High Temperature Coatings

 
 
Butterworth-Heinemann (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 27. November 2017
  • |
  • 416 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-804743-9 (ISBN)
 

High Temperature Coatings, Second Edition, demonstrates how to counteract the thermal effects of rapid corrosion and degradation of exposed materials and equipment that can occur under high operating temperatures. This is the first true practical guide on the use of thermally protective coatings for high-temperature applications, including the latest developments in materials used for protective coatings. It covers the make-up and behavior of such materials under thermal stress and the methods used for applying them to specific types of substrates, as well as invaluable advice on inspection and repair of existing thermal coatings.

With his long experience in the aerospace gas turbine industry, the author has compiled the very latest in coating materials and coating technologies, as well as hard-to-find guidance on maintaining and repairing thermal coatings, including appropriate inspection protocols. The book is supplemented with the latest reference information and additional support to help readers find more application- and industry-type coatings specifications and uses.

  • Offers an overview of the underlying fundamental concepts of thermally-protective coatings, including thermodynamics, energy kinetics, crystallography and equilibrium phases
  • Covers essential chemistry and physics of underlying substrates, including steels, nickel-iron alloys, nickel-cobalt alloys and titanium alloys
  • Provides detailed guidance on a wide variety of coating types, including those used against high temperature corrosion and oxidative degradation and thermal barrier coatings


Dr. Sudhangshu Bose is a retired Fellow and Manager, and currently consultant at Pratt & Whitney, the manufacturer of Gas Turbine and Rocket Engines. He has also been Professor of Practice in Mechanical Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York and Hartford, Connecticut, USA. He holds a Ph.D in Materials Science and Engineering from University of California, Berkeley, having previously obtained B.Sc (Honors) and M.Sc in Physics from Ranchi University, Ranchi, India. While at Pratt & Whitney and its sister divisions, Dr. Bose has conducted and managed research, development, and testing of advanced materials and processes including oxidation and corrosion in fuel cells and gas turbine engine, catalysis, high temperature coatings, superalloys, intermetallics, and ceramic matrix composites. He holds over 24 patents. As a Professor of Practice at Rensselaer, he taught courses and supervised research in the areas of Superalloys, High Temperature Coatings, and Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies. He is currently associated with the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 12,18 MB
978-0-12-804743-9 (9780128047439)
0128047437 (0128047437)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • High Temperature Coatings
  • High Temperature Coatings
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • About the Author
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 HIGH-TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Fundamental Concepts
  • 2.1 THERMODYNAMIC CONCEPTS
  • THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS
  • Enthalpy
  • Work
  • Isothermal and Adiabatic Systems
  • Entropy
  • Free Energy
  • LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
  • CARNOT ENGINE
  • STEADY FLOW ENERGY EQUATION AND BERNOULLI'S THEOREM
  • EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT
  • ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT
  • PARTIAL PRESSURE
  • IONIZATION
  • COMBUSTION
  • 2.2 CONCEPT OF KINETICS
  • ACTIVATION ENERGY
  • DIFFUSION
  • 2.3 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
  • DEFECTS IN CRYSTALS
  • CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF NONMETALLIC MATERIALS
  • 2.4 EQUILIBRIUM PHASES
  • BINARY PHASE DIAGRAM
  • TERNARY PHASE DIAGRAM
  • 2.5 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR
  • CREEP
  • FATIGUE
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Substrate Alloys
  • 3.1 TEMPERATURE CAPABILITY OF METALS, ALLOYS, INTERMETALLICS, CERAMICS, AND COMPOSITES
