Marine Ecotoxicology

Current Knowledge and Future Issues
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. August 2016
  • |
  • 334 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803372-2 (ISBN)
 

Marine Ecotoxicology: Current Knowledge and Future Issues is the first unified resource to cover issues related to contamination, responses, and testing techniques of saltwater from a toxicological perspective. With its unprecedented focus on marine environments and logical chapter progression, this book is useful to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators involved or interested in marine waters.

As human interaction with these environments increases, understanding of the pollutants and toxins introduced into the oceans becomes ever more critical, and this book builds a foundation of knowledge to assist scientists in studying, monitoring, and making decisions that affect both marine environments and human health.

A team of world renowned experts provide detailed analyses of the most common contaminants in marine environments and explain the design and purpose of toxicity testing methods, while exploring the future of ecotoxicology studies in relation to the world's oceans. As the threat of increasing pollution in marine environments becomes an ever more tangible reality, Marine Ecotoxicology offers insights and guidance to mitigate that threat.

  • Provides practical tools and methods for assessing and monitoring the accumulation and effects of contaminants in marine environments
  • Unites world renowned experts in marine ecotoxicology to deliver thorough and diverse perspectives
  • Builds the foundation required for risk assessors and regulators to adequately assess and monitor the impact of pollution in marine environments
  • Offers helpful insights and guidance to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators interested in mitigating threats to marine waters


Senior Scientist; Institute of Marine Sciences, Andaluc?a, Spain Published over 130 articles on marine toxicology. Guest editor for Advances in Marine Chemistry and special issues of Seminario Iberico Qu?mica Marina. Editorial board member for Environment International Invited speaker at several research conferences
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 6,00 MB
978-0-12-803372-2 (9780128033722)
012803372X (012803372X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • MARINE ECOTOXICOLOGY
  • MARINE ECOTOXICOLOGY: CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND FUTURE ISSUES
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • References
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 - Contaminants in the Marine Environment
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2 SOURCES AND PROPERTIES
  • 1.2.1 Metals
  • 1.2.2 Persistent Organic Contaminants
  • 1.2.2.1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • 1.2.2.2 Surfactants
  • 1.2.2.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyl
  • 1.2.2.4 Pesticides
  • 1.2.2.5 Dioxins
  • 1.2.3 Emerging Organic Contaminants
  • 1.2.3.1 Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances
  • 1.2.3.2 Brominated Flame Retardants
  • 1.2.3.3 Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds
  • 1.2.3.4 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products
  • 1.2.3.5 Marine Biotoxins
  • 1.2.3.6 Nanomaterials
  • 1.2.3.7 Polydimethylsiloxanes
  • 1.3 ANALYTICAL APPROACHES
  • 1.3.1 Metals
  • 1.3.2 Persistent Organic Contaminants
  • 1.3.2.1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • 1.3.2.2 Surfactants
  • 1.3.2.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyl
  • 1.3.2.4 Pesticides
  • 1.3.2.5 Dioxins
  • 1.3.3 Emerging Organic Contaminants
  • 1.3.3.1 Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances
  • 1.3.3.2 Brominated Flame Retardants
  • 1.3.3.3 Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds
  • 1.3.3.4 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products
  • 1.3.3.5 Marine Biotoxins
  • 1.3.3.6 Nanomaterials
  • 1.3.3.7 Polydimethylsiloxanes
  • 1.4 OCCURRENCE IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1.4.1 Metals
  • 1.4.2 Persistent Organic Contaminants
  • 1.4.2.1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • 1.4.2.2 Surfactants
  • 1.4.2.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • 1.4.2.4 Pesticides
  • 1.4.2.5 Dioxins
  • 1.4.3 Emerging Organic Contaminants
  • 1.4.3.1 Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances
  • 1.4.3.2 Brominated Flame Retardants
  • 1.4.3.3 Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds
  • 1.4.3.4 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products
  • 1.4.3.5 Marine Biotoxins
  • 1.4.3.6 Nanomaterials
  • 1.4.3.7 Siloxanes
  • 1.5 MICROPLASTICS IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1.6 FUTURE TRENDS
  • 1.7 CONCLUSIONS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 2 - Contemporary Methods for Statistical Design and Analysis
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 TOXICITY MEASURES
  • 2.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
  • 2.3.1 Example
  • 2.4 DATA PROCESSING AND HANDLING
  • 2.4.1 Manipulating Data: The R Package tidyr
  • 2.4.2 Visualizing Data: The R Package ggplot2
  • 2.5 ESTIMATION AND INFERENCE
  • 2.6 CONCENTRATION-RESPONSE MODELING
  • 2.6.1 Locally D-Optimal Designs for C-R Experiments
  • 2.7 SPECIES SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTION MODELING
  • 2.8 STATISTICAL SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR ECOTOXICOLOGY
  • 2.8.1 R Package webchem
  • 2.8.2 R Package ggplot2
  • 2.8.3 R Package drc
  • 2.8.3 R Function fitdistr() and Package fitdistrplus
  • 2.8.4 MOSAIC
  • 2.8.5 BurrliOZ
  • 2.9 FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
  • References
  • 3 - Dynamic Modeling for Uptake and Effects of Chemicals
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 GENERAL MODELING PRINCIPLES
  • 3.2.1 Systems and States
  • 3.2.2 The Role of Assumptions
  • 3.2.3 Model Complexity and the Need for Generality
  • 3.2.4 Mechanistic vs Descriptive Models
  • 3.2.5 Compartment Modeling and Building Blocks
  • 3.2.6 Translation into Mathematics and Model Testing
  • 3.2.7 Confronting Models With Data
  • 3.3 TOXICOKINETICS
  • 3.3.1 The One-Compartment Model With First-Order Kinetics
  • 3.3.2 Beyond the Simple One-Compartment Model
  • 3.3.3 Case Study
  • 3.4 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ON TOXICODYNAMICS
  • 3.4.1 Linking TK to TD Models
  • 3.4.2 Using TK Models in the Absence of Body-Residue Data
  • 3.4.3 Extension With a Damage Compartment or Receptor Kinetics
  • 3.5 EFFECTS ON SURVIVAL
  • 3.5.1 Why Do Animals Die?
  • 3.5.2 The Stochastic Death Model
  • 3.5.3 Case Study
  • 3.6 EFFECTS ON SUBLETHAL ENDPOINTS
  • 3.6.1 TD Models for Sublethal Effects
  • 3.6.2 Dynamic-Energy Budgets
  • 3.6.3 Linking TK to the Energy Budget
  • 3.6.4 Fitting the TKTD Energy-Budget Model to Data
  • 3.6.5 Case Study
  • 3.7 POPULATION LEVEL AND HIGHER
  • 3.7.1 Individual-Based Models
  • 3.7.2 Matrix Models
  • 3.7.3 The Intrinsic Rate of Increase
  • 3.8 FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
  • 3.8.1 Closer Collaboration Between Disciplines
  • 3.8.2 Topics for Future Research
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4 - Bioaccumulation and Biomonitoring
  • 4.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BIOACCUMULATION
  • 4.1.1 Absorption
  • 4.1.2 Assimilation
  • 4.1.3 Bioconcentration Factor (BCF)
  • 4.2 BIOACCUMULATION MODELING
  • 4.2.1 Equilibrium Partitioning Model (EqP)
  • 4.2.2 Kinetic Modeling
  • 4.3 KINETIC PARAMETERS
  • 4.3.1 Dissolved Uptake Rate Constant ku
  • 4.3.2 Assimilation Efficiency
  • 4.3.3 Efflux
  • 4.4 APPLICATION OF BIOACCUMULATION MODELING
  • 4.5 BIOMONITORING
  • 4.5.1 Choice of Biomonitors
