Twort's Water Supply

 
 
Butterworth-Heinemann (Verlag)
  • 7. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 3. September 2016
  • |
  • 932 Seiten
 
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978-0-08-100043-4 (ISBN)
 

Twort's Water Supply, Seventh Edition, has been expanded to provide the latest tools and techniques to meet engineering challenges over dwindling natural resources. Approximately 1.1 billion people in rural and peri-urban communities of developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water. The mortality from diarrhea-related diseases amounts to 2.2 million people each year from the consumption of unsafe water.

This update reflects the latest WHO, European, UK, and US standards, including the European Water Framework Directive. The book also includes an expansion of waste and sludge disposal, including energy and sustainability, and new chapters on intakes, chemical storage, handling, and sampling. Written for both professionals and students, this book is essential reading for anyone working in water engineering.


  • Features expanded coverage of waste and sludge disposal to include energy use and sustainability
  • Includes a new chapter on intakes
  • Includes a new chapter on chemical storage and handling


Civil engineer specialising in water supply planning and distribution system management; responsibilities include research in the UK and overseas as well as project execution in Europe, Asia, Middle East and North and South America.
  • Englisch
  • Woburn
Elsevier Science
  • 25,77 MB
978-0-08-100043-4 (9780081000434)
008100043X (008100043X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Twort's Water Supply
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Authors' Biographic Details
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Abbreviations for Organizations
  • Contributing Authors, Reviewers and Advisors
  • Contributing Authors
  • Reviewers and Advisors
  • Attribution of Illustrations
  • 1 The Demand for Potable Water
  • 1.1 Categories of Consumption
  • 1.2 Levels of Total Consumption
  • 1.3 Domestic Demand
  • Components of Domestic In-House Consumption
  • Outdoor Domestic Use for Garden Irrigation and Bathing Pools
  • 1.4 Standpipe Demand
  • 1.5 Suggested Domestic Design Allowances
  • 1.6 Non-Domestic Demand
  • 1.7 Public and Miscellaneous Use of Water
  • 1.8 Water Losses
  • 1.9 Real Losses (Leakage) From 24-Hour Supply Systems
  • 1.10 Supply Pipe Leakage and Consumer Wastage
  • 1.11 Minimum Night Flow as Indicator of Leakage and Wastage
  • 1.12 Variations in Demand (Peaking Factors)
  • Maximum and Minimum Hourly Rate of Consumption
  • Seasonal Variations
  • 1.13 Growth Trends of Consumption and Forecasting Future Demand
  • 1.14 Water Conservation and Demand Management
  • 1.15 The Question of Metering Domestic Supplies in the UK
  • 1.16 Effect of Price on Water Demand
  • 1.17 Assessing Future Demand in Developing Countries
  • 1.18 Consumption Surveys
  • 1.19 Test-Metering In-House Domestic Consumption
  • References
  • 2 Water Supply Regulation, Protection, Organization and Financing
  • Development, Regulation and Protection
  • 2.1 Control of Public Water Supplies
  • 2.2 Control of Abstractions
  • 2.3 Public Water Supplies in the USA
  • The US Environmental Protection Agency
  • 2.4 Public Water Supplies in Mainland Europe
  • The European Water Framework Directive
  • 2.5 Public Water Supplies in the England and Wales
  • The Privatization of Water in England and Wales and Ofwat
  • Environmental Protection and Pollution Control
  • 2.6 Public Water Supplies in Scotland and Northern Ireland
  • Organization
  • 2.7 Organization of a Water Utility
  • 2.8 Staffing Levels
  • Project Appraisal and Financing of Capital Works
  • 2.9 Appraisal Requirements
  • 2.10 Comparison of Proposed Capital Projects
  • 2.11 Comments on the Use of Discounting