  • 3.2 STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS
  • 3.3 TITANIUM ALLOYS
  • 3.4 STEELS
  • 3.5 NICKEL-IRON ALLOYS
  • 3.6 NICKEL AND COBALT BASE SUPERALLOYS
  • 3.7 CERAMICS, REFRACTORY INTERMETALLICS, AND COMPOSITES
  • 3.8 NEED FOR COATINGS
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Oxidation
  • 4.1 OXIDATION PROCESS
  • TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
  • Partial Pressure Effects
  • COMPOSITION EFFECTS
  • KINETICS OF OXIDATION
  • OXIDE SCALE PROTECTIVENESS
  • 4.2 OXIDATION TESTING AND EVALUATION
  • OXIDATION RATES
  • PARABOLIC GROWTH
  • LINEAR GROWTH
  • LOGARITHMIC GROWTH
  • BREAKAWAY OXIDATION
  • Influence of Thermal Cycling on Oxidation
  • Cyclic Effect on Oxidation in Military, Commercial, and Industrial Gas Turbine Engines and in Power Generation Mission Cycles
  • 4.3 OXIDATION OF ALLOYS
  • BINARY ALLOY SYSTEMS
  • Case 1
  • Case 2
  • TERNARY AND MULTICOMPONENT ALLOY SYSTEMS
  • 4.4 ROLES OF SPECIFIC ALLOYING CONSTITUENTS
  • ALUMINUM
  • CHROMIUM
  • COBALT
  • SILICON
  • BORON
  • TITANIUM
  • MANGANESE
  • TANTALUM, MOLYBDENUM, AND TUNGSTEN
  • OXYGEN REACTIVE ELEMENTS
  • RHENIUM/RUTHENIUM
  • REDUCTION OF SULFUR LEVEL
  • 4.5 OXIDATION IN THE PRESENCE OF WATER VAPOR
  • 4.6 OXIDATION OF POLYCRYSTALLINE VERSUS SINGLE-CRYSTAL ALLOYS
  • 4.7 OXIDATION OF INTERMETALLIC ?TIAL
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - High-Temperature Corrosion
  • 5.1 HOT CORROSION PROCESSES
  • THE CORRODING SALTS
  • ACID AND BASE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SALTS
  • 5.2 HOT CORROSION OF METALS AND ALLOYS
  • SOLUBILITY OF OXIDES IN MOLTEN SALTS
  • MECHANISM OF SUSTAINED HOT CORROSION
  • ROLE OF VANADIUM
  • 5.3 ROLE OF SPECIFIC ALLOYING ELEMENTS IN HOT CORROSION OF NI- AND CO-BASED ALLOYS AND COATINGS
  • CHROMIUM
  • NICKEL AND COBALT
  • SILICON
  • TUNGSTEN AND MOLYBDENUM
  • VANADIUM
  • TITANIUM
  • RARE EARTH ELEMENTS
  • PLATINUM
  • 5.4 INFLUENCE OF OTHER CONTAMINANTS
  • PRESENCE OF CARBON
  • PRESENCE OF CHLORIDES
  • HOT CORROSION EFFECTS OF BIOFUELS
  • 5.5 HOT CORROSION OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS
  • 5.6 HOT CORROSION-LIKE DEGRADATION
  • STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
  • INFLUENCE OF HOT CORROSION ON LOW CYCLE FATIGUE LIFE
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Oxidation- and Corrosion-Resistant Coatings
  • 6.1 REQUIREMENTS FOR METALLIC COATINGS
  • COATING CONSTITUENTS AND THEIR ROLE
  • 6.2 COATING PROCESSES
  • 6.3 DIFFUSION COATINGS
  • PACK COATINGS
  • Aluminiding of Ni Base Alloys
  • Pack Process
  • Above-the-Pack Process
  • Pulse Aluminiding
  • Slurry Aluminiding
  • Role of Activator
  • Microstructure and Mechanism of Coating Formation
  • Low Activity: Outward Diffusion
  • High Activity: Inward Diffusion
  • Aluminiding of Co Base Alloys
  • Chromium-Modified Aluminide Coating for Ni Base Alloys
  • Siliconized Coating for Ni Base Alloys
  • Aluminide Coating Modified by Platinum and Platinum Group of Metals for Ni Base Alloys
  • Ruthenium-Modified Aluminide Coating for Ni Base Alloys
  • Palladium-Modified Aluminide Coating for Ni Base Alloys
  • CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION
  • Platinum Aluminide by Chemical Vapor Deposition
  • ROLE OF REACTIVE ELEMENTS IN DIFFUSION COATINGS
  • MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLATINUM ALUMINIDES
  • MANUFACTURING ASPECTS OF THE COATING PROCESS
  • COMMERCIAL DIFFUSION COATINGS
  • COATING-SUBSTRATE INTERDIFFUSION EFFECTS
  • COATING PHASE STABILITY
  • Platinum-Modified Gamma+Gamma Prime Coating
  • OXIDATION RESISTANCE OF DIFFUSION COATINGS
  • CORROSION RESISTANCE OF DIFFUSION COATINGS
  • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PLATINUM ALUMINIDES
  • 6.4 OVERLAY COATINGS
  • 6.5 OVERLAY COATINGS BY SPRAY AND ARC PROCESSES
  • BETA-GAMMA SYSTEM PHASE STABILITY
  • SPRAY COATINGS
  • Cold Spray
  • Thermal Spray
  • Detonation Gun Process
  • Flame Spray Process
  • High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel
  • Plasma Spray Process
  • Microplasma Spray
  • LOW-PRESSURE PLASMA SPRAY COATING DEPOSITION PROFILE AND MICROSTRUCTURE
  • ARC PROCESS
  • Vacuum Cathodic Arc Evaporation
  • Electric Arc Spray
  • Microstructure of Arc Spray Coating
  • ElectroSpark Deposition
  • COATING-SUBSTRATE DIFFUSION EFFECTS
  • COMMERCIAL OVERLAY COATINGS
  • 6.6 OVERLAY COATINGS BY PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION
  • SPUTTERING
  • Selected Sputtering Methods
  • Planar Diode Sputtering
  • Triode Sputtering
  • Magnetron Sputtering
  • Magnetron Sputtering
  • Radio Frequency Sputtering
  • Radio Frequency Sputtering
  • ION PLATING
  • ION IMPLANTATION
  • ELECTRON BEAM PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION
  • MICROSTRUCTURE OF COATINGS
  • MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COATINGS AND COATED MATERIALS
  • Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature
  • Tensile Properties
  • Freestanding Coatings
  • Effect of Coatings on Tensile Properties of Substrates
  • Tensile Strength and Ductility
  • Creep and Rupture Properties
  • Freestanding Coatings
  • Effect of Coatings on Creep Properties of Substrates
  • Low-Cycle and Thermal Fatigue
  • Freestanding Coatings
  • Effect of Coatings on Low-Cycle Fatigue and Thermal Fatigue Properties of Coated Substrates
  • Thermal Fatigue
  • High-Cycle Fatigue
  • 6.7 RELATIVE OXIDATION AND CORROSION RESISTANCE OF COATINGS
  • OXIDATION RESISTANCE
  • Oxidation Resistance of High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Coatings
  • CORROSION RESISTANCE
  • Diffusion Coatings
  • Overlay Coatings
  • Coatings for Marine Application
  • 6.8 MODELING OF OXIDATION AND CORROSION LIFE
  • OXIDATION LIFE OF SUPERALLOYS AND METALLIC COATINGS
  • Life Prediction Methodologies
  • Life Equation Formulation
  • Weight Change After the First Thermal Cycle
  • Weight Change After the Second Thermal Cycle
  • Cumulative Specific Weight Change of the Sample and Metal Loss
  • Life Prediction
  • HOT CORROSION LIFE OF SUPERALLOYS AND COATINGS
  • Contributing Processes to the Corrosion Rate
  • Total Contaminant Concentration
  • Test Data Generation
  • Life Equation Formulation
  • Oxidation
  • Type I Hot Corrosion
  • Type II Hot Corrosion
  • Vanadic Hot Corrosion
  • Overall Corrosion Rate
  • Influence of Other Variables
  • 6.9 INTERACTION OF EROSION-OXIDATION AND EROSION-CORROSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs)
  • 7.1 TEMPERATURE REDUCTION BY THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS
  • MAGNITUDE OF TEMPERATURE REDUCTION
  • THE BENEFITS OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING
  • 7.2 MATERIALS REQUIREMENT FOR THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS
  • 7.3 PARTIALLY STABILIZED ZIRCONIA
  • 7.4 PLASMA-SPRAYED THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS
  • THE PLASMA SPRAY PROCESS
  • ONLINE PROCESS MONITORING
  • Suspension Plasma and Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process
  • MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASMA-SPRAYED THERMAL BARRIER COATING
  • Microstructure Characterization Techniques
  • MICROSTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP
  • Microstructure Formation
  • Segmented Thermal Barrier Coatings
  • Phase Identification in the Ceramic Coating
  • Role of Substrate Surface Roughness
  • Thick Thermal Barrier Coating
  • Abradable Thermal Barrier Coating with Controlled Porosity for Turbine Blade Outer Air Seal Application
  • Vibration Damping Coatings
  • Thermal Properties and Consequences
  • Thermal Conductivity
  • RESIDUAL STRESSES
  • ROLE OF THERMALLY GROWN OXIDE
  • STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES
  • PLASMA THERMAL BARRIER COATING DURABILITY
  • Effects of Thermal Cycling in Oxidizing Environment
  • Thermal Barrier Coating Degradation Modes and Locations
  • Failure Mechanism of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings
  • Design Capable Phenomenological Life Model
  • Life Equations
  • Impact of Oxidation
  • NON-LINE-OF-SIGHT COATING DEPOSITION: SOL-GEL PROCESS
  • 7.5 ELECTRON BEAM PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITED THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS
  • WHY ELECTRON BEAM
  • General Principle
  • PROCESSING
  • MICROSTRUCTURE FORMATION
  • Directed Vapor Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition
  • THERMALLY GROWN OXIDE
  • Role of Interface and Surface Roughness
  • Coat-Down
  • EB-PVD THERMAL BARRIER COATING DEGRADATION MODES AND LOCATIONS
  • Infiltration by Environmental Deposits Calcium Magnesium Aluminosilicate
  • Hot Corrosion
  • Erosion Damage
  • Dependence on Microstructure and Test Parameters
  • Foreign Object Damage
  • Damage Due to Changes in the Thermally Grown Oxide
  • ROLE OF RESIDUAL STRESS
  • Stress Within the Thermally Grown Oxide
  • Stress Within the Ceramic Coating
  • ROLES OF OXYGEN REACTIVE ELEMENTS
  • BOND STRENGTH
  • STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES
  • OXIDATION AND THERMOCYCLIC BEHAVIOR
  • FAILURE MECHANISMS AND LIFE MODELING
  • Spall Mechanism and Fracture Mechanics Model
  • THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING
  • Thermal Behavior of 7YSZ
  • Thermal Expansion
  • Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat
  • The Effect of Microstructure
  • Reduction of Thermal Conductivity
  • Microstructural Modification
  • Alternate Alloying Additions
  • Novel Oxide Ceramics
  • Thermal Consequence of Increased Insulation
  • 7.6 ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIER COATINGS
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) of Coatings
  • 8.1 NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION TECHNIQUES
  • FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION
  • ULTRASONIC INSPECTION
  • EDDY CURRENT
  • Frequency Scanning Eddy Current Technique
  • INFRARED IMAGING
  • Pulse-Echo Thermal Wave Infrared Imaging
  • Phase of Thermal Emission Spectroscopy
  • ACOUSTIC EMISSION
  • PHOTOACOUSTIC TECHNIQUE
  • MIDINFRARED REFLECTANCE
  • ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY
  • PHOTOLUMINESCENCE PIEZOSPECTROSCOPY
  • INTERFEROMETRIC TECHNIQUES
  • Holography
  • Thermal Wave Interferometry
  • Noncontact Luminescence Sensing of Temperature of Thermal Barrier Coatings
  • Shearography and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Coatings Repair
  • 9.1 LIMITS TO COATINGS REPAIR
  • 9.2 THE REPAIR PROCESS
  • Component Cleaning
  • Consequence of Remnants of Old Coating
  • REMOVAL OF CERAMIC COATINGS
  • Grit Blasting
  • Alkali Solution
  • Molten Alkali
  • Water Jet
  • REMOVAL OF METALLIC COATINGS
  • Acid Stripping
  • 9.3 RECOATING AND MATERIAL RESTORATION
  • MICROPLASMA SPRAYED CERAMIC COATING RESTORATION
  • SOL-GEL PROCESS FOR CERAMIC COATING RESTORATION
  • COUPON REPAIR
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Field and Simulated Field Experience
  • 10.1 GAS TURBINE ENGINE APPLICATION
  • METALLIC COATINGS
  • Coating Cracking in Aircraft Engines
  • Oxidation and Hot Corrosion in Aircraft and Marine Engine Simulation Test
  • Oxidation and Hot Corrosion in Industrial Gas Turbines
  • Coating Cracking in Industrial Gas Turbine Engines
  • Marine Application
  • THERMAL BARRIER COATING
  • Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating
  • Thermal Barrier Coating in the Combustor
  • Thermal Barrier Coating on Vane Platform
  • Thermal Barrier Coating on Vane Airfoil
  • EB-PVD Thermal Barrier Coating
  • Thermal Barrier Coating on Blades and Vanes
  • Thermal Barrier Coating in Industrial Gas Turbine Engines
  • 10.2 OTHER APPLICATIONS
  • COAL GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT
  • FAST BREEDER REACTORS
  • WASTE TO ENERGY PLANTS
  • DIESEL ENGINES
  • 10.3 NEW FIELD OBSERVATIONS ON GAS TURBINE ENGINE HOT SECTION PARTS
  • INTERNAL HOT CORROSION
  • UNDERPLATFORM PITTING HOT CORROSION
  • CMAS ATTACK OF TBC-COATED TURBINE BLADE AND BLADE OUTER AIR SEAL
  • REFERENCES
  • Appendix
  • A1. ABRADABLE BLADE OUTER AIR SEAL
  • Compressor Abradables
  • Turbine Abradables
  • A2. METAL AND CERAMIC COATING SURFACE TEMPERATURES AS FUNCTIONS OF COATING THICKNESS AND CERAMIC COATING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
  • A3. A SIMPLE MICROSTRUCTURE-BASED MODEL TO EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE IN THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BETWEEN AIR PLASMA SPRAYING AND ELECT ...
  • REFERENCES
  • A4. SOL-GEL PROCESS FOR DEPOSITION OF ZIRCONIA-BASED TOPCOAT OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS
  • Author Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • Subject Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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