Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Adaptation to Exercise

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 16. November 2015
  • |
  • 560 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803992-2 (ISBN)
 

This volume of Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science includes a comprehensive summary of the evidence accumulated thus far on the molecular and cellular regulation of the various adaptations taking place in response to exercise. Changes in the cellular machinery are described for multiple tissues and organs in terms of signaling pathways, gene expression and protein abundance. Adaptations to acute exercise as well as exposure to regular exercise are considered.


  • Contributions from leading authorities
  • Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field


Claude Bouchard is Professor and Director of the Human Genomics Laboratory at Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He holds the John W. Barton Sr. Endowed Chair in Genetics and Nutrition. His research deals with the genetics of adaptation to exercise and to nutritional interventions as well as the genetics of obesity and its comorbidities. He has authored and coauthored several books and more than 1000 scientific papers. Among other awards, he was the recipient of the Honor Award from the Canadian Association of Sport Sciences in 1988, a Citation Award from the American College of Sports Medicine in 1992 and the Honor Award in 2002, the Benjamin Delessert Award in nutrition from France in 1993, the Willendorf Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity in 1994, the Sandoz Award from the Canadian Atherosclerosis Society in 1996, the Albert Creff Award in Nutrition of the National Academy of Medicine of France in 1997, the TOPS award in 1998, the Friends of Albert J. Stunkard Award in 2004 and the George A. Bray Founders Award from The Obesity Society in 2008, and the EV McCollum Award from the American Society of Nutrition in 2011. He is a foreign member of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Belgium since 1996. In 2001 he became a member of the Order of Canada as well as Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University. Dr. Bouchard became a Knight in the Ordre National du Quebec and received the Earle W. Crampton Award in Nutrition from McGill University in 2005. He was awarded Honoris Causa Doctorates in Science from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 1998, from the University of South Carolina in 2009, from Brock University in 2011, from the University of Guelph in 2011, and from the University of Ottawa in 2012. Dr. Bouchard is past president of the Obesity Society and past president of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. He served as the Executive Director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center from 1999 to 2010. He is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Epidemiological Society, the Obesity Society, the American Society of Nutrition, the American Heart Association, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. His research has been funded by various agencies in Canada and the USA, but mainly by the National Institutes of Health.
1877-1173
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 14,66 MB
978-0-12-803992-2 (9780128039922)
0128039922 (0128039922)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Molecular and Cellular Regulation of Adaptation to Exercise
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter One: Adaptation to Acute and Regular Exercise: From Reductionist Approaches to Integrative Biology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Fitness
  • 3. Reductionism, Systems Biology, and Integrative Physiology
  • 4. Genomic and ENCODE Facts: A Gold Mine for Exercise Biology
  • 5. About the Content of the Volume
  • 6. Summary and Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Two: Exercise and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Carbohydrate Utilization During Rest and Exercise
  • 3. Muscle Glycogen
  • 4. Glucose Transport
  • 5. Exercise Signals Regulating Glucose Transport
  • 5.1. AMPK and LKB1
  • 5.2. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • 5.3. Downstream Signals Mediating Exercise-Stimulated Glucose Transport
  • 5.4. AS160 and TBC1D1
  • 6. Increases in Insulin Sensitivity for Glucose Transport After Exercise
  • 7. Exercise Training: Impact on Healthy People and People with Type 2 Diabetes
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Exercise and Regulation of Lipid Metabolism
  • 1. Crossover Concept
  • 2. Fat Metabolism During Exercise
  • 2.1. Overview of Whole-Body Fat Oxidation During Exercise
  • 2.2. Adipose-Derived Free Fatty Acid Utilization During Exercise
  • 2.2.1. Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Utilization by Skeletal Muscle
  • 2.2.2. Fatty Acid Transporters
  • 2.3. Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Triglyceride Utilization During Exercise
  • 2.4. IMTG Utilization During Exercise
  • 2.4.1. Contribution of IMTG to Exercise Substrate Metabolism
  • 2.4.2. Skeletal Muscle Lipases
  • 2.5. Regulation of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation
  • 2.5.1. Regulation of Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase
  • 2.5.2. Regulation of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1-Malonyl-CoA
  • 2.5.3. Regulation of CPT-1-Carnitine Provision
  • 3. Postexercise Lipid Metabolism
  • 3.1. Lipid Dynamics During Exercise
  • 3.2. Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption
  • 3.2.1. EPOC and Exercise Duration
  • 3.2.2. EPOC and Exercise Intensity
  • 3.2.3. EPOC and Exercise Modality
  • 4. Dietary Factors Influencing Exercise Fat Metabolism
  • 4.1. Carbohydrate Loading
  • 4.2. Ketogenic Diet (Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat)
  • 4.3. Dietary Considerations in the Postexercise Period
  • 5. Molecular Programming of Lipid Metabolism
  • 5.1. PPAR-Alpha
  • 5.2. PPAR-Delta
  • 5.3. PPAR-Gamma
  • 6. Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter Four: Exercise and Regulation of Protein Metabolism
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. What Techniques Have Informed Us upon How Exercise Impacts Muscle Protein Metabolism?
