Fundamentals of Intracellular Calcium

 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 29. August 2017
  • |
  • 464 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-94188-1 (ISBN)
 
The definitive text on the key component for cell functions--intracellular calcium
This comprehensive book reveals the evidence for intracellular calcium as a universal switch in all animal, plant, fungal and microbial cells. It shows how the components required for calcium signaling are named and classified; covers the technology that has been developed to study intracellular calcium; describes how calcium is regulated inside cells and how it works to trigger an event; explains the role of intracellular calcium in disease, cell injury, and cell death; reveals how many drugs work through the calcium signaling system; and demonstrates how intracellular calcium is involved in the action of many natural toxins. The book also illustrates how the intracellular calcium signaling system has evolved over millions of years, showing why it was crucial to the origin of life. Additionally, the book promotes the importance of the molecular variation upon which the intracellular calcium signalling system depends.
Featuring more than 100 figures (including detailed chemical structures as well as pictures of key pioneers in the field), a bibliography of some 1000 references, and a detailed subject index, this definitive work provides a unique source of scholarship for teachers and researchers in the biomedical sciences and beyond.
* Emphasizes two key scientific principles--the first to show how intracellular Ca¯2+ acts as a switch, to activate a wide range of cellular events, and the second demonstrating how an analogue mechanism can be superimposed on such a process
* Written by an internationally recognized expert in the field
* Filled with images and references to facilitate learning
Fundamentals of Intracellular Calcium is an all-important text for post-graduate students and researchers working in biomedicine and biochemistry. It is also essential for undergraduate lecturers and their students in physiology, medicine, pharmacy, and the biosciences.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Anthony K. Campbell, PhD, FLS, FLSW is Professor in the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University. He has studied intracellular calcium for over 40 years, and is a world authority on bioluminescence, developing the use of genetically engineered bioluminescence to measure chemical processes in live cells, particularly Ca¯2+. One of his inventions, using chemiluminescence, is now used in several hundred million clinical tests per year worldwide. He has published 9 books, and over 250 internationally peer-reviewed papers on intracellular calcium, bioluminescence, lactose and food intolerance, and Darwin.
1 - Fundamentals of Intracellular Calcium [Seite 3]
2 - Contents [Seite 9]
3 - About the Author [Seite 19]
4 - Preface [Seite 21]
5 - List of Acronyms [Seite 25]
6 - About the Companion Web Site [Seite 37]
7 - 1 Calcium is Special [Seite 39]
7.1 - 1.1 Calcium and Everyday Events [Seite 39]
7.2 - 1.2 Discovery of Calcium [Seite 40]
7.3 - 1.3 A Natural History of Calcium [Seite 41]
