Privatization of Peacekeeping

Exploring Limits and Responsibility under International Law
Cambridge University Press
  • erschienen am 27. September 2017
  • |
  • 434 Seiten
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-316-78195-1 (ISBN)
Private military and security companies (PMSCs) have been used in every peace operation since 1990, and reliance on them is increasing at a time when peace operations themselves are becoming ever more complex. This book provides an essential foundation for the emerging debate on the use of PMSCs in this context. It clarifies key issues such as whether their use complies with the principles of peacekeeping, outlines the implications of the status of private contractors as non-combatants under international humanitarian law, and identifies potential problems in holding states and international organizations responsible for their unlawful acts. Written as a clarion call for greater transparency, this book aims to inform the discussion to ensure that international lawyers and policy makers ask the right questions and take the necessary steps so that states and international organizations respect the law when endeavouring to keep peace in an increasingly privatized world.
  • Englisch
  • Cambridge
  • |
  • Großbritannien
Cambridge University Press
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • 8,84 MB
978-1-316-78195-1 (9781316781951)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Lindsey Cameron is a legal adviser in the legal division of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Prior to joining the ICRC, she worked as a researcher in the Faculty of Law at Universite de Geneve. She has also worked for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in the Balkans and at the Court of Appeal for Ontario in Canada.
  • Cover
  • Half title
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Part I UN Use of PMSCs
  • 1 Contracting by the UN: Policy and Practice
  • 1.1 Traditional Roles of PMSCs in Peacekeeping
  • 1.2 PMSC Activities at the Margins of the Policies - CIVPOL, Intelligence
  • 1.3 Security Services
  • 1.4 Conclusion
  • 2 Survey of Existing Opinion and Practice on the Possibility of PMSCs as the Military Component of a UN Peace Operation
  • 2.1 The UN Position on PMSCs in Peacekeeping
  • 2.2 Views of the United Kingdom
  • 2.3 Views of a French Parliamentary Commission
  • 2.4 Conclusion
  • Part II The Legal Framework of UN Peace Operations and the Use of PMSCs
  • 3 The Legal Basis for Peacekeeping/Peace Operations
  • 3.1 Agreements Governing Troop and Police Contributions
  • 3.2 Status of Forces Agreements
  • 4 Principles of Peacekeeping
  • 4.1 The Operation Must Be Under UN Command and Control
  • 4.2 Consent
  • 4.3 Impartiality
  • 4.4 Limited Use of Force
  • 4.5 Forces Must Be Supplied by Member States
  • 4.6 Conclusion
  • 5 PMSCs as the Military or Police Component of the Peace Operation
  • 5.1 Legal Limits on UN Actions Implementing a Security Council Resolution
  • 5.2 PMSCs as the Sole Contribution of a Member State
  • 5.3 Delegation of a Peace Operation to a PMSC by the UN Security Council
  • 5.4 Article 43 and/or the Establishment of a Standby UN Force Composed of PMSCs
  • 5.5 'Through the back door'
  • 5.6 Conclusion
  • 6 The Law Applicable to Peace Operations
  • 6.1 International Humanitarian Law Applies to Peace Operations
  • 6.2 International Human Rights Law Binds the UN During Peace Operations
  • 6.3 Possible Related Legal Problems with PMSC as a Peace Force
  • 6.4 Regional Organizations Conducting Peace Operations and PMSCs
  • 6.5 Other Humanitarian Organizations and the Use of PMSCs
  • 6.6 Conclusion
  • Part III PMSCs and Direct Participation in Hostilities
  • 7 The Status of PMSC Personnel Under IHL
  • 7.1 PMSCs and Combatant or Fighter Status
  • 7.2 PMSCs as Civilians Accompanying the Armed Forces
  • 7.3 PMSCs as Civilians
  • 7.4 PMSCs as Mercenaries
  • 7.5 Conclusion
  • 8 The Impact of Civilian Status on the Rights and Duties of PMSCs: Direct Participation in Hostilities
  • 8.1 Concept, Elements and Time Frame of Direct Participation in Hostilities: What Counts Are Specific Acts
  • 8.2 Constitutive Elements
  • 8.3 Beginning and End of Direct Participation in Hostilities
  • 9 The Use of Force by PMSC Personnel in Self-Defence
  • 9.1 The Right to Life Does Not Entail an Unqualified Right to Self-Defence
  • 9.2 Elements of Self-Defence from Domestic Criminal Law, Interpreted in the Light of IHL
  • 9.3 Conclusion
  • 10 The Use of Force in Self-Defence in Peace Operations
  • 10.1 Limited Use of Force
  • 10.2 The Cumulative Effect of the Two Concepts of Self-Defence for PMSCs in Peace Operations
  • 11 Human Rights Law
  • 11.1 PMSCs and Human Rights Law
  • 11.2 Law Enforcement Rules Under IHL and IHRL
  • 11.3 Conclusion
  • Part IV Responsibility
  • 12 Attribution of the Actions of PMSCs Active in Peace Operations to States
  • 12.1 Article 4 ASR
  • 12.2 Article 5 ASR
  • 12.3 Article 8 ASR
  • 12.4 Responsibility Arising from Due Diligence Obligations
  • 13 Responsibility of International Organizations
  • 13.1 Basic Concepts
  • 13.2 Attribution Under Article 7 DARIO - Troop Contingents
  • 13.3 Attribution Under Article 6 DARIO - Agents and Organs: CIVPOL? Security Guards?
  • 13.4 PMSCs as 'Agents' of an International Organization Under Art 6 DARIO
  • 13.5 PMSCs and the Instructions, Direction and Control of the Organization
  • 13.6 'Experts on mission' and Article 6 Attribution
  • 13.7 Applying Article 6 DARIO
  • 13.8 Due Diligence
  • 14 Implementation of Responsibility
  • 14.1 States
  • 14.2 International Organizations
  • 14.3 Conclusion
  • General Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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