  • 2.12 Sustainability, Resilience and Engineering Choices
  • 2.13 Financing of Capital Works
  • 2.14 Depreciation and Asset Management Planning
  • 2.15 Private Sector Participation in Water Supply
  • 2.16 Private Sector Operation Agreements
  • 2.17 Charging for Public Water Supplies
  • 2.18 Comparison of Charges for Water and Other Data
  • References
  • 3 Hydrology and Surface Supplies
  • Part I Hydrological Considerations
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Catchment Areas
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.4 Streamflow Measurement
  • 3.5 Rainfall Measurement
  • Measurement of Catchment Rainfall
  • 3.6 Evaporation and Transpiration Measurement
  • 3.7 Soil Moisture Measurement
  • 3.8 Catchment Losses
  • 3.9 Streamflow Naturalization
  • 3.10 Long-Term Average Catchment Run-Off
  • 3.11 Minimum Rainfalls
  • 3.12 Minimum Rates of Run-Off
  • 3.13 Maximum Rainfalls
  • 3.14 Maximum Run-Offs
  • Part II Yield of Surface Sources
  • 3.15 Introduction, Definitions and Concepts
  • 3.16 History of Yield Estimation in the UK
  • 3.17 Methods of Yield Estimation - General
  • 3.18 River Intake Yields
  • 3.19 Yield of Direct Supply Impounding Reservoirs
  • 3.20 Yield of a Pumped Storage Reservoir
  • 3.21 Yield of Regulating Reservoirs
  • 3.22 Yield of Catchwaters
  • 3.23 Compensation Water
  • 3.24 Yield of Water Resources Systems
  • 3.25 Conjunctive Use and Operation Rules
  • 3.26 Rainwater Collection Systems
  • 3.27 The Likely Effects of Climate Change
  • References
  • 4 Groundwater Supplies
  • 4.1 Groundwater, Aquifers and Their Management
  • 4.2 Yield Uncertainties and Types of Abstraction Works
  • Need for Hydrogeological Survey
  • Types of Abstraction Works
  • 4.3 Potential Yield of an Aquifer
  • 4.4 Assessment of Aquifer Characteristics
  • 4.5 Groundwater Modelling
  • Data Requirements
  • Model Calibration
  • 4.6 Test Pumping of Boreholes and Wells
  • Test Pumping Regimes
  • Use of Observation Wells and Monitoring
  • 4.7 Geophysical and Other Investigation Methods
  • 4.8 Borehole Linings, Screens and Gravel Packs
  • 4.9 Construction of Boreholes and Wells
  • 4.10 Development and Refurbishing Boreholes and Wells
  • 4.11 Pollution Protective Measures: Monitoring and Sampling
  • 4.12 River Flow Augmentation by Groundwater Pumping
  • 4.13 Artificial Recharge and Aquifer Storage Recharge
  • 4.14 Groundwater Mining
  • 4.15 Island Water Supplies
  • 4.16 Collector Wells and Other Underground Water Developments
  • 4.17 Borehole and Well Layouts
  • 4.18 Choice of Pumping Plant for Wells and Boreholes
  • 4.19 Environmental Impact Assessments
  • References
  • 5 Dams and Reservoirs
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Essential Reservoir Conditions
  • 5.3 Watertightness
  • 5.4 Strength and Durability of a Dam
  • 5.5 Types of Dam
  • Embankment Dams
  • 5.6 Types of Design
  • 5.7 Pore Pressure and Instrumentation in Earth Dams
  • 5.8 Stability Analysis in Dam Design
  • 5.9 Drainage Requirements for an Earth Dam
  • 5.10 Surface Protection of Earth Dams
  • 5.11 Rockfill and Composite Dams
  • Concrete and Masonry Dams
  • 5.12 Gravity Dam Design
  • 5.13 Gravity Dam Construction
  • 5.14 Roller-Compacted Concrete Dams
  • 5.15 Arch Dam Design
  • 5.16 Buttress or Multiple Arch Dams
  • Flood and Discharge Provision
  • 5.17 Design Flood Estimation
  • Unit Hydrograph Approach
  • 5.18 Spillway Flood Routing
  • 5.19 Diversion During Construction
  • 5.20 Flood Spillways
  • Integral Spillway
  • Chute Spillway
  • Bellmouth Spillway
  • Emergency Spillways
  • 5.21 Draw-Off Arrangements
  • 5.22 Seismic Considerations
  • Dam Regulation, Supervision and Inspection
  • 5.23 Statutory Control Over Dam Safety in the UK
  • 5.24 Dam Deterioration Signs
  • 5.25 Reservoir Sedimentation
  • 5.26 Environmental Considerations and Fish Passes
  • 5.27 Statutory Consents and Requirements
  • 5.28 Dam Incidents