7.3.1 - 1.3.1 Calcium by the Sea [Seite 41]
7.3.2 - 1.3.2 Calcium in Your Wake-Up Call [Seite 42]
7.4 - 1.4 The Elements of Life [Seite 43]
7.5 - 1.5 Natural Occurrence of Calcium [Seite 45]
7.5.1 - 1.5.1 Isotopes of Calcium [Seite 45]
7.5.2 - 1.5.2 Geology of Calcium [Seite 45]
7.5.3 - 1.5.3 Calcium Outside Cells [Seite 46]
7.5.4 - 1.5.4 Calcium Inside Cells [Seite 48]
7.6 - 1.6 Requirement of Cells for Ca2+ [Seite 50]
7.6.1 - 1.6.1 Calcium in External Fluids [Seite 50]
7.6.2 - 1.6.2 Requirement of Cell Types for Calcium [Seite 50]
7.7 - 1.7 The Four Biological Roles of Calcium [Seite 51]
7.7.1 - 1.7.1 Structural [Seite 51]
7.7.2 - 1.7.2 Electrical across Biological Membranes [Seite 51]
7.7.3 - 1.7.3 Extracellular Cofactor [Seite 52]
7.7.4 - 1.7.4 Intracellular Regulator [Seite 52]
7.8 - 1.8 The Puzzle about Ca2+ Inside Cells [Seite 55]
7.9 - 1.9 How Important Intracellular Calcium has been in Science [Seite 56]
7.10 - 1.10 Darwin and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 57]
7.11 - 1.11 The Scene Set [Seite 59]
7.12 - 1.12 'Ja Kalzium, das ist alles!' [Seite 59]
7.13 - 1.13 Calcium - The Fundamentals [Seite 60]
7.14 - Recommended Reading [Seite 61]
7.15 - Books [Seite 61]
7.16 - Reviews [Seite 61]
7.17 - Articles [Seite 61]
8 - 2 Intracellular Calcium - Principles [Seite 63]
8.1 - 2.1 Ca2+ and the Concept of Cell Signalling [Seite 63]
8.1.1 - 2.1.1 Primary Signals and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 63]
8.1.2 - 2.1.2 The Source of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 65]
8.2 - 2.2 The Problem [Seite 67]
8.3 - 2.3 Some Key Questions [Seite 67]
8.3.1 - 2.3.1 Question 1 - What is the Primary Stimulus and Secondary Regulator(s)? [Seite 67]
8.3.2 - 2.3.2 Question 2 - What is the Intracellular Signal? [Seite 68]
8.3.3 - 2.3.3 Question 3 - How do the Secondary Regulators Work? [Seite 68]
8.4 - 2.4 Types of Intracellular Ca2+ Signal [Seite 69]
8.4.1 - 2.4.1 Category of Cell Based on the Ca2+ Signal [Seite 69]
8.4.2 - 2.4.2 Types of Ca2+ Signal [Seite 70]
8.4.3 - 2.4.3 Ca2+ Sparks, Puffs and Sparklets [Seite 71]
8.5 - 2.5 Rubicon Principle [Seite 72]
8.5.1 - 2.5.1 Digital Versus Analogue Cell Events [Seite 72]
8.5.2 - 2.5.2 The Ca2+ Signaling Toolkit [Seite 74]
8.5.3 - 2.5.3 Amplification Mechanisms [Seite 74]
8.6 - 2.6 Key Experiments to Answer Key Questions [Seite 76]
8.6.1 - 2.6.1 Raising Cytosolic Free Ca2+ Artificially [Seite 76]
8.6.2 - 2.6.2 Measurement of Free Ca2+ in Live Cells [Seite 76]
8.6.3 - 2.6.3 How the Ca2+ Signal is Generated [Seite 77]
8.6.4 - 2.6.4 Identifying the Ca2+ Target [Seite 77]
8.6.5 - 2.6.5 How Binding of Ca2+ to its Target Causes the Cell Event [Seite 77]
8.6.6 - 2.6.6 How the Cell Returns to Rest [Seite 78]
8.7 - 2.7 Nomenclature - How Things are Named [Seite 78]
8.7.1 - 2.7.1 English and Etymology [Seite 78]
8.7.2 - 2.7.2 Organisms [Seite 79]
8.7.3 - 2.7.3 Acronyms, Cells and Biochemistry [Seite 79]
8.7.4 - 2.7.4 Genes [Seite 80]
8.7.5 - 2.7.5 Proteins and Protein Sequences [Seite 81]
8.7.6 - 2.7.6 Enzymes [Seite 81]
8.7.7 - 2.7.7 Ion Channels [Seite 82]
8.7.8 - 2.7.8 Agonists and Antagonists [Seite 85]
8.7.9 - 2.7.9 Chemicals [Seite 85]
8.7.10 - 2.7.10 Toxins [Seite 86]
8.7.11 - 2.7.11 Drugs [Seite 86]
8.7.12 - 2.7.12 Ca2+ Indicators [Seite 87]
