [Seite 732]
13.22.3 - 10.22.3 Required Types of Tool Steels for Mold Construction [Seite 734]
13.22.4 - 10.22.4 Mold Construction Requirements [Seite 736]
13.23 - 10.23 Mold Tryout - Debug - Approvals - "MQ1" Requirements [Seite 743]
13.23.1 - 10.23.1 Mold Tryout or Evaluation [Seite 743]
13.23.2 - 10.23.2 Mold Debug Procedures [Seite 743]
13.23.3 - 10.23.3 Approval of Molded Parts and Pre-Production Molding Process [Seite 743]
13.23.4 - 10.23.4 Mold Cavity and Core Surface Temperatures [Seite 743]
13.23.5 - 10.23.5 "MQ1" Requirements [Seite 744]
14 - 11 Performance Testing of Thermoplastics [Seite 746]
14.1 - 11.1 Property Data Sheet for Thermoplastics [Seite 747]
14.2 - 11.2 Tensile Testing (ASTM D-638) [Seite 748]
14.2.1 - 11.2.1 Tensile Testing Equipment [Seite 748]
14.2.2 - 11.2.2 Tensile Test Specimen [Seite 749]
14.2.3 - 11.2.3 Specimen Conditioning [Seite 749]
14.2.4 - 11.2.4 Tensile Strength Test Procedures [Seite 749]
14.2.5 - 11.2.5 Tensile Modulus and Elongation [Seite 750]
14.2.6 - 11.2.6 Molecular Orientation Effects [Seite 751]
14.2.7 - 11.2.7 Crosshead Speed Effects [Seite 752]
14.2.8 - 11.2.8 Temperature Effects [Seite 752]
14.2.9 - 11.2.9 Moisture Absorption Effects [Seite 752]
14.2.10 - 11.2.10 Stress-Strain Effects Caused by Creep [Seite 753]
14.3 - 11.3 Flexural Testing (ASTM D-790) [Seite 753]
14.3.1 - 11.3.1 Apparatus [Seite 754]
14.3.2 - 11.3.2 Test Procedures and Equations [Seite 755]
14.3.3 - 11.3.3 Modulus of Elasticity [Seite 756]
14.4 - 11.4 Compressive Strength Testing (ASTM D-695) [Seite 756]
14.4.1 - 11.4.1 Compressive Testing Apparatus [Seite 757]
14.4.2 - 11.4.2 Test Specimens and Conditioning [Seite 757]
14.4.3 - 11.4.3 Test Procedures [Seite 757]
14.4.4 - 11.4.4 Stress-Strain Tension and Compression Curves [Seite 758]
14.5 - 11.5 Shear Strength Testing (ASTM D-732) [Seite 758]
14.5.1 - 11.5.1 Test Specimen and Apparatus [Seite 758]
14.5.2 - 11.5.2 Test Procedures [Seite 759]
14.5.3 - 11.5.3 Significance and Limitations [Seite 759]
14.6 - 11.6 Surface Hardness Testing [Seite 759]
14.6.1 - 11.6.1 Rockwell Hardness Testing (ASTM D-785-60T) [Seite 760]
14.6.2 - 11.6.2 Barcol Hardness Testing (ASTM D-2583) [Seite 762]
14.6.3 - 11.6.3 Factors Affecting the Test Results [Seite 763]
14.7 - 11.7 Abrasion Resistance Testing (ASTM D-1044) [Seite 763]
14.7.1 - 11.7.1 Taber Abrasion Testing [Seite 764]
14.7.2 - 11.7.2 Theoretical Analysis of Wear [Seite 764]
14.8 - 11.8 Coefficient of Friction (ASTM D-1894) [Seite 765]
14.8.1 - 11.8.1 Coefficient of Friction of Thermoplastic Materials [Seite 766]
14.8.2 - 11.8.3 Effects of Lubricants [Seite 767]
14.9 - 11.9 Mold Shrinkage Test (ASTM D-955) [Seite 767]
14.9.1 - 11.9.1 Purpose of the Mold Shrinkage Test [Seite 767]
14.9.2 - 11.9.2 Factors Affecting Mold Shrinkage [Seite 768]
14.9.3 - 11.9.3 Injection Molding Effects on Shrinkage [Seite 768]
14.9.4 - 11.9.4 Requirements for Sampling [Seite 768]
14.9.5 - 11.9.5 Test Procedures [Seite 769]
14.10 - 11.10 Specific Gravity Testing (ASTM D-792) [Seite 771]
14.10.1 - 11.10.1 Test Procedures [Seite 772]
14.11 - 11.11 Density Gradient Testing (ASTM D-1505) [Seite 773]
14.12 - 11.12 Water Absorption Testing (ASTM D-570) [Seite 773]
14.12.1 - 11.12.1 Test Specimen [Seite 774]
14.12.2 - 11.12.2 Test Procedure [Seite 774]
14.13 - 11.13 Impact Resistance Testing [Seite 774]
14.13.1 - 11.13.1 Pendulum Impact Tests [Seite 776]
14.13.2 - 11.13.2 Charpy Impact Testing (ASTM D-256) [Seite 778]
14.13.3 - 11.13.3 Chip Impact Testing [Seite 778]
14.13.4 - 11.13.4 Tensile Impact Testing (ASTM D-1822) [Seite 778]
14.13.5 - 11.13.5 Drop Weight Impact Testing (ASTM D-3029) [Seite 779]
14.13.6 - 11.13.6 Falling Weight Impact Testing [Seite 780]
14.13.7 - 11.13.7 Instrumented Impact Testing [Seite 781]
14.14 - 11.14 Creep, Rupture, Relaxation, and Fatigue [Seite 784]
14.14.1 - 11.14.1 Tensile Creep Testing [Seite 784]
14.14.2 - 11.14.2 Flexural Creep Testing [Seite 785]
14.14.3 - 11.14.3 Procedure for Applying Creep Modulus [Seite 787]
14.15 - 11.15 Melting Point Test (ASTM D-795) [Seite 790]
14.16 - 11.16 Vicat Softening Point (ASTM D-1525) [Seite 790]
14.16.1 - 11.16.1 Melting Point, Glass Transition Temperature [Seite 791]
14.17 - 11.17 Brittleness Temperature (ASTM D-746) [Seite 791]
14.17.1 - 11.17.1 Test Apparatus and Procedures [Seite 791]
14.18 - 11.18 UL - Temperature Index [Seite 793]
14.18.1 - 11.18.1 Relative Thermal Indices [Seite 793]
14.18.2 - 11.18.2 Long Term Thermal Aging Index [Seite 795]
14.18.3 - 11.18.3 Creep Modulus/Creep Rupture Tests [Seite 796]
14.19 - 11.19 Heat Deflection Temperature (ASTM D-648) [Seite 797]
14.19.1 - 11.19.1 Apparatus and Test Specimens [Seite 797]
14.19.2 - 11.19.2 Test Procedure [Seite 798]
14.19.3 - 11.19.3 Test Variables and Limitations [Seite 798]
14.20 - 11.20 Soldering Heat Resistance [Seite 798]
14.21 - 11.21 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion Testing [Seite 799]
14.21.1 - 11.21.1 Test Procedure [Seite 800]
14.22 - 11.22 Thermal Conductivity Testing (ASTM C-177) [Seite 800]
14.23 - 11.23 Melt Flow Testing [Seite 802]
14.23.1 - 11.23.1 Moisture Content [Seite 803]
14.24 - 11.24 Melt Index Testing (ASTM D-1238) [Seite 803]
14.24.1 - 11.24.1 Melt Flow Rate [Seite 804]
14.25 - 11.25 Capillary Rheometer Melt Viscosity Testing (ASTM D-1703) [Seite 805]
14.25.1 - 11.25.1 Melt Viscosity vs. Shear Rate Curves [Seite 806]
14.26 - 11.26 Electrical Properties Testing [Seite 807]
14.26.1 - 11.26.1 Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) Yellow Cards [Seite 808]
14.26.2 - 11.26.2 How to Read and Interpret the "UL Yellow Card" [Seite 809]
14.26.3 - 11.26.3 "UL Insulation Systems Recognition" [Seite 814]
14.27 - 11.27 Electrical Insulation Properties [Seite 815]
14.28 - 11.28 Electrical Resistance Properties [Seite 815]
14.28.1 - 11.28.1 Volume Resistivity Testing (ASTM D-257) [Seite 816]
14.28.2 - 11.28.2 Surface Resistivity Testing (ASTM D-257) [Seite 817]
14.28.3 - 11.28.3 Dielectric Strength Testing (ASTM D-149) [Seite 818]
14.28.4 - 11.28.4 Dielectric Constant Testing (ASTM D-150) [Seite 820]
14.28.5 - 11.28.5 Dissipation Factor Testing (ASTM D-150) [Seite 823]
14.28.6 - 11.28.6 Arc Resistance Testing (ASTM D-495) [Seite 824]
14.28.7 - 11.28.7 High Voltage Arc Tracking Rate (UL-746 A) [Seite 826]
14.28.8 - 11.28.8 Comparative Track Index Testing (ASTM D-3638/UL 746 A). [Seite 827]
14.29 - 11.29 Self and Flash Ignition Temperature Testing (ASTM D-1929) [Seite 828]
14.29.1 - 11.29.1 Test Description [Seite 828]
14.29.2 - 11.29.2 High Current Arc Ignition Testing (UL 746A) [Seite 829]
14.29.3 - 11.29.3 Hot Wire Coil Ignition Testing (UL 746A/ASTM D-3874) [Seite 830]
14.29.4 - 11.29.4 Hot Mandrel Testing [Seite 830]
14.29.5 - 11.29.5 Glow Wire Testing [Seite 830]
14.30 - 11.30 Flammability Characteristics of Polymers [Seite 832]
14.30.1 - 11.30.1 Inherently Flame Retardant Polymers [Seite 833]
14.30.2 - 11.30.2 Less Flame Retardant Polymers [Seite 833]
14.30.3 - 11.30.3 Flammable Polymers [Seite 833]
14.31 - 11.31 UL 94 Flammability Testing [Seite 834]
14.31.1 - 11.31.1 Horizontal Burning Testing, UL 94HB [Seite 834]
14.31.2 - 11.31.2 Vertical Burning Testing, UL 94-V0, UL 94-V1, UL 94-V2 [Seite 835]