  • 2. The Regulation of Protein Metabolism by Exercise
  • 2.1. RE-T and Muscle Protein Metabolism
  • 2.2. EE-T and Muscle Protein Metabolism
  • 3. Signal Transduction Regulating Muscle Protein Metabolism Responses to Exercise
  • 4. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Five: Exercise and the Regulation of Mitochondrial Turnover
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Overview of Mitochondrial Turnover
  • 3. Mitochondrial Morphology and Changes with Training
  • 4. Exercise-Induced Signaling: A Role for AMPK
  • 5. Exercise-Induced Signaling: A Role for Ca2+
  • 6. Exercise-Induced Signaling: A Role for p38 MAPK
  • 7. Exercise-Induced Signaling: Activation of PGC-1a
  • 8. Aging and Muscle Mitochondria
  • 9. Alternative Exercise Programs: High-Intensity Interval Training
  • 10. Effect of Training on mtDNA and mtDNA Diseases
  • 11. Exercise and Training on ROS Production and Antioxidant Enzymes
  • 12. Exercise and the Protein Import Pathway
  • 13. Effect of Exercise on Mitochondrially Mediated Apoptosis
  • 14. Autophagy and Mitophagy with Exercise
  • 15. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Six: Endurance Exercise and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Mitochondrial Biogenesis
  • 3. Mitochondrial Dynamics and Maintenance
  • 4. Mitophagy
  • 5. Multiple Types of Exercise Endurance Tests
  • 6. Type I Fibers Are Related to Human Endurance
  • 7. Regulation of Myosin Heavy Chain Composition by Aerobic Endurance Types of Exercise
  • 8. Blood Flow During Endurance Exercise and Its Effect on Metabolism
  • 9. Angiogenesis
  • 10. Summary and Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Seven: Exercise and the Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Resistance Exercise to Enhance Skeletal Muscle Mass
  • 3. Heterogeneity in Response to Resistance Training
  • 4. The Influence of Systemic Hormones
  • 5. The Role of the mTORC1
  • 6. Translational Responses to Resistance Training
  • 7. The Impact of Aging and Unloading
  • 8. Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: Exercise and the Regulation of Adipose Tissue Metabolism
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Adipose Tissue Localization and Composition
  • 3. Adipocyte Metabolism at Rest and During Exercise
  • 3.1. Lipolysis
  • 3.2. De Novo Lipogenesis
  • 3.3. Uptake of Fatty Acids from VLDL-Triglyceride
  • 3.4. Oxidative Metabolism
  • 4. Neural and Hormonal Control of Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Exercise
  • 4.1. Catecholamines
  • 4.2. Insulin
  • 4.3. Other Hormones
  • 4.4. Blood Flow
  • 5. Cellular and Molecular Control of Adipose Tissue Metabolism
  • 5.1. Triglyceride Lipases and Other Interacting Proteins
  • 5.1.1. Adipose Triglyceride Lipase
  • 5.1.2. Comparative Gene Identification 58
  • 5.1.3. G0/G1 Switch Gene 2
  • 5.1.4. Perilipin 1
  • 5.1.5. Fat-Specific Protein 27
  • 5.1.6. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase
  • 5.1.7. Monoacylglycerol Lipase
  • 5.2. Coordinating Lipolysis: Lipid Droplet-Associated Proteins, Protein-Protein Interactions, and Phosphorylation
  • 5.3. The Cellular Regulation of Lipolysis During Acute Exercise In Vivo
  • 6. Metabolic and Molecular Adaptations in Adipose Tissue with Exercise Training
  • 6.1. Lipolysis and the Lipolytic Proteins
  • 6.2. Mitochondrial Biogenesis
  • 6.3. DNA Methylation
  • 6.4. miRNA, Adipose Tissue, and Exercise
  • 6.5. Evidence That Exercise Training Alters Adipocyte Phenotypes
  • 7. Conclusions and Future Directions