8.7.13 - 2.7.13 Units [Seite 88]
8.8 - 2.8 Model Systems [Seite 88]
8.9 - 2.9 Darwin, Wallace and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 89]
8.9.1 - 2.9.1 Natural Selection in Real Time [Seite 89]
8.9.2 - 2.9.2 Small Change by Small Change [Seite 90]
8.10 - 2.10 New Knowledge [Seite 92]
8.11 - 2.11 Conclusions [Seite 93]
8.12 - Recommended reading [Seite 93]
8.13 - Books [Seite 93]
8.14 - Reviews [Seite 93]
8.15 - Papers [Seite 94]
9 - 3 A Century plus of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 95]
9.1 - 3.1 Background [Seite 95]
9.1.1 - 3.1.1 Pathway of Discovery and Invention for Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 95]
9.1.2 - 3.1.2 Model Systems [Seite 96]
9.2 - 3.2 Why Study the History of Science? [Seite 96]
9.3 - 3.3 The Tale of Three Pioneers and What Followed [Seite 97]
9.3.1 - 3.3.1 Experiments of Sydney Ringer (1836-1910) [Seite 97]
9.3.2 - 3.3.2 The Vision of Lewis Victor Heilbrunn (1892-1959) [Seite 99]
9.3.3 - 3.3.3 Setsuro Ebashi (1922-2006): Pioneer of Intracellular Ca2+ in Muscle Contraction [Seite 101]
9.4 - 3.4 Ca2+ as an Intracellular Regulator [Seite 102]
9.4.1 - 3.4.1 Cell Theory [Seite 103]
9.4.2 - 3.4.2 Origin of the Use of Ca2+ [Seite 103]
9.4.3 - 3.4.3 Manipulation of Ca2+ [Seite 104]
9.4.4 - 3.4.4 Measurement and Location of Free Ca2+ in Live Cells [Seite 104]
9.4.5 - 3.4.5 Identification of the Components Responsible for Regulating Free Ca2+ Inside Cells [Seite 109]
9.4.6 - 3.4.6 Discovery of Plasma Membrane Ca2+ Pumps and Transporters [Seite 109]
9.4.7 - 3.4.7 Discovery of How Ca2+ is Released from the Sarco-/Endo-Plasmic Reticulum [Seite 110]
9.4.8 - 3.4.8 Discovery of IP3 and its Receptor [Seite 111]
9.4.9 - 3.4.9 Discovery of the Ryanodine Receptor [Seite 111]
9.4.10 - 3.4.10 Discovery of Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) [Seite 112]
9.4.11 - 3.4.11 Discovery of Ca2+ Channels in the Plasma Membrane [Seite 114]
9.4.12 - 3.4.12 Discovery of TRP Channels [Seite 116]
9.4.13 - 3.4.13 Discovery of G-Proteins [Seite 116]
9.4.14 - 3.4.14 Ca2+ Targets Inside Cells and How They Work [Seite 116]
9.4.15 - 3.4.15 Intracellular Ca2+ in Plants [Seite 118]
9.4.16 - 3.4.16 Intracellular Ca2+ in Bacteria [Seite 119]
9.4.17 - 3.4.17 Pathology of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 119]
9.5 - 3.5 Conceptual Development of Ca2+ as an Intracellular Regulator [Seite 120]
9.6 - 3.6 Summary [Seite 122]
9.7 - Recommended Reading [Seite 124]
9.8 - Books [Seite 124]
9.9 - Reviews [Seite 124]
9.10 - Research Papers [Seite 124]
10 - 4 How to Study Intracellular Ca2+ as Cell Regulator [Seite 127]
10.1 - 4.1 Pathway to Discover the Role of Intracellular Ca2+ in a Cell Event [Seite 127]
10.2 - 4.2 Manipulation of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 128]
10.3 - 4.3 Measurement of Intracellular Free Ca2+ [Seite 130]
10.3.1 - 4.3.1 Absorbing Dyes [Seite 131]
10.3.2 - 4.3.2 Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicators [Seite 132]
10.3.3 - 4.3.3 Calibration of Fluors [Seite 134]
10.3.4 - 4.3.4 Ca2+-Activated Photoproteins [Seite 136]
10.3.5 - 4.3.5 Calibration of Ca2+-Activated Photoproteins [Seite 140]
10.3.6 - 4.3.6 Ca2+ Indicators from Engineered GFP [Seite 143]
10.3.7 - 4.3.7 Other Free Ca2+ Indicators for Whole Organs and Organisms [Seite 147]
10.4 - 4.4 Detecting and Imaging Photons [Seite 147]
10.5 - 4.5 Measurement of Total Cell Ca2+ [Seite 151]
10.6 - 4.6 Calcium Buffers [Seite 151]
10.7 - 4.7 Measurement of Ca2+ Fluxes [Seite 153]
10.8 - 4.8 How to Study Ca2+ Channels [Seite 154]
10.9 - 4.9 Discovering How the Rise in Cytosolic Free Ca2+ Occurs and then Returns to Rest [Seite 155]
10.10 - 4.10 Discovering the Intracellular Ca2+ Target and How it Works [Seite 156]
10.11 - 4.11 Other Ions [Seite 156]
10.12 - 4.12 Summary [Seite 157]
10.13 - Recommended Reading [Seite 158]
10.14 - Books [Seite 158]
10.15 - Reviews [Seite 158]
10.16 - Research Papers [Seite 159]
11 - 5 How Ca2+ is Regulated Inside Cells [Seite 161]
11.1 - 5.1 Principles [Seite 161]
11.2 - 5.2 How Resting Cells Maintain their Ca2+ Balance [Seite 164]
11.3 - 5.3 Electrophysiology of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 165]
11.4 - 5.4 Primary Stimuli Producing a Cytosolic Ca2+ Signal [Seite 168]
11.5 - 5.5 Plasma Membrane Ca2+ Channels [Seite 169]
11.5.1 - 5.5.1 Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels [Seite 169]
11.5.2 - 5.5.2 TRP Channels [Seite 174]
11.5.3 - 5.5.3 Receptor-Activated Ca2+ Channels [Seite 175]
11.5.4 - 5.5.4 Mechanosensitive Channels [Seite 176]
11.5.5 - 5.5.5 Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) [Seite 176]
11.5.6 - 5.5.6 Ca2+ Receptor [Seite 177]
11.6 - 5.6 Regulation of Intracellular Ca2+ by, and within, Organelles [Seite 178]
11.6.1 - 5.6.1 Endo- and Sarco-Plasmic Reticulum (ER/SR) [Seite 178]
11.6.2 - 5.6.2 Mitochondrial Ca2+ [Seite 184]
11.6.3 - 5.6.3 Lysosomal and Endosomal Ca2+ [Seite 186]
11.6.4 - 5.6.4 Secretory Vesicle Ca2+ [Seite 187]
11.6.5 - 5.6.5 Peroxisomal Ca2+ [Seite 187]
11.6.6 - 5.6.6 Control of Ca2+ by the Golgi [Seite 188]
11.6.7 - 5.6.7 Nucleus and Ca2+ [Seite 188]
11.6.8 - 5.6.8 Plant Organelles and Ca2+ [Seite 189]
11.6.9 - 5.6.9 Acidocalcisomes [Seite 190]
11.7 - 5.7 Second Messengers and Regulation of Ca2+ Signalling in the Cytosol [Seite 190]
11.8 - 5.8 Pore Formers and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 192]
11.9 - 5.9 Gap Junctions and Connexins [Seite 192]
11.10 - 5.10 Other Ion Channels and Ca2+ [Seite 193]
11.11 - 5.11 Summary - How Ca2+ is Regulated Inside Cells [Seite 194]
11.12 - Recommended Reading [Seite 195]
11.13 - Books [Seite 195]
11.14 - Reviews [Seite 195]
11.15 - Research Papers [Seite 196]
12 - 6 How Ca2+ Works Inside Cells [Seite 199]
12.1 - 6.1 Biological Chemistry of Ca2+ [Seite 199]
12.1.1 - 6.1.1 The Special Biological Chemistry of Ca2+ [Seite 199]
12.1.2 - 6.1.2 Key Chemical Properties of Ca2+ [Seite 202]
12.1.3 - 6.1.3 Ca2+ Ligands [Seite 202]
12.1.4 - 6.1.4 Solvation [Seite 204]
12.1.5 - 6.1.5 Activity Coefficients [Seite 205]
12.1.6 - 6.1.6 Fractional Ca2+ Binding After a Ca2+ Signal [Seite 205]
12.1.7 - 6.1.7 Kinetics [Seite 207]
12.1.8 - 6.1.8 Diffusion [Seite 207]
12.1.9 - 6.1.9 Solubility [Seite 208]
12.2 - 6.2 Ca2+-Binding Proteins [Seite 208]
12.2.1 - 6.2.1 Ca2+-Binding Proteins Inside Cells [Seite 208]
12.2.2 - 6.2.2 Proteins with the EF-Hand Motif [Seite 209]
12.2.3 - 6.2.3 Proteins with the C2 Motif [Seite 215]
12.2.4 - 6.2.4 Proteins with a Cluster of Acidic Residues [Seite 216]
12.2.5 - 6.2.5 Proteins Forming a Cluster of Oxygen Ligands [Seite 217]
12.3 - 6.3 Ca2+ and Other Intracellular Signals [Seite 220]
12.3.1 - 6.3.1 Cyclic Nucleotides and Ca2+ [Seite 220]
12.3.2 - 6.3.2 Ca2+ and Protein Kinase C (PKC) [Seite 222]
12.3.3 - 6.3.3 Nitric Oxide and Ca2+ [Seite 222]
12.3.4 - 6.3.4 Ca2+, Inositol Phosphates and Other Intracellular Signals [Seite 223]
12.4 - 6.4 Ca2+ and Monovalent Ions [Seite 223]
12.4.1 - 6.4.1 Intracellular Ca2+ and K+ Conductance [Seite 224]
12.4.2 - 6.4.2 Intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ Conductance [Seite 225]
12.4.3 - 6.4.3 Ca2+ and Chloride Channels (CaCC) [Seite 226]
12.5 - 6.5 Other Cations and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 226]
12.6 - 6.6 Anions and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 227]
12.7 - 6.7 Summary [Seite 227]
12.8 - Recommended Reading [Seite 229]
12.9 - Books [Seite 229]
12.10 - Reviews [Seite 229]
12.11 - Research Papers [Seite 230]
13 - 7 How Ca2+ Regulates Animal Cell Physiology [Seite 231]
13.1 - 7.1 Principles [Seite 231]
13.2 - 7.2 Ca2+ and How Nerves Work [Seite 232]
13.3 - 7.3 Muscle Contraction [Seite 234]
13.4 - 7.4 Chemotaxis and Ca2+ [Seite 240]
13.5 - 7.5 Intracellular Ca2+ and Secretion [Seite 241]
13.6 - 7.6 Ca2+ and Endocytosis [Seite 247]
13.7 - 7.7 Ca2+ and Phagocytosis [Seite 248]
13.8 - 7.8 Intracellular Ca2+ and Intermediary Metabolism [Seite 248]
13.9 - 7.9 Intracellular Ca2+ and Cell Growth [Seite 250]
13.9.1 - 7.9.1 Principles [Seite 250]
13.9.2 - 7.9.2 Cell Cycle and Ca2+ [Seite 250]
13.9.3 - 7.9.3 Fertilisation and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 252]
13.9.4 - 7.9.4 Differentiation and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 254]
13.10 - 7.10 Intracellular Ca2+ and the Immune Response [Seite 254]
13.11 - 7.11 Intracellular Ca2+ and Vision [Seite 255]
13.11.1 - 7.11.1 Ca2+ and Vertebrate Vision [Seite 256]
13.11.2 - 7.11.2 Ca2+ and Invertebrate Vision [Seite 257]
13.12 - 7.12 Intracellular Ca2+ and Other Senses [Seite 257]
13.13 - 7.13 Ca2+ and Bioluminescence [Seite 258]
13.14 - 7.14 Intracellular Ca2+ and Gene Expression [Seite 260]
13.15 - 7.15 Summary [Seite 261]
13.16 - Recommended Reading [Seite 262]
13.17 - Books [Seite 262]
13.18 - Reviews [Seite 263]
13.19 - Research Papers [Seite 263]
14 - 8 Intracellular Ca2+, Microbes and Viruses [Seite 265]
14.1 - 8.1 The Puzzle [Seite 265]
14.2 - 8.2 What Microbes Do [Seite 266]
14.3 - 8.3 Indirect Evidence of a Role for Intracellular Ca2+ in Bacteria [Seite 266]
14.4 - 8.4 Direct Evidence for a Role of Intracellular Ca2+ in Bacteria [Seite 268]
14.5 - 8.5 How Much Ca2+ is there in Bacteria? [Seite 269]
14.6 - 8.6 How Bacteria Regulate Their Intracellular Ca2 [Seite 270]
14.6.1 - 8.6.1 Ca2+ Influx into Bacteria [Seite 271]
14.6.2 - 8.6.2 Ca2+ Efflux out of Bacteria [Seite 274]
14.7 - 8.7 Regulation of Bacterial Events by Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 274]
14.7.1 - 8.7.1 Ca2+ and Growth of Bacteria [Seite 274]
14.7.2 - 8.7.2 Ca2+ and Bacterial Movement [Seite 274]
14.7.3 - 8.7.3 Quorum Sensing and Gene Expression [Seite 278]
14.7.4 - 8.7.4 Ca2+ and Bacterial Metabolism [Seite 278]