  • References
  • 6 Intakes
  • 6.1 Intake Function, Types and Main Considerations
  • General Considerations
  • 6.2 Intake Capacity
  • 6.3 Hydrology, Bathymetry and Hydraulics
  • 6.4 Water Quality and Protection From Pollution
  • 6.5 Abstraction Restrictions
  • 6.6 Trash and Coarse Screens
  • 6.7 Ice
  • 6.8 Environmental Issues
  • 6.9 Fish Behaviour
  • 6.10 Fish Exclusion
  • 6.11 Fish Protection Systems
  • 6.12 Screening - Passive
  • 6.13 Screening - Active
  • 6.14 Biological Fouling of Screens and Intake Conduits
  • 6.15 Headloss Through Screens
  • 6.16 Coping With Water Level Variations
  • 6.17 Interference With Other Users
  • 6.18 Stability and Construction
  • 6.19 Access for Operation and Maintenance
  • 6.20 Intake Location and Siting
  • Intakes on Streams and Rivers
  • 6.21 Sediment Transport
  • 6.22 Sediment Exclusion and Removal
  • 6.23 Flood Passage
  • 6.24 Upland Intakes
  • 6.25 Barrages and Weirs
  • 6.26 Bankside Intakes
  • 6.27 Radial Well Intakes
  • Intakes for Open Water
  • 6.28 Shoreline Intakes
  • 6.29 Intakes on Jetties or Pontoons
  • 6.30 Tower Intakes
  • 6.31 Offshore Intakes
  • References
  • 7 Chemistry, Microbiology and Biology of Water
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • Part I Significant Chemical and Physico-Chemical Parameters in Water
  • 7.2 Acidity
  • 7.3 Acrylamide
  • 7.4 Algal Toxins
  • 7.5 Alkalinity
  • 7.6 Aluminium
  • 7.7 Ammoniacal Compounds
  • 7.8 Arsenic
  • 7.9 Asbestos
  • 7.10 Boron
  • 7.11 Bromide and Iodide
  • 7.12 Cadmium
  • 7.13 Calcium
  • 7.14 Carbon Dioxide
  • 7.15 Chloride
  • 7.16 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
  • 7.17 Chlorine Residual
  • 7.18 Chromium
  • 7.19 Colour
  • 7.20 Copper
  • 7.21 Corrosive Quality
  • 7.22 Cyanide
  • 7.23 Detergents
  • 7.24 Disinfection By-Products (DBPs)
  • 7.25 Electrical Conductivity and Dissolved Solids
  • 7.26 Endocrine Disrupting Substances
  • 7.27 Epichlorohydrin
  • 7.28 Fluoride
  • 7.29 Hardness
  • 7.30 Hydrocarbons
  • 7.31 Iron
  • 7.32 Lead
  • 7.33 Manganese
  • 7.34 Nickel
  • 7.35 Nitrate and Nitrite
  • Nitrate
  • Nitrite
  • 7.36 Organic Matter, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
  • Organic Micropollutants
  • 7.37 Pesticides
  • 7.38 pH Value or Hydrogen Ion
  • 7.39 Phenols
  • 7.40 Phosphates
  • 7.41 Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • 7.42 Radioactive Substances
  • 7.43 Selenium
  • 7.44 Silica
  • 7.45 Silver
  • 7.46 Sodium
  • 7.47 Sulphates
  • 7.48 Suspended Solids
  • 7.49 Taste and Odour
  • 7.50 Turbidity
  • 7.51 Zinc
  • Part II Water Quality Guidelines and Standards for Chemical and Physical Parameters
  • 7.52 Drinking Water Guidelines or Standards (Chemical and Physical)
  • The WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality (WHO, 2011a)
  • The European Commission Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (CEU, 1998a)
  • The UK Water Supply (Water Quality) Regulations
  • The US EPA National Primary Drinking Water Regulations
  • 7.53 Comment on the Application of Health-Related Standards
  • 7.54 Sampling for Physical and Chemical Parameters
  • Sampling Frequencies to WHO, EC, UK and US EPA Requirements
  • Minimum Sampling Requirements Where No Regulations Apply
  • Sampling Techniques for Physical and Chemical Parameters
  • On-Site Testing and Field Analysis
  • 7.55 Raw Water Quality
  • Classification
  • Monitoring Raw Water Quality
  • Catchment Assessment (See Also Part VI) and Catchment Management
  • 7.56 Basic Priorities in Water Quality Control
  • New Sources
  • Simple Checks at Source Works
  • Water Quality in the Distribution System
  • 7.57 Monitoring at Water Treatment Works
  • On-Line Monitoring
  • 7.58 Methods of Chemical Analysis
  • 7.59 Quality Assurance of Water Treatment Chemicals and Materials in Contact With Drinking Water
  • Part III Water Microbiology