  • References
  • Chapter Nine: Exercise and the Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism
  • 1. Liver Response to Acute Exercise
  • 1.1. Mobilization of Liver Energy Stores Maintains Glucose Homeostasis
  • 1.2. Pancreatic Hormones Stimulate Hepatic Glucose Output
  • 1.3. Evidence Lacking for Adrenergic Stimulation of Hepatic Glucose Output
  • 1.4. Recharging Liver Glycogen Stores after Exercise
  • 2. The Liver Recycles Carbons and Disposes of Excess Metabolites
  • 3. The Liver Detoxifies by Converting Excess Nitrogen to Urea
  • 4. Hepatic Adaptations to Regular Physical Activity
  • 5. Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Ten: Molecular Mechanisms for Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Vascular Structure and Function: Skeletal Musc...
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Skeletal Muscle Vasculature and Exercise
  • 2.1. Skeletal Muscle Vascular Remodeling (see Fig.1)
  • 2.2. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis
  • 2.3. Local and Systemic Growth Factors
  • 2.4. Functional Adaptations in the Skeletal Muscle Vasculature
  • 2.5. Summary (see Fig.2)
  • 3. The Heart and Coronary Vasculature
  • 3.1. Exercise Training and the Heart
  • 3.2. Structural Adaptations in the Coronary Vasculature (see Fig.3)
  • 3.3. Functional Adaptations in the Coronary Vasculature
  • 3.4. Summary
  • 4. The Brain and Cerebral Vasculature
  • 4.1. Acute Exercise and the Cerebral Vasculature
  • 4.2. Cerebral Vascular Adaptations to Exercise Training
  • 5. Summary (see Fig.4)
  • References
  • Chapter Eleven: Exercise and Regulation of Bone and Collagen Tissue Biology
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. IMCT-Training and Detraining
  • 3. Myotendinous Junction-Training and Detraining
  • 4. Tendon and Ligament
  • 4.1. Force Transmission Within the Tendon
  • 4.2. Training of Tendon and Ligament
  • 4.3. Detraining of Tendon and Ligament
  • 4.4. Collagen Synthesis and Turnover-Regulation in Tendon
  • 5. Cartilage-Training and Detraining
  • 6. Bone
  • 6.1. Mechanosensing in Bone
  • 6.2. Mechanotransduction in Bone
  • 6.3. Training of Bone
  • 6.4. Detraining of Bone
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twelve: Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Acute Exercise Hormone Responses
  • 2.1. What Happens During Exercise
  • 3. Acute Exercise
  • 3.1. Why It Happens-Mechanism of Responses to Exercise
  • 4. Chronic Exercise
  • 4.1. Adaptive Responses to Exercise Training
  • 5. Chronic Exercise and Performance
  • 5.1. Maladaptations Responses to Exercise Training
  • 6. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Exercise Endocrinology
  • 6.1. Background Basics
  • 6.2. Epigenetics and Exercise
  • 7. Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Thirteen: Exercise and Regulation of Adipokine and Myokine Production
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Skeletal Muscle as the Source of Myokines and Adipo-Myokines After Acute and Chronic Exercise
  • 3. Exercise and the Production of Adipokines by Adipose Tissue
  • 4. Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Fourteen: Exercise and the Regulation of Inflammatory Responses
  • 1. A Brief History of Inflammation and Its Underlying Relationship to Exercise
  • 2. Exercise and Acute Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle
  • 3. The Resolution of Inflammation Within Skeletal Muscle: A Coordinated Inflammatory Response
