Antibiotic Resistance: Challenges and Opportunities, An Issue of Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, E-Book

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 11. Juni 2016
  • |
  • 100 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-44619-8 (ISBN)
 

For many years, physicians and the public assumed that the discovery of new antimicrobial agents would outpace the ability of bacteria to mutate and develop drug resistance. Yet the development of new antibiotics has not kept up with bacterial evolution, especially since the late 1990's. At that time a multitude of pharmaceutical companies abandoned antibiotic research because of strong economic disincentives. For example, it is challenging for these companies to recuperate the investment (typically in the hundreds of millions of dollars) made in developing a new antibiotic, which is typically prescribed for a few days, compared to drugs that treat chronic conditions like heart disease or mental illness. This situation has led the U.S. federal government to take a more active lead in addressing antibiotic resistance. Recently, the White House announced an action plan that includes improving surveillance, developing better diagnostic tools, accelerating drug development, and improving global coordination of antibiotic resistance issues. Equally important is the $1.2 billion dollars that has been pledged to fund these efforts. While we await the implementation of new policies, this issue of Infectious Disease Clinics of North America brings together leading authorities in the field of antibiotic resistance who discuss current issues including antibiotic stewardship, the changing role of the microbiology laboratory in determining antibiotic resistance in gram-negative pathogens, the continuing spread of metallo-ß-lactamases, ESBLs and KPCs, antibiotic options for treating resistant gram-negative infections such as colistin and tigecycline, resistance mechanisms and new treatment options for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emerging resistance mechanisms in aminoglycosides, issues with antibiotic resistance in immunocompromised patients, new ß-lactamase inhibitors in the clinic, and resistance in VRE and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, combination therapy for resistant gram-negative infections has been advocated by some authorities and the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy will be reviewed.

  • Englisch
  • Philadelphia
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Health Sciences
  • 4,45 MB
978-0-323-44619-8 (9780323446198)
0323446191 (0323446191)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Antibiotic Resistance:Challenges and Opportunities
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • CONSULTING EDITOR
  • EDITORS
  • AUTHORS
  • Contents
  • Preface: Antibiotic Resistance in the Twenty-First Century: Current Concepts and Future Directions
  • Overview: Global and Local Impact of Antibiotic Resistance
  • The Changing Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory in Defining Resistance in Gram-negatives
  • The Continuing Plague of Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae Infections
  • Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in the Community: Trends and Lessons Learned
  • Agents of Last Resort: Polymyxin Resistance
  • Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Therapeutic Challenges in the 21st Century
  • New ß-Lactamase Inhibitors in the Clinic
  • Antibiotic-Resistant Infections and Treatment Challenges in the Immunocompromised Host
  • Bacteremia due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: New Therapeutic Approaches
  • Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Challenges and Progress
  • Aminoglycoside Resistance: The Emergence of Acquired 16S Ribosomal RNA Methyltransferases
  • The Evolving Role of Antimicrobial Stewardship in Management of Multidrug Resistant Infections
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
  • FORTHCOMING ISSUES
  • September 2016
  • December 2016
  • March 2017
  • RECENT ISSUES
  • March 2016
  • December 2015
  • September 2015
  • Preface: Antibiotic Resistance in the Twenty-First Century: Current Concepts and Future Directions
  • Overview: Global and Local Impact of Antibiotic Resistance
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EVOLUTION OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • ANTIBIOTICS AND AGRICULTURE
  • SOCIETAL BURDEN OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • WHAT CAN BE DONE TO AVERT A POSTANTIBIOTIC ERA?
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • The Changing Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory in Defining Resistance in Gram-negatives
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • AVAILABLE METHODS
  • Standard Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Methods
  • Rapid Biochemical Tests to Detect Extended-spectrum ß-Lactamase and Carbapenemase Producers
  • Single and Multiplex Endpoint Polymerase Chain Reactions
  • Single and Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reactions
  • Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification
  • Next-generation Sequencing
  • Whole-genome Sequencing
  • Microarrays
  • Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy
  • PROMISING TECHNOLOGIES IN DEVELOPMENT
  • Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
  • Microfluidics and Nanotechnology
  • Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
  • FilmArray
  • Rapid Whole-genome Sequencing
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
  • DISCUSSION
  • REFERENCES
  • The Continuing Plague of Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae Infections
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE EMERGENCE OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM ß-LACTAMASES
  • WORLDWIDE PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM ß-LACTAMASES
  • LACTAMASES-PRODUCING ENTEROBACTERIACEAE INFECTIONS
  • OUTBREAK IN NONHOSPITAL SETTINGS
  • STRAIN IN THE COMMUNITY
  • WHAT ARE THE PREDICTORS FOR EXTENDED-SPECTRUM ß-LACTAMASES-PRODUCING ENTEROBACTERIACEAE INFECTIONS ACQUIRED OUTSIDE OF THE ...
  • WHAT IS THE ISOLATED IMPACT OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM ß-LACTAMASE ACQUISITION ON PATIENTS' CLINICAL OUTCOMES?
  • TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR EXTENDED-SPECTRUM ß-LACTAMASES-PRODUCING ENTEROBACTERIACEAE INFECTIONS IN HOSPITAL SETTINGS
  • Carbapenems
  • Cephalosporins
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Cephamycins
  • ß-Lactam-ß-lactamase Inhibitors Combinations
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Tigecycline and Polymyxins
  • TREATING EXTENDED-SPECTRUM ß-LACTAMASE INFECTIONS IN AMBULATORY SETTINGS
  • FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
  • REFERENCES
  • Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in the Community
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • COMMUNITY-ASSOCIATED, HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED, AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS
  • REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSITION FROM NOSOCOMIAL PATHOGEN TO COMMUNITY-ASSOCIATED PATHOGEN
  • METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
  • VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI
  • CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII
  • MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA
  • ENTEROBACTERIACEAE THAT PRODUCE EXTENDED SPECTRUM ß-LACTAMASES
  • CARBAPENEMASE-PRODUCING ENTEROBACTERIACEAE
  • PREVENTION
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Agents of Last Resort
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANISM OF ACTION
  • MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE
  • CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY OF POLYMYXIN-RESISTANT GRAM-NEGATIVE BACILLI
  • STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE POLYMYXIN RESISTANCE
  • OPTIMIZING DOSING REGIMENS
  • COMBINATION THERAPY
  • PREVENTION OF POLYMYXIN RESISTANCE
  • Infection Control
  • Antimicrobial Stewardship
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION: A REPORT FROM THE FRONT LINES
  • PROFILE OF AN OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN
  • From the Iron Age to the Antibiotic Age
  • Enterococcal Infections: A Tale of Two Species
  • MASTER OF SURVIVAL
  • Host Colonization-Preamble to Infection
  • Virulence Factors
  • Antibiotic Resistance-Beyond Vancomycin
  • Daptomycin
  • Oxazolidinones
  • Lipoglycopeptides
  • Streptogramins
  • Glycylcyclines
  • COMBINED ARMS-THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF VANCOMYCIN-RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI
  • Dual ß-lactam Combinations
  • Daptomycin Combinations
  • Other Combinations
  • Therapeutic Approach
  • SUMMARY-NEW MILLENNIUM, NEW STRATEGIES
  • REFERENCES
  • New ß-Lactamase Inhibitors in the Clinic
  • Key points
  • WHAT TRANSPIRED? THE FALL OF THE CURRENT CLINICALLY AVAILABLE ß-LACTAM-ß-LACTAMASE INHIBITOR COMBINATIONS
  • MAJOR OBSTACLES IN ß-LACTAMASE INHIBITOR DEVELOPMENT
  • CHANGING THE ß-LACTAM PARTNER: CEFTOLOZANE-TAZOBACTAM
  • DIAZABICYCLOOCTANONES, THE "FUTURE" OF ß-LACTAMASE INHIBITOR MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
  • AVIBACTAM, THE "PIONEER" DIAZABICYCLOOCTANONE IN THE CLINIC
  • RESISTANCE TO ß-LACTAM-AVIBACTAM COMBINATIONS
  • DIAZABICYCLOOCTANONES, RELEBACTAM AND OP0595, ON THE HORIZON
  • DIAZABICYCLOOCTANONES IN PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • BORONIC ACID ß-LACTAMASE INHIBITORS ARE MAKING GREAT STRIDES
  • BORONIC ACIDS IN PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • NOVEL SULFONES AND CLAVAMS IN PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • PHOSPHONATES IN PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • MONOBACTAMS ARE PROMISING ß-LACTAMASE INHIBITORS OR EVADE ß-LACTAMASE ACTIVITY
  • MONOBACTAMS AND DERIVATIVES IN PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • A NEW SIDEROPHORE CEPHALOSPORIN IN CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • NOVEL 3´-THIOBENZOYL CEPHALOSPORINS IN PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • AND FSI-1686
  • LACTAMASE-SPECIFIC INHIBITORS IN PRECLINICAL DEVELOPMENT: BISTHIAZOLIDINES AND ME1071
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Antibiotic-Resistant Infections and Treatment Challenges in the Immunocompromised Host
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE IMMUNE SYSTEM AND HOST SUSCEPTIBILITY TO BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
  • SOLID ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
  • Prevalence of Pathogens in Solid Organ Transplant
  • Risks for Multidrug-resistant Organisms
  • Inappropriate Empiric Antibiotics
  • Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Multidrug-resistant Organisms
  • Mortality Risks
  • THE NEUTROPENIC HOST
  • Prevalence of Multidrug-resistant Organisms in Cancer Patients with Neutropenic Fever
  • Risks for Multidrug-resistant Organisms in the Febrile Neutropenic Patient
  • Inappropriate Empiric Antibiotics
  • Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Multidrug-resistant Organisms
  • Mortality Risks and Multidrug-resistant Organisms
  • HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AND AIDS
  • Incidence and Risks for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Vi ...
  • Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
  • Antibiotic Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients
  • Does Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis Cause Resistance?
  • Other Antibiotic Resistance Among Gram-negative Pathogens, Including Extended Spectrum ß-Lacatamase, Among Human Immunodefi ...
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Bacteremia due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GLYCOPEPTIDES AND SEMISYNTHETIC LIPOGLYCOPEPTIDES
  • Vancomycin
  • Semisynthetic Lipoglycopeptides
  • Oritavancin
  • Dalbavancin
  • Telavancin
  • DAPTOMYCIN
  • FIFTH-GENERATION CEPHALOSPORINS: CEFTAROLINE
  • OXAZOLIDINONES
  • TIGECYCLINE
  • COMBINATION THERAPY
  • Combinations with Vancomycin
  • Combinations with Daptomycin
  • Daptomycin plus ß-lactams
  • Daptomycin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  • Daptomycin plus either ceftaroline or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: A comparison
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus ceftaroline
  • Combinations with Fosfomycin
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
  • Key points
  • BACKGROUND
  • RESISTANCE MECHANISMS AND CURRENT APPROACHES TO TREATMENT
  • Standard Therapy for Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis: Mechanisms and Resistance
  • Current Treatment Regimen for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Second-Line Agents
  • CLINICAL TRIALS
  • Alternative Approaches to Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Clinical Drug Development
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Aminoglycoside Resistance
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MECHANISMS OF AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE
  • BACTERIA
  • ArmA
  • RmtA
  • RmtB
  • RmtC
  • RmtD
  • RmtE
  • RmtF
  • RmtG
  • RmtH
  • NpmA
  • PREVALENCE OF 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA METHYLTRANSFERASES
  • CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • The Evolving Role of Antimicrobial Stewardship in Management of Multidrug Resistant Infections
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • RESISTANCE AND THE NEED FOR ANTIMICROBIAL STEWARDSHIP
  • COLLABORATE FOR SUCCESS
  • COST OF RESISTANCE AND IMPACT OF ANTIMICROBIAL STEWARDSHIP PROGRAMS
  • EVIDENCE OF STEWARDSHIP ON THE IMPACT OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE
  • USE OF NEW ANTIMICROBIALS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Index

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