  • 7.60 Diseases in Man That May Be Caused by Waterborne Bacteria and Other Organisms
  • 7.61 Bacterial Diseases
  • 7.62 Other Bacteria
  • 7.63 Protozoal Diseases
  • 7.64 Viral Diseases
  • 7.65 Microbiological Standards for Drinking Water
  • 7.66 Use of Coliforms as an Indicator of Microbiological Pollution
  • 7.67 Frequency of Sampling for Microbiological Parameters
  • Raw Water Sampling
  • 7.68 Sampling for Routine Microbiological Parameters
  • Method of Sampling
  • 7.69 Routine Tests for Bacterial Contamination of Water
  • Investigation of a Microbiological Failure
  • 7.70 Methodology for Microbiological Examination
  • 7.71 Protozoal Examination
  • 7.72 Virological Examination
  • 7.73 Other Problem Organisms
  • Part IV Water Biology
  • 7.74 Introduction
  • 7.75 Source Waters and Storage Reservoirs
  • 7.76 Transfer Stages
  • 7.77 Treatment Stages
  • 7.78 Service Reservoirs and Distribution Systems
  • Part V New and Emerging Issues
  • 7.79 Introduction
  • 7.80 Chemical Issues
  • 7.81 Microbiological Issues
  • Part VI Water Safety Plans
  • 7.82 Introduction
  • 7.83 Structure of a Water Safety Plan
  • Catchment
  • Treatment
  • Piped Distribution Systems
  • Non-Piped, Community and Household Systems
  • 7.84 Development of a Water Safety Plan
  • References
  • 8 Storage, Clarification and Chemical Treatment
  • 8.1 Raw Water Storage
  • Potential Problems in Raw Water Storage
  • 8.2 General Considerations for Water Treatment Plants
  • 8.3 Microstrainers
  • Sedimentation and Settling Tanks
  • 8.4 General Design Considerations
  • 8.5 Plain Settling
  • 8.6 Theory of Design of Tanks
  • 8.7 Grit Tanks
  • Chemically Assisted Sedimentation or Clarification
  • 8.8 Chemically Assisted Sedimentation
  • 8.9 Chemical Mixing
  • 8.10 Chemical Coagulation and Flocculation
  • 8.11 Types of Flocculators
  • 8.12 Factors Affecting Coagulation and Flocculation
  • 8.13 Effect of Organic Content and Algae
  • Clarifiers
  • 8.14 Horizontal Flow Clarifiers
  • 8.15 Design Criteria
  • 8.16 Sludge Blanket or Solids Contact Clarifiers
  • 8.17 High Rate Clarifiers
  • Tube or Plate Settlers
  • Lamella Clarifiers
  • Other High Rate Clarifiers
  • 8.18 Dissolved Air Flotation
  • 8.19 Sludge Removal From Clarifiers
  • Coagulants and Coagulant Aids
  • 8.20 Aluminium Coagulants
  • 8.21 Iron Coagulants
  • 8.22 Coagulant Aids and Polyelectrolytes
  • 8.23 Rainwater Harvesting
  • References
  • 9 Water Filtration
  • Granular Media Filtration
  • 9.1 Rapid Filtration - Introduction
  • 9.2 Rapid Filtration - Mechanisms
  • 9.3 Design and Construction of Rapid Gravity Filters
  • Filter Media
  • Underdrain Systems
  • Filter Configuration
  • Filtration Rates
  • Headloss, Air Binding and Negative Head
  • Solids Retention
  • Flow Control
  • 9.4 Backwashing
  • 9.5 Operation of Filters
  • 9.6 Construction and Operation of Pressure Filters
  • Multi-Layer and Other Methods of Filtration
  • 9.7 Use of Anthracite Media
  • 9.8 Use of Anthracite to Uprate Filters
  • 9.9 Use of Granular Activated Carbon
  • 9.10 Upward Flow Filtration
  • 9.11 Direct Filtration
  • 9.12 Filter Problems
  • Slow Sand Filtration
  • 9.13 Introduction and History
  • 9.14 Mode of Action of Slow Sand Filters
  • 9.15 Construction and Cleaning of Slow Sand Filters
  • 9.16 Use of Pre-Treatment With Slow Sand Filters
  • 9.17 Limitations and Advantages of Slow Sand Filters
  • Membrane and Miscellaneous Filters
  • 9.18 MF and UF Membrane Filtration
  • 9.19 Miscellaneous Filters
  • Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts Removal
  • 9.20 Cryptosporidium
  • 9.21 Giardia Cysts
  • References
  • 10 Specialized and Advanced Water Treatment Processes
  • Softening of Water
  • 10.1 Hardness Compounds
  • 10.2 Principal Methods of Softening
  • 10.3 The Lime-Soda Process of Softening
  • 10.4 Softening Plant
  • 10.5 Water Softening by Crystallization
  • 10.6 Stabilization After Softening
  • 10.7 Base Exchange Softening
  • 10.8 Plant for Ion Exchange (IX) Softening
  • 10.9 Hardness and Alkalinity Removal by Ion Exchange
  • 10.10 Demineralization of Water by Ion Exchange
  • Removal of Iron, Manganese and Other Metals
  • 10.11 Iron and Manganese - General
  • 10.12 Removal of Iron and Manganese From Underground Waters
  • 10.13 Removal of Iron and Manganese From River and Reservoir Waters
  • 10.14 Removal of Other Metals
  • Arsenic
  • Lead
  • Aluminium
  • Chromium
  • 10.15 Removal of Radionuclides
  • Defluoridation and Fluoridation
  • 10.16 Defluoridation
  • 10.17 Fluoridation
  • Aeration
  • 10.18 Purpose
  • 10.19 Cascade Aerators
  • 10.20 Packed Tower Aerators
  • 10.21 Spray Aerators
  • 10.22 Injection Aerators
  • 10.23 Other Types of Aerators
  • Nitrate Removal
  • 10.24 General
  • 10.25 Ion Exchange (IX) Process for Nitrate Removal
  • 10.26 Biological Process for Nitrate Removal
  • Removal of Ammonia
  • 10.27 Chemical and Physical Methods
  • 10.28 Biological Methods
  • Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds From Groundwater
  • 10.29 General
  • 10.30 Packed Tower Aerators
  • 10.31 Adsorption and Chemical Oxidation
  • Taste and Odour Removal
  • 10.32 Causes of Tastes and Odours
  • 10.33 Methods of Removal of Tastes and Odours
  • Hydrogen Sulphide Removal
  • Natural Organic Matter and Micropollutants Removal
  • 10.34 General
  • 10.35 Advanced Treatment Processes
  • Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Adsorbers
  • Biological Activated Carbon Reactors
  • Magnetic Ion Exchange Process
  • 10.36 Advanced Oxidation Processes
  • 10.37 Colour Removal
  • Corrosion Causes and Prevention
  • 10.38 Physical and Electrochemical Corrosion
  • 10.39 Bacterial Corrosion
  • 10.40 Corrosion Caused by Adverse Water Quality
  • 10.41 Corrosiveness of Various Waters
  • 10.42 Dezincification
  • Desalination
  • 10.43 Introduction
  • 10.44 Ion Exchange
  • 10.45 Electrodialysis
  • 10.46 Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration
  • 10.47 RO and NF Plant Design
  • 10.48 Thermal Processes
  • 10.49 Post Treatment
  • 10.50 Effluent Disposal
  • 10.51 The Costs of Desalination
  • References
  • 11 Disinfection of Water
  • 11.1 Disinfectants Available
  • Disinfection Using Chlorine and Chloramines
  • 11.2 Action of Chlorine
  • 11.3 Chlorine Compounds Produced
  • 11.4 Factors Relating to the Disinfection Efficiency of Chlorine
  • 11.5 Chlorine Residual Concentration and Contact Time
  • 11.6 Efficiency of Chlorine in Relation to Bacteria, Enteric Viruses and Protozoa
  • 11.7 Chlorination and the Production of DBPs
  • 11.8 The Ammonia-Chlorine or Chloramination Process
  • 11.9 Breakpoint Chlorination
  • 11.10 Superchlorination
  • 11.11 Typical Chlorine Dose
  • 11.12 Dechlorination
  • 11.13 Use of Ammonia
  • 11.14 Hypochlorite Production on Site by Electrolysis
  • 11.15 Testing for Chlorine
  • 11.16 Use of Chlorine Dioxide
  • 11.17 Sodium Hypochlorite Solution
  • 11.18 Calcium Hypochlorite
  • Disinfection Using Ozone
  • 11.19 Action of Ozone
  • 11.20 Production of Ozone
  • 11.21 Ozone Dissolution and Contact
  • 11.22 Ozone Safety
  • Disinfection Using Ultraviolet Radiation
  • 11.23 UV Disinfection
  • 11.24 UV Equipment
  • 11.25 UV Dose and Process Design Considerations
  • 11.26 UV Reactor Validation
  • 11.27 Emerging UV Issues
  • 11.28 Boiling Water
  • Disinfection of Waterworks Facilities
  • 11.29 Disinfection of Water Mains and Tanks
  • 11.30 Control of Aftergrowth (Regrowths) in Distribution Mains
  • 11.31 Disinfestation of Distribution Mains, Wells and Boreholes
  • References
  • 12 Chemical Storage, Dosing and Control
  • 12.1 Chemicals Used in Water Treatment
  • 12.2 Chemical Dosing Equipment
  • 12.3 Chemical Dosing
  • Coagulants and Coagulant Aids
  • 12.4 Coagulants
  • 12.5 Coagulant Aids and Polyelectrolytes
  • pH Adjustment and Water Conditioning Chemicals