  • 4. Beyond the Muscle: Acute Exercise and Systemic Inflammation
  • 5. Summary of Acute Exercise and Inflammation
  • 6. Exercise Training and Chronic Inflammation
  • 7. Potential Mechanisms of the Effect of Exercise Training on Anti-Inflammation
  • 8. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter Fifteen: Exercise and the Regulation of Immune Functions
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Effects of Acute Exercise on Immune Cell Number and Composition
  • 2.1. Factors Responsible for Exercise-Induced Leukocytosis
  • 2.1.1. Leukocyte Demargination
  • 2.1.2. The Effects of Stress Hormones
  • 2.1.3. Origins and Destinations of the Leukocytes Redeployed by Acute Exercise
  • 3. Acute Exercise and Immune Function
  • 3.1. Innate Immune Responses to Acute Exercise
  • 3.2. Adaptive Immune Responses to Acute Exercise
  • 3.2.1. Immune Responses Determined In Vitro and Ex Vivo
  • 3.2.2. Immune Responses Determined In Vivo
  • 3.2.3. Mucosal Immunity
  • 3.3. Factors Affecting the Immune Response to a Single Exercise Bout
  • 3.3.1. Exercise Intensity and Duration
  • 3.3.2. Aging
  • 3.3.3. Nutritional Status
  • 3.3.4. Infection History
  • 4. Chronic Exercise and Immune Function
  • 4.1. The Effects of High Volume Exercise Training
  • 4.2. Potential Factors Involved in Exercise-Induced Immune Depression
  • 4.2.1. Immune Cell Frequency and Function
  • 4.2.2. Latent Viral Reactivation
  • 4.2.3. Nutritional Status
  • 4.2.4. Mucosal Immune Function
  • 4.3. The Effects of Moderate Intensity Exercise Training
  • 4.4. Potential Factors Involved in Exercise-Induced Immune Enhancement
  • 4.4.1. Immune Biomarkers and Function
  • 4.4.2. Reducing Inflammation
  • 4.4.3. Indirect Mechanisms
  • 5. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter Sixteen: Exercise Regulation of Cognitive Function and Neuroplasticity in the Healthy and Diseased Brain
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Animal Models of Exercise
  • 3. How Exercise Impacts the Physiology of the Brain
  • 3.1. Exercise and Neurotransmitters
  • 3.2. Exercise and Hormones
  • 3.3. Exercise and Neurotrophic Factors
  • 3.4. Exercise, Blood Flow, and Microvasculature
  • 3.5. Exercise and Oxidative Stress
  • 3.6. Exercise and Apoptosis
  • 4. Exercise-Induced Signaling Pathways in the Brain
  • 5. The Hippocampus Is the Brain Region Most Influenced by Exercise
  • 5.1. The Influence of Exercise on Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis
  • 6. Therapeutic Role of Exercise
  • 6.1. Exercise as an Intervention for FASD
  • 6.2. Exercise as an Intervention for Alzheimer´s Disease
  • 6.3. Exercise as an Intervention for Aging
  • 6.4. Exercise as an Intervention for Stroke
  • 7. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Seventeen: Exercise, Autophagy, and Apoptosis
  • 1. Apoptosis
  • 1.1. Morphology of Apoptosis
  • 1.2. Pathways of Apoptosis
  • 1.2.1. The Extrinsic Signaling Pathway
  • 1.2.2. The Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis
  • 2. Exercise and Apoptosis
  • 2.1. Exercise Leukocytes Apoptosis
  • 2.2. Exercise and Apoptosis in Skeletal Muscle
  • 2.3. Apoptosis Signaling and Mediators During Exercise
  • 2.4. Potential Role of Apoptosis in Adaptation
  • 3. Autophagy
  • 3.1. Autophagic Process and Its Regulation
  • 4. Effects of Exercise on Autophagy
  • 5. Autophagy and Apoptosis: Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter Eighteen: Exercise and Stem Cells
  • 1. Stem Cell Definition
  • 2. Introduction to Stem Cells and Exercise