14.31.3 - 11.31.3 Vertical Burning Testing, UL 94-5V, UL 94-5VA, UL 94-5VB [Seite 836]
14.31.4 - 11.31.4 Factors Affecting UL 94 Flammability Testing [Seite 838]
14.32 - 11.32 Limited Oxygen Index Testing (ASTM D-2863) [Seite 838]
14.32.1 - 11.32.1 Test Procedures [Seite 839]
14.32.2 - 11.32.2 Factors Affecting the Test Results [Seite 839]
14.33 - 11.33 Smoke Generation Testing [Seite 840]
14.33.1 - 11.33.1 Smoke Density Testing (ASTM D-2843) [Seite 840]
14.34 - 11.34 Weathering Tests for Thermoplastic Materials [Seite 841]
14.34.1 - 11.34.1 Weathering Creep Factors (Degradation) [Seite 841]
14.34.2 - 11.34.2 Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation [Seite 842]
14.34.3 - 11.34.3 Temperature [Seite 842]
14.34.4 - 11.34.4 Moisture [Seite 843]
14.34.5 - 11.34.5 Oxidation [Seite 22]
14.34.6 - 11.34.6 Micro-Organisms [Seite 843]
14.35 - 11.35 Accelerated Weathering Testing (ASTM G 23) [Seite 844]
14.35.1 - 11.35.1 Exposure to Fluorescent UV Lamp, Condensation (ASTM G 53) [Seite 844]
14.35.2 - 11.35.2 Accelerated Weather Testing, Weather-Ometer® [Seite 845]
14.35.3 - 11.35.3 Exposure to Carbon Arc Light and Water Testing (ASTM D-1499) [Seite 846]
14.35.4 - 11.35.4 Exposure to Xenon Arc Light and Water Testing (ASTM D-2565) [Seite 848]
14.35.5 - 11.35.5 Outdoor Weathering Testing of Thermoplastics (ASTM D-1435) [Seite 850]
14.36 - 11.36 Fungi Resistance Testing of Thermoplastics (ASTM G 21) [Seite 851]
14.37 - 11.37 Bacteria Resistance Testing of Thermoplastics (ASTM G 22) [Seite 852]
14.38 - 11.38 Fungi and Bacteria Outdoor Exposure Resistance Limitations [Seite 852]
15 - 12 Thermoplastic Product Cost Analysis [Seite 854]
15.1 - 12.1 Injection Molding Process [Seite 855]
15.2 - 12.2 Molding Cycle Time [Seite 855]
15.3 - 12.3 Material Handling (Regrinds) [Seite 856]
15.4 - 12.4 Capital Equipment [Seite 856]
15.5 - 12.5 Injection Molding Machine Size [Seite 856]
15.6 - 12.6 Injection Molding Machine Cost [Seite 859]
15.7 - 12.7 Machine Installation and Safety Considerations [Seite 860]
15.8 - 12.8 Auxiliary Equipment and Automation [Seite 860]
15.9 - 12.9 Mold Cost [Seite 861]
15.10 - 12.10 Molded Products Cost Analysis [Seite 864]
15.10.1 - 12.10.1 Cost Analysis Basic Method [Seite 864]
15.10.2 - 12.10.2 Cost Analysis Graph Method [Seite 865]
15.10.3 - 12.10.3 Advanced Cost Analysis Method [Seite 866]
15.11 - 12.11 Secondary Molding Operations [Seite 871]
15.12 - 12.12 Additional Manufacturing Costs [Seite 871]
16 - Appendix [Seite 872]
16.1 - Acronyms for Polymeric Materials [Seite 872]
16.2 - Common Acronyms [Seite 873]
16.3 - Process Acronyms [Seite 874]
16.4 - Reinforcement and Filler Acronyms [Seite 874]
16.5 - Nomenclature [Seite 875]
16.6 - English and Metric Units Conversion Guide [Seite 876]
17 - Subject Index [Seite 878]
18 - About the Author [Seite 892]

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Das Dateiformat PDF zeigt auf jeder Hardware eine Buchseite stets identisch an. Daher ist eine PDF auch für ein komplexes Layout geeignet, wie es bei Lehr- und Fachbüchern verwendet wird (Bilder, Tabellen, Spalten, Fußnoten). Bei kleinen Displays von E-Readern oder Smartphones sind PDF leider eher nervig, weil zu viel Scrollen notwendig ist. Mit Wasserzeichen-DRM wird hier ein "weicher" Kopierschutz verwendet. Daher ist technisch zwar alles möglich - sogar eine unzulässige Weitergabe. Aber an sichtbaren und unsichtbaren Stellen wird der Käufer des E-Books als Wasserzeichen hinterlegt, sodass im Falle eines Missbrauchs die Spur zurückverfolgt werden kann.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


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