  • 12.6 pH Adjustment
  • 12.7 Sulphuric Acid
  • 12.8 Hydrochloric Acid
  • 12.9 Carbon Dioxide
  • 12.10 Hydrated Lime
  • 12.11 Sodium Hydroxide
  • 12.12 Sodium Carbonate
  • Chlorine-Based Chemicals
  • 12.13 Chlorine
  • Safety Precautions
  • 12.14 Sodium Hypochlorite
  • 12.15 Sodium Hypochlorite Production by Electrolysis
  • 12.16 Calcium Hypochlorite
  • 12.17 Chlorine Dioxide
  • Dechlorination Chemicals
  • 12.18 Sulphur Dioxide
  • Safety Precautions
  • 12.19 Other Dechlorinating Chemicals
  • Chloramination Chemicals
  • 12.20 Ammonia
  • Oxidation Chemicals
  • 12.21 Potassium Permanganate
  • 12.22 Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Organics Removal
  • 12.23 Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC)
  • Plumbosolvency Control
  • 12.24 Phosphate Dosing
  • Caries Control
  • 12.25 Fluoridation
  • Control Techniques
  • 12.26 Chemical Dose Control
  • 12.27 Flow Proportional Control
  • 12.28 Feedback Control
  • 12.29 Cascade Control
  • 12.30 Feed Forward Control
  • 12.31 PID Control
  • Sampling and On-Line Analysis
  • 12.32 Sampling
  • 12.33 Water Quality Monitors
  • 12.34 pH Monitors
  • 12.35 Chlorine Analysers
  • 12.36 Turbidity Monitors
  • References
  • 13 Energy Use, Sustainability and Waste Treatment
  • Part I Energy and Sustainability
  • 13.1 Energy Use
  • 13.2 Energy Efficiency
  • Pumping
  • Potable Water Treatment
  • Building Services
  • 13.3 Water Conservation and Demand Management
  • 13.4 Recovery of Energy and Chemicals
  • 13.5 Carbon Accounting and Embedded Carbon
  • 13.6 Sustainability and the Future
  • Part II Waterworks Waste and Sludge Disposal
  • 13.7 Types of Waste
  • 13.8 Types and Quantities of Sludge
  • Quantities
  • 13.9 Filter, Ion Exchange and Radionuclide Waste Disposal
  • 13.10 Sludge Thickening and Disposal
  • 13.11 Sludge Dewatering
  • Lagoons and Drying Beds
  • Plate Presses
  • Thermal Processes
  • Centrifuges
  • Belt, Drum and Screw Presses
  • Other Processes
  • 13.12 Beneficial Uses of Sludge
  • References
  • 14 Hydraulics
  • 14.1 The Energy Equation of Fluid Flow
  • 14.2 Boundary Layers
  • 14.3 Pipe Flow
  • Units Used
  • 14.4 Headlosses in Pipes (1) - The Colebrook-White Formula
  • Darcy-Weisbach Formula
  • Colebrook-White Formula
  • 14.5 Headlosses in Pipes (2) - Empirical Formulae
  • 14.6 Local Headlosses at Fittings
  • 14.7 Open-Channel Flow
  • 14.8 Critical Depth of Flow
  • 14.9 Froude Numbers
  • 14.10 Headlosses in Channels
  • 14.11 Hydraulic Jump
  • 14.12 Non-Uniform, Gradually Varied Flow
  • 14.13 Weirs, Flumes and Gates
  • Weirs
  • Flumes
  • Gates
  • 14.14 Measurement Weirs
  • Broad-Crested Weir
  • Sharp-Crested or Thin-Plate Weirs
  • Crump Weirs
  • 14.15 Measurement Flumes
  • Rectangular-Throated Flume
  • Other Standard Flumes
  • 14.16 Venturi and Orifice Flow Meters
  • 14.17 Other Flow Meters
  • 14.18 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
  • References
  • 15 System Design and Analysis
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 System Layouts
  • 15.3 Pipeline and System Planning
  • 15.4 Distribution System Characteristics
  • 15.5 Designing Trunk Mains
  • 15.6 Designing Distribution Pipework
  • 15.7 Hydraulic Design of Pipelines
  • 15.8 System Curves
  • 15.9 Longitudinal Profile
  • 15.10 Air in Pipes
  • 15.11 Transient Pressures: Water Hammer and Surge
  • 15.12 Cavitation
  • 15.13 Sizing a Pumping Main
  • 15.14 Design of a Gravity Main
  • 15.15 Pipeline Design Techniques
  • 15.16 Water Quality Modelling
  • 15.17 Updating of Network Models
  • 15.18 Software Developments
  • References
  • 16 Distribution Practice
  • 16.1 Condition and Performance of Network Assets
  • 16.2 Service Levels
  • 16.3 Distribution Network Management
  • Organization
  • Managing Activities in the Network
  • Distribution Network Configurations
  • Intermittent Supply Conditions
  • Distribution Network Extensions
  • 16.4 Firefighting Requirements
  • 16.5 Service Pipes
  • Installing a Service Pipe
  • Service Pipe Materials
  • Flow Requirements
  • Service Pipe Sizing
  • 16.6 Waterworks Byelaws
  • 16.7 Distribution System Maintenance
  • 16.8 The Importance of Controlling Water Losses
  • 16.9 Active Leakage Control
  • 16.10 District Metering
  • 16.11 Pressure Management
  • 16.12 Waste Metering and Step-Testing
  • 16.13 Locating and Repairing Leaks
  • Locating Leaks by Sound
  • Other Technologies Deployed for Leak Location
  • Repairing Leaks
  • 16.14 Mains Rehabilitation
  • Mains Rehabilitation and Cleaning
  • Pipe Cleaning Methods
  • 16.15 Pipe Lining Methods
  • 16.16 Pipe Replacement
  • 16.17 Improvement of Distribution Systems in Disrepair
  • Reference Standards
  • References
  • 17 Pipeline Design and Construction
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Pipe Development
  • 17.3 Materials and Potable Water
  • 17.4 Abbreviations and Definitions
  • Pipeline Alignment and Material Selection
  • 17.5 Alignment
  • 17.6 Changes in Direction
  • 17.7 Selection of Pipe Material
  • Pipeline Structural Design
  • 17.8 Behaviour of Buried Pipes
  • 17.9 Longitudinal Stresses in Buried Pipes
  • 17.10 Buried Flexible Pipes
  • 17.11 Above Ground Pipelines and Piping
  • 17.12 Buried Pipework in Plants
  • Iron Pipes
  • 17.13 Cast or 'Grey' Iron Pipes
  • 17.14 Ductile Iron Pipes
  • 17.15 External Coatings and Internal Linings
  • 17.16 Joints for Iron Pipes
  • Steel Pipes
  • 17.17 Steel Pipe Manufacture and Materials
  • 17.18 Steel Pipe Wall Thickness
  • 17.19 Factory-Made Bends and Other Steel Fittings
  • 17.20 External and Internal Protection of Steel Pipe
  • External Protection
  • Internal Protection
  • 17.21 Mortar and Concrete Linings
  • 17.22 Joints for Steel Pipes
  • 17.23 Lining and Coating Continuity at Field Joints
  • 17.24 Cathodic Protection (CP)
  • Plastic Pipes
  • 17.25 Polyethylene (PE) Pipes
  • 17.26 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipes
  • 17.27 Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) Pipes
  • Concrete and Fibre Cement Pipes
  • 17.28 Prestressed Concrete Pressure Pipes
  • 17.29 Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Pipes
  • 17.30 Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipes
  • 17.31 Fibre and Asbestos Cement (AC) Pipes
  • 17.32 Polymer Concrete Pipes
  • Resistance to Internal Forces
  • 17.33 Forces Due to Pressure and Velocity
  • 17.34 Pipe Restraint and Thrust Blocks
  • Pipeline and Pipe System Construction
  • 17.35 Choice of Pipes
  • 17.36 Pipe Laying and Installation
  • 17.37 Changes in Direction (Bends) in the Field
  • 17.38 Testing of Pipelines
  • 17.39 Making Connections
  • 17.40 Underwater Pipelines
  • Reference Standards
  • References
  • 18 Valves and Meters
  • Part I Valves
  • 18.1 Valve Development
  • 18.2 Valve Functions
  • 18.3 Isolation
  • 18.4 Regulation
  • 18.5 Control
  • 18.6 Valve Selection and Specification
  • 18.7 Gate Valves
  • 18.8 Butterfly Valves
  • 18.9 Globe Valves
  • 18.10 Screwdown Valves
  • 18.11 Ball Valves
  • 18.12 Plug Valves
  • 18.13 Diaphragm Valves
  • 18.14 Pinch Valves
  • 18.15 Needle Valves
  • 18.16 Sleeve Valves
  • 18.17 Hollow-Jet Discharge Valves
  • 18.18 Non-Return (or Check) Valves
  • 18.19 Flap Valves
  • 18.20 Cavitation at Valves
  • 18.21 Valve Operating Equipment
  • 18.22 Valve Closure Speed
  • 18.23 Washouts
  • 18.24 Air Valves
  • 18.25 Valve Chambers
  • Part II Measurement of Flow and Consumption
  • 18.26 Purposes of Flow Measurement
  • 18.27 Types of Flow Meter
  • 18.28 Volumetric Flow Meters
  • 18.29 Permanent Flow Meter Installations
  • 18.30 Temporary Flow Measurement Devices
  • 18.31 Supply (Revenue) Meters
  • 18.32 The Accuracy of Water Meters
  • 18.33 Future Trends in Metering
  • References
  • 19 Pumping, Electrical Plant, Control and Instrumentation
  • Part I Pumps
  • 19.1 Pumping Plant
  • 19.2 Centrifugal Pumps
  • 19.3 Types of Centrifugal Pump
  • Submersible Pumps
  • 19.4 Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps
  • Affinity Laws
  • Net Positive Suction Head
  • Specific Speed
  • 19.5 Axial Flow and Mixed Flow Pumps
  • 19.6 Reciprocating Pumps
  • 19.7 Selection of Pumps for Water Supply
  • 19.8 Pump Body and Impeller Selection
  • 19.9 Standby Pumping Plant
  • 19.10 Boosting
  • Addition of Fixed Extra Flow or Pressure
  • Maintenance of a Given Pressure
  • 19.11 Increasing Pumping Station Output
  • 19.12 Station Arrangement and Plant Layout
  • Wet Wells
  • Station Arrangement
  • 19.13 Pump Suction Design
  • 19.14 Thermodynamic Pump Performance Monitoring
  • 19.15 Cavitation Damage
  • 19.16 Corrosion Protection
  • 19.17 Transient Pressures: Water Hammer and Surge
  • 19.18 Efficiencies and Fuel Consumptions
  • 19.19 Pump Drives
  • Part II Electrical Plant
  • 19.20 Electric Motors for Pump Drives
  • 19.21 The Induction Motor
  • Rated Output, Starting Torque and Start Frequency
  • 19.22 Induction Motor Starting Methods
  • 19.23 Induction Motor Protection
  • 19.24 Speed Control of Induction Motors
  • 19.25 Harmonic Filters
  • 19.26 Effect of Electricity Tariffs
  • 19.27 Electrical Power Supplies
  • 19.28 Standby and Site Power Generation
  • 19.29 Transformers
  • 19.30 HV and LV Switchboards
  • 19.31 Motor Control Centres
  • 19.32 Electrical Cabling
  • 19.33 Heating and Ventilation
  • Part III Control and Instrumentation (C&I)
  • 19.34 Introduction
  • 19.35 Control
  • Control Level
  • Automatic Control of Chemical Dosing
  • 19.36 Automation
  • 19.37 Control System Definition
  • 19.38 Instrumentation
  • Level
  • Pressure
  • Water Quality
  • 19.39 Systems
  • 19.40 Communications
  • 19.41 Hardware
  • 19.42 Ancillary Equipment
  • 19.43 Automation and Operation and Maintenance
  • References
  • 20 Treated Water Storage
  • 20.1 Functions of Treated Water Storage
  • 20.2 Storage Capacity Required
  • Minimum Storage to Even Out Hourly Demand
  • Contingency Storage
  • Volume not Available for Balancing or Non-Fire Contingencies
  • 20.3 Ground or Elevated Storage
  • 20.4 Statutory Consents and Requirements
  • 20.5 Water Quality Considerations
  • 20.6 Sampling and Water Testing
  • 20.7 Instrumentation
  • 20.8 Overflow and Drain Down Design
  • 20.9 Ventilation
  • 20.10 Loadings on Water Storage Reservoirs and Tanks
  • 20.11 Water Retaining Concrete Design
  • 20.12 Prestressed Concrete Circular Tank Design
  • 20.13 Welded Steel Plate Design
  • Service Reservoirs
  • 20.14 Reservoir Shape and Depth
  • 20.15 Covering and Protecting Reservoirs
  • 20.16 Service Reservoir Structures
  • 20.17 Rectangular Jointed Concrete Reservoirs
  • 20.18 Monolithic Concrete Reservoirs
  • 20.19 Circular Reinforced Concrete Reservoirs
  • 20.20 Cast In-Situ Prestressed Concrete Reservoirs
  • 20.21 Precast Concrete Panel Reservoirs
  • 20.22 Steel Plate Reservoirs
  • 20.23 Panel or Sectional Tanks
  • 20.24 Drainage and Waterproofing Concrete Service Reservoirs
  • 20.25 Access to Service Reservoirs
  • 20.26 Service Reservoir Pipework
  • Inlet Pipework
  • Outlet Pipework
  • Overflow and Drain Down Arrangements
  • Valves
  • 20.27 Valve Houses for Service Reservoirs
  • 20.28 Baffles in Service Reservoirs
  • Water Towers
  • 20.29 Use of Water Towers
  • 20.30 Concrete Water Towers
  • 20.31 Welded Steel Water Towers
  • 20.32 Segmental Plate Tanks
  • 20.33 Pipework and Access for Water Towers
  • Testing Service Reservoirs and Tanks
  • 20.34 Testing Procedure
  • 20.35 Searching for Leaks
  • 20.36 Cleaning and Disinfection
  • 20.37 Inspection and Repair of Service Reservoirs
  • Reference Standards
  • References
  • Conversion Factors
  • Index
  • Colour Plates
  • Back Cover

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