  • 3. Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • 3.1. Effect of Acute Exercise on HSCs
  • 3.2. Effect of Exercise Training on HSCs
  • 4. Endothelial Progenitor Cells
  • 4.1. The Struggle to Define EPCs-Overlap with HSCs
  • 4.2. Exercise and EPCs
  • 4.3. Effect of Acute Exercise on EPCs
  • 4.4. Effect of Exercise Training on EPCs
  • 5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • 5.1. Effect of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on MSCs
  • 5.1.1. The Resident Progenitor Cell in Skeletal Muscle and Its Response to Exercise
  • 5.1.2. Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle and Their Response to Exercise
  • 6. Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Nineteen: Exercise and Gene Expression
  • 1. Exercise Adaptations
  • 2. Exercise and Gene Transcription
  • 3. Exercise and Epigenetic Modifications
  • 4. Exercise, ``Omics,´´ and Systems Biology
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty: Exercise, Skeletal Muscle and Circulating microRNAs
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Regulation of miRNA Biogenesis Machinery with Exercise
  • 3. The Regulation of Skeletal Muscle miRNAs by Exercise
  • 3.1. Resistance Exercise-Single-Bout Exercise
  • 3.2. Resistance Exercise-Training
  • 3.3. Endurance Exercise-Single-Bout Exercise
  • 3.4. Endurance Exercise-Training
  • 3.5. Role of miRNAs Is the Adaptation to Exercise
  • 4. The Regulation of Circulating miRNAs by Exercise
  • 4.1. Endurance Exercise-Single-Bout Exercise
  • 4.2. Resistance Exercise-Single-Bout Exercise
  • 4.3. Exercise Training
  • 4.4. Discrepancies in Circulating miRNA Detectability and Regulation
  • 4.5. Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of the Adaptation to Exercise
  • 5. Limitations and Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-One: Exercise as a Polypill for Chronic Diseases
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Chronic Diseases
  • 1.1.1. Metabolic Syndrome-Related Disorders
  • 1.1.2. Cardiovascular Disease
  • 1.1.3. Cancer
  • 1.1.4. Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 1.2. Health Policy Strategies Against Chronic Diseases: Exercise as an Effective Strategy
  • 2. Exercise as a Polypill for Chronic Diseases
  • 2.1. Metabolic Syndrome-Related Disorders
  • 2.1.1. Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2.1.1.1. Epidemiological Evidence
  • 2.1.1.2. Exercise Prescription
  • 2.1.1.3. Biological Mechanisms
  • 2.1.2. Dyslipidemia
  • 2.1.2.1. Epidemiological Evidence
  • 2.1.2.2. Exercise Prescription
  • 2.1.2.3. Biological Mechanisms
  • 2.1.3. Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity
  • 2.1.3.1. Epidemiological Evidence
  • 2.1.3.2. Exercise Prescription
  • 2.1.3.3. Biological Mechanisms
  • 2.2. Cardiovascular Diseases
  • 2.2.1. Hypertension
  • 2.2.1.1. Epidemiological Evidence
  • 2.2.1.2. Exercise Prescription
  • 2.2.1.3. Biological Mechanisms
  • 2.2.2. Coronary Heart Disease
  • 2.2.2.1. Epidemiological Evidence
  • 2.2.2.2. Exercise Prescription
  • 2.2.2.3. Biological Mechanisms
  • 2.3. Cancer
  • 2.3.1. Epidemiological Evidence
  • 2.3.2. Exercise Prescription
  • 2.3.3. Biological Mechanisms
  • 2.4. Alzheimer´s Disease
  • 2.4.1. Epidemiological Evidence
  • 2.4.2. Exercise Prescription
  • 2.4.3. Biological Mechanisms
  • 3. Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

145,18 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung des WebShops erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok