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The Addis Ababa Massacre

Italy's National Shame
Ian Campbell(Autor*in)
Oxford University Press
Erschienen am 15. August 2017
524 Seiten
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978-0-19-087429-2 (ISBN)
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In February 1937, following an abortive attack by a handful of insurgents on Mussolini's High Command in Italian-occupied Ethiopia, 'repression squads' of armed Blackshirts and Fascist civilians were unleashed on the defenseless residents of Addis Ababa. In three terror-filled days and nights of arson, murder and looting, thousands of innocent and unsuspecting men, women and children were roasted alive, shot, bludgeoned, stabbed to death, or blown to pieces with hand-grenades. Meanwhile the notorious Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani, infamous for his atrocities in Libya, took the opportunity to add to the carnage by eliminating the intelligentsia and nobility of the ancient Ethiopian empire in a pogrom that swept across the land. In a richly illustrated and ground-breaking work backed up by meticulous and scholarly research, Ian Campbell reconstructs and analyses one of Fascist Italy's least known atrocities, which he estimates eliminated 19-20 per cent of the capital's population. He exposes the hitherto little known cover-up conducted at the highest levels of the British government, which enabled the facts of one of the most hideous civilian massacres of all time to be concealed, and the perpetrators to walk free.
Ian Campbell, a development consultant specializing in East Africa, has been studying and writing on Ethiopia since 1988. The author of several scholarly papers on various aspects of Ethiopian cultural history, his works on the Italian occupation (1936-41) include The Plot to Kill Graziani and The Massacre of Debre Libanos.
  • Cover
  • Half-title
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • List of Maps
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Abbreviations
  • Notes on Transliteration
  • Glossary & Explanatory Note
  • Acknowledgements
  • Foreword
  • Introduction
  • 1. Background
  • Prelude
  • Addis Ababa on the Eve
  • Invasion and Occupation
  • Policies of Repression
  • Warnings and Forebodings
  • Yekatit 12
  • 2. The Trigger
  • Speeches and Shocks
  • Slaughter at the Palace
  • 3. An Hour of Mayhem
  • The Circle of Death
  • Slaughter in Arada
  • Escape to Qechené
  • Foreign Dispatches
  • 4. Death in the Afternoon
  • Curfew (1.00-1.30 pm)
  • Arrests, Detention and Murder (1.30-5.00 pm)
  • A State of Siege
  • 5. Carta Bianca
  • 'Do As You Please!' (4.30-5.00 pm)
  • Terror Unleashed (5.00-6.45 pm)
  • Fire and Fury (6.45 pm Friday-6.00 am Saturday)
  • Villages of Death
  • 6. The Second Day
  • The Morning After
  • The Killing Continues
  • The Transport Operations
  • Inside the Municipality
  • Saturday Afternoon
  • Mohamedally under Attack
  • Another Night of Fire and Fury
  • 7. The Third Day
  • Sunday Morning
  • 'Reprisals Should Cease'
  • Sunday Afternoon
  • Blackshirts out of Control (Sunday Night)
  • A Deadly New Development
  • 8. The Aftermath
  • The Battlefield
  • Horrors at the Central Police Station
  • Flight from the City
  • Adrenalin Runs High
  • Terror on the Outskirts
  • Body Disposal at Gulelé
  • The Detained
  • The Mystery of Engert's Refugees
  • 9. Roman Justice
  • Elimination of the Undesirables
  • The Suspects
  • The Young Ethiopians
  • The Nobility and Notables
  • 10. The Reckoning
  • Who Gave the Order?
  • The Participants
  • The Victims
  • Unsung Heroes
  • The Death Toll
  • Conclusion
  • Robbery With Violence
  • 11. The Cover-Up
  • Perfect Tranquillity
  • The Emperor Returns
  • In Memoriam
  • Appeals for Justice
  • The Final Sabotage
  • 12. Reflections
  • Epilogue
  • Appendix I: Young Ethiopians Executed Following Yekatit 12
  • Appendix II: Partial List of Addis Ababa-based Nobles and Notables Executed Following Yekatit 12
  • Appendix III: Telegram of 19 February 1937 from Minister Alessandro Lessona to Provincial Governors
  • Appendix: IV: Phonogram of 21 February 1937 from the Fascist Party Office to the Chef de Cabinet
  • Appendix V: Photography
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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