14.7.5 - 8.7.5 Bacterial Defence - Dormancy, Spore Formation and Germination [Seite 279]
14.7.6 - 8.7.6 Bacterial Infection - Virulence, Competence and Defence [Seite 280]
14.7.7 - 8.7.7 Development of Bacterial Structures [Seite 281]
14.7.8 - 8.7.8 Ca2+ and Gene Expression in Bacteria [Seite 283]
14.7.9 - 8.7.9 Uptake of Nucleic Acid by Bacteria [Seite 283]
14.7.10 - 8.7.10 Bacterial Metabolic Toxin Hypothesis [Seite 284]
14.7.11 - 8.7.11 Intracellular Ca2+ in Bacteria - Conclusions [Seite 284]
14.8 - 8.8 Role of Intracellular Ca2+ in Archaea [Seite 285]
14.9 - 8.9 Intracellular Ca2+ and Viruses [Seite 287]
14.9.1 - 8.9.1 Eukaryotic Viruses [Seite 287]
14.9.2 - 8.9.2 Bacterial Viruses - Bacteriophages [Seite 289]
14.10 - 8.10 Intracellular Ca2+ and Eukaryotic Microbes [Seite 289]
14.10.1 - 8.10.1 Yeast [Seite 290]
14.10.2 - 8.10.2 Paramecium and Related Ciliates [Seite 292]
14.10.3 - 8.10.3 Slime Moulds [Seite 293]
14.10.4 - 8.10.4 Luminous Radiolarians [Seite 295]
14.11 - 8.11 Summary [Seite 295]
14.12 - Recommended Reading [Seite 296]
14.13 - Books [Seite 296]
14.14 - Reviews [Seite 297]
14.15 - Research Papers [Seite 297]
15 - 9 Role of Intracellular Ca2+ in Plants and Fungi [Seite 299]
15.1 - 9.1 Role of Ca2+ in Plants [Seite 299]
15.2 - 9.2 What Stimulates Plants? [Seite 300]
15.2.1 - 9.2.1 Plant Cell Stimuli [Seite 300]
15.2.2 - 9.2.2 Plant Hormones [Seite 301]
15.2.3 - 9.2.3 Intracellular Signals in Plants [Seite 303]
15.3 - 9.3 Requirement of Plants for Ca2+ [Seite 303]
15.4 - 9.4 Where Ca2+ is Stored in Plants [Seite 304]
15.5 - 9.5 Measurement of Cytosolic Free Ca2+ in Plants [Seite 305]
15.6 - 9.6 Components of Ca2+ Signalling in Plants [Seite 309]
15.6.1 - 9.6.1 Ca2+ Pumps and Exchangers [Seite 309]
15.6.2 - 9.6.2 Ca2+ Channels in the Plasma Membrane [Seite 309]
15.6.3 - 9.6.3 Plant Organelles and Ca2+ [Seite 310]
15.6.4 - 9.6.4 Ca2+-Binding Proteins in Plants [Seite 311]
15.6.5 - 9.6.5 Ca2+-Sensitive Genes in Plants [Seite 312]
15.7 - 9.7 How Intracellular Ca2+ Provokes Cellular Events in Plants [Seite 312]
15.7.1 - 9.7.1 Light and Intracellular Ca2+ in Plants [Seite 313]
15.7.2 - 9.7.2 Control of Opening and Closing of Stoma/Stomata [Seite 313]
15.7.3 - 9.7.3 Wind and Mechanical Stimulation of Plants [Seite 314]
15.7.4 - 9.7.4 Gravity Sensing and Growth [Seite 314]
15.7.5 - 9.7.5 Fertilisation, Germination and Differentiation [Seite 315]
15.7.6 - 9.7.6 Legumes [Seite 316]
15.7.7 - 9.7.7 Intermediary Metabolism [Seite 316]
15.7.8 - 9.7.8 Transport by Phloem [Seite 317]
15.7.9 - 9.7.9 Defence Against Stress [Seite 317]
15.8 - 9.8 Fungal Elicitors [Seite 318]
15.9 - 9.9 Apoptosis [Seite 319]
15.10 - 9.10 Intracellular Ca2+ and Plant Pathology [Seite 319]
15.11 - 9.11 Ca2+ in Mosses, Liverworts and Ferns [Seite 319]
15.12 - 9.12 Ca2+ in Fungi [Seite 320]
15.12.1 - 9.12.1 Fungi and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 320]
15.12.2 - 9.12.2 Intracellular Ca2+ and Yeast [Seite 321]
15.12.3 - 9.12.3 Lichens [Seite 322]
15.13 - 9.13 Ca2+ and Slime Moulds [Seite 322]
15.14 - 9.14 Summary [Seite 322]
15.15 - Recommended Reading [Seite 323]
15.16 - Books [Seite 323]
15.17 - Reviews [Seite 323]
15.18 - Research Papers [Seite 324]
16 - 10 Pathology of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 325]
16.1 - 10.1 What is Pathology? [Seite 325]
16.2 - 10.2 Types of Pathology [Seite 326]
16.3 - 10.3 Intracellular Ca2+ - Friend or Foe? [Seite 327]
16.4 - 10.4 Intracellular Ca2+ and Cell Death [Seite 328]
16.4.1 - 10.4.1 Necrosis [Seite 329]
16.4.2 - 10.4.2 Apoptosis [Seite 330]
16.4.3 - 10.4.3 Autophagy [Seite 332]
16.4.4 - 10.4.4 Lysis [Seite 333]
16.4.5 - 10.4.5 Cell Death Conclusions [Seite 333]
16.5 - 10.5 Genetic Abnormalities in Ca2+ Signalling Proteins [Seite 335]
16.5.1 - 10.5.1 Ca2+ Channelopathies [Seite 336]
16.5.2 - 10.5.2 Ca2+ Pumpopathies [Seite 336]
16.5.3 - 10.5.3 Mutations in ER Ca2+ Release Proteins [Seite 337]
16.5.4 - 10.5.4 Mutations in Ca2+ Target Proteins [Seite 338]
16.5.5 - 10.5.5 Proteins Associated with Ca2+ Signalling [Seite 338]
16.6 - 10.6 Oxygen and Cell Pathology [Seite 338]
16.6.1 - 10.6.1 Ca2+ Paradox [Seite 338]
16.6.2 - 10.6.2 Oxidative Damage and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 340]
16.7 - 10.7 Inappropriate Ca2+ Signalling [Seite 340]
16.7.1 - 10.7.1 Cramp [Seite 341]
16.7.2 - 10.7.2 Immune System and Other Organs in Disease [Seite 341]
16.7.3 - 10.7.3 Bacterial Metabolic Toxins [Seite 342]
16.8 - 10.8 ER Stress Response [Seite 344]
16.9 - 10.9 Summary [Seite 346]
16.10 - Recommended Reading [Seite 347]
16.11 - Books [Seite 347]
16.12 - Reviews [Seite 347]
16.13 - Research Papers [Seite 348]
17 - 11 Pharmacology of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 351]
17.1 - 11.1 Background [Seite 351]
17.2 - 11.2 Pharmacological Targets for Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 354]
17.3 - 11.3 Drugs Used Clinically on Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 355]
17.4 - 11.4 Anaesthetics [Seite 355]
17.5 - 11.5 Ca2+ Channel Effectors [Seite 356]
17.5.1 - 11.5.1 Classes of Ca2+ Channel Blocker [Seite 356]
17.5.2 - 11.5.2 Dihydropyridines [Seite 359]
17.5.3 - 11.5.3 Phenylalkylamines [Seite 360]
17.5.4 - 11.5.4 Benzothiazapines [Seite 360]
17.6 - 11.6 Hypertension [Seite 361]
17.7 - 11.7 Arrhythmia, Tachycardia and Bradycardia [Seite 361]
17.8 - 11.8 Angina [Seite 362]
17.9 - 11.9 Heart Failure [Seite 362]
17.10 - 11.10 Agents that Affect Adrenergic Receptors [Seite 363]
17.11 - 11.11 Cardiac Glycosides [Seite 364]
17.12 - 11.12 Benzodiazapines [Seite 364]
17.13 - 11.13 Anti-Psychotic Drugs [Seite 365]
17.14 - 11.14 Stimulants and Drugs of Abuse [Seite 365]
17.15 - 11.15 Analgesics [Seite 365]
17.16 - 11.16 Anti-Depressants and Manic Depression [Seite 367]
17.17 - 11.17 Diabetes [Seite 367]
17.18 - 11.18 Muscle Relaxants [Seite 367]
17.19 - 11.19 Anti-Allergics and Anti-Immune Compounds [Seite 368]
17.20 - 11.20 Xanthines [Seite 369]
17.21 - 11.21 Substances Used Experimentally to Interfere with Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 369]
17.21.1 - 11.21.1 Ca2+ Buffers and Ionophores [Seite 370]
17.21.2 - 11.21.2 Ca2+ Channels [Seite 370]
17.21.3 - 11.21.3 Agents which Open or Close Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels [Seite 370]
17.21.4 - 11.21.4 IP3 Receptor Activators and Blockers [Seite 371]
17.21.5 - 11.21.5 Ryanodine Receptor Agonists and Antagonists [Seite 373]
17.21.6 - 11.21.6 Plasma Membrane Ca2+ Pump and Exchanger Inhibitors [Seite 373]
17.21.7 - 11.21.7 SERCA Pump Inhibitors [Seite 373]
17.21.8 - 11.21.8 Compounds which Affect SOCE [Seite 374]
17.21.9 - 11.21.9 Mitochondrial Blockers [Seite 374]
17.21.10 - 11.21.10 Ca2+ Target Inhibitors [Seite 375]
17.22 - 11.22 Natural Toxins and Poisons [Seite 377]
17.22.1 - 11.22.1 Natural Stings, Bites and Other Toxin Events [Seite 377]
17.22.2 - 11.22.2 Cone Snail Toxins - Conotoxins [Seite 378]
17.22.3 - 11.22.3 Spider Toxins - Agatoxins [Seite 380]
17.22.4 - 11.22.4 Scorpion Toxins [Seite 380]
17.22.5 - 11.22.5 Pufferfish and Octopus Toxins [Seite 381]
17.22.6 - 11.22.6 Jellyfish Sting Toxins [Seite 381]
17.22.7 - 11.22.7 Hymenopteran Stings and Bites [Seite 382]
17.22.8 - 11.22.8 Snake Venoms [Seite 383]
17.23 - 11.23 Plant Toxins and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 383]
17.24 - 11.24 Drugs and the Ca2+ Receptor [Seite 384]
17.25 - 11.25 Bacteria [Seite 385]
17.26 - 11.26 Ions and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 385]
17.27 - 11.27 Antibodies and Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 386]
17.28 - 11.28 Manipulation of mRNA [Seite 387]
17.29 - 11.29 Summary [Seite 387]
17.30 - Recommended Reading [Seite 388]
17.31 - Books [Seite 388]
17.32 - Reviews [Seite 388]
17.33 - Research Papers [Seite 389]
18 - 12 Darwin and 4000 Million Years of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 391]
18.1 - 12.1 Darwin and Calcium [Seite 391]
18.2 - 12.2 Evolution and Ca2+ [Seite 395]
18.3 - 12.3 What is Evolution? [Seite 395]
18.3.1 - 12.3.1 The Word Evolution [Seite 395]
18.3.2 - 12.3.2 The Process [Seite 396]
18.3.3 - 12.3.3 Sequence of Earth's Evolution [Seite 397]
18.3.4 - 12.3.4 Ca2+ and Primeval Life [Seite 398]
18.3.5 - 12.3.5 Ca2+ and the Origin of the Three Fundamental Cell Types [Seite 398]
18.3.6 - 12.3.6 Timescale [Seite 399]
18.4 - 12.4 Evolution of Ca2+ Signalling [Seite 400]
18.4.1 - 12.4.1 Origin of Ca2+ Signalling [Seite 400]
18.4.2 - 12.4.2 Membrane Potential [Seite 400]
18.4.3 - 12.4.3 Evolution of Ca2+ Signalling Based on Protein Sequences [Seite 402]
18.4.4 - 12.4.4 Evolution of Ca2+-Binding Sites [Seite 406]
18.4.5 - 12.4.5 Origin of the EF-Hand [Seite 407]
18.5 - 12.5 Darwin and Knock-Outs [Seite 409]
18.6 - 12.6 Summary [Seite 411]
18.7 - Recommended Reading [Seite 413]
18.8 - Books [Seite 413]
18.9 - Reviews [Seite 413]
18.10 - Research Papers [Seite 414]
19 - 13 They Think It's All Over [Seite 417]
19.1 - 13.1 Calcium and the Beauty of Nature [Seite 417]
19.2 - 13.2 What We Know About Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 418]
19.2.1 - 13.2.1 Principles [Seite 418]
19.2.2 - 13.2.2 The Pathway of Discovery [Seite 421]
19.3 - 13.3 What We Don't Know About Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 423]
19.4 - 13.4 Intracellular Ca2+ at School and University [Seite 425]
19.5 - 13.5 The Inspiration of Intracellular Ca2+ [Seite 426]
19.6 - 13.6 Communicating the Story of Intracellular Ca2+ to Others [Seite 429]
19.7 - 13.7 The End of the Beginning [Seite 434]
19.8 - Recommended Reading [Seite 436]
19.9 - Books [Seite 436]
19.10 - Reviews [Seite 436]
19.11 - Research Papers [Seite 436]
20 - Index [Seite 437]
21 - EULA [Seite 467]

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