  • 4.6 PRINCIPLES OF BIOMONITORING AND SOME CONSIDERATIONS
  • 4.7 FUTURE POSSIBILITIES AND PROBABILITIES
  • References
  • 5 - Biomarkers and Effects
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2 BIOMARKERS
  • 5.2.1 Biotransformation Enzymes
  • 5.2.1.1 Phase I Enzymes
  • 5.2.1.2 Phase II Enzymes
  • 5.2.2 Oxidative Stress Parameters
  • 5.2.2.1 Antioxidant Enzyme Activity
  • 5.2.2.2 Lipid Peroxidation
  • 5.2.3 Metallothioneins
  • 5.2.4 d-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase
  • 5.2.5 Immunological Parameters
  • 5.2.6 Genotoxic Parameters
  • 5.2.6.1 DNA Adducts
  • 5.2.6.2 Secondary DNA Modifications
  • 5.2.6.3 Irreversible Genotoxic Events
  • 5.2.7 Reproductive and Endocrine Parameters
  • 5.2.8 Neurotoxic Parameters
  • 5.3 HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING TECHNIQUES OR "OMICS"
  • 5.3.1 Transcriptomics
  • 5.3.2 Proteomics
  • 5.3.3 Metabolomics
  • 5.3.4 Marine Genomic Resources and Examples
  • 5.4 FUTURE POSSIBILITIES AND PROBABILITIES
  • References
  • 6 - Saltwater Toxicity Tests
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 TERMINOLOGY
  • 6.3 GENERAL SALTWATER TOXICITY TEST METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES
  • 6.3.1 Fish
  • 6.3.2 Mollusks
  • 6.3.3 Echinoderms
  • 6.3.4 Mysids
  • 6.3.5 Copepods
  • 6.3.6 Decapods
  • 6.3.7 Rotifers
  • 6.3.8 Cnidarians
  • 6.3.9 Marine Algal Toxicity Tests
  • 6.3.10 Application of Marine Water Column Toxicity Tests in Ambient Monitoring
  • 6.3.10.1 Ambient Monitoring
  • 6.3.10.2 Stormwater Monitoring
  • 6.3.10.3 Transitional Environments
  • 6.3.10.4 Future Possibilities and Probabilities
  • References
  • 7 - Sediment Toxicity Testing
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.1.1 Principal Considerations for Sound Ecotoxicology
  • 7.1.1.1 Ensure Adequate Planning and Good Design
  • 7.1.1.2 Understand and Define the Baseline for the Response Endpoints
  • 7.1.1.3 Use Appropriate Exposure Routes and Concentrations (Relevant to the Environment Being Assessed) and Make Measurements to De ...
  • 7.1.1.4 Statistical Analyses and Repeatability of the Results
  • 7.1.1.5 Consider Confounding Factors
  • 7.1.1.6 Analyzing and Reporting Results in an Unbiased Manner
  • 7.1.2 Considerations for Selection of Test Organisms
  • 7.1.2.1 Contaminant Exposure Pathways and Sensitivity
  • 7.1.2.2 Potential Test Organisms
  • 7.1.3 Possible Test Endpoints
  • 7.1.3.1 Behavioral Test Endpoints
  • 7.1.3.2 Biomarker, Gene Expression, and Genotoxic and Cell-Based Bioassay Test Endpoints
  • 7.1.3.3 Time-Dependent Endpoints
  • 7.1.4 Confounding Factors
  • 7.2 HOW TO CONDUCT A SEDIMENT TOXICITY TEST
  • 7.2.1 Sediment Collection and Preparation
  • 7.2.1.1 Collection and Storage
  • 7.2.1.2 Control and Reference Sediments
  • 7.2.1.3 Characterization
  • 7.2.2 Test Organisms
  • 7.2.3 Test Exposure Conditions and Setup
  • 7.2.4 Monitoring of Exposure Conditions
  • 7.2.5 Test Acceptability, Data Analyses, and Interpretation
  • 7.2.5.1 Test Acceptability Criteria
  • 7.2.5.2 Determination of Toxicity
  • 7.2.5.3 Calculation of Effect Thresholds (LC50, EC/IC10)
  • 7.3 TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION FOR WHOLE SEDIMENTS
  • 7.4 MORE FROM LESS (FUTURE POSSIBILITIES AND PROBABILITIES)
  • 7.4.1 Derivation of Bioavailability-Based Sediment Quality Guidelines
  • 7.4.2 Novel Sediment Exposure Methods to Assess Ecological-Ecotoxicology Effects
  • 7.4.3 Toxicity Is Dynamic (Modeling Our Way Out of the Black Box)
  • 7.4.3.1 Mechanistic Effect Models
  • 7.4.4 New Technologies and Visions for Ecotoxicology
  • 7.4.4.1 Lab-On-A-Chip Technology
  • 7.4.4.2 Adverse Outcome Pathways
  • 7.4.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 8 - Mesocosm and Field Toxicity Testing in the Marine Context
  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8.1.1 What Is a Mesocosm?
  • 8.1.2 Linking Field Biomonitoring to Mesocosm Experiments
  • 8.2 MESOCOSMS AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR THE PROTECTION OF MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
  • 8.3 GENERAL DESIGN OF AQUATIC MESOCOSMS
  • 8.3.1 Land-Based Mesocosms
  • 8.3.2 Enclosure Studies
  • 8.3.3 Artificial Stream Approaches
  • 8.4 THINKING BIGGER: DEVELOPING SYSTEMS FOR LARGE FISH
  • 8.5 SOME SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF MARINE MESOCOSMS
  • 8.6 FUTURE POSSIBILITIES
  • 8.7 CONCLUSIONS: UTILITY OF MESOCOSM TESTING IN MARINE ECOTOXICOLOGY
  • References
  • 9 - Ecological Risk and Weight of Evidence Assessments
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT
  • 9.2.1 Introduction to Ecological Risk Assessment
  • 9.2.2 Role of Marine Ecotoxicology in Ecological Risk Assessment
  • 9.2.3 Role of Marine Ecotoxicology in Assessing Risk Management
  • 9.3 WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE
  • 9.3.1 Introduction to Weight of Evidence
  • 9.3.2 Role of Marine Ecotoxicology in Weight of Evidence
  • 9.4 MARINE ECOTOXICOLOGY WITHIN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND WEIGHT OF EVIDENCE
  • 9.5 FUTURE POSSIBILITIES AND PROBABILITIES
  • 9.5.1 The Five Major Environmental Stressors
  • 9.5.2 Good Ecosystem Status
  • References
  • 10 - Global Change
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 CATCHMENT-LAND USE CHANGES
  • 10.2.1 Population Growth and Landscape Changes
  • 10.2.2 Nutrients and Eutrophication
  • 10.2.3 Pesticides
  • 10.2.3.1 Pesticides in Marine Environments
  • 10.2.4 Emerging Contaminants of Concern
  • 10.3 PORTS AND INDUSTRY-ASSOCIATED CHANGES
  • 10.3.1 Demands on Coastal Waters
  • 10.3.2 Coastal Industries
  • 10.3.3 Oil and Gas Exploration
  • 10.3.4 Shipping and Ports
  • 10.3.5 Dredging
  • 10.3.6 Land Reclamation
  • 10.3.7 Beach Restoration
  • 10.3.8 Acid Sulfate Soils
  • 10.3.9 Fishing and Aquaculture
  • 10.3.10 Mining and Mine Waste Disposal
  • 10.3.10.1 Seabed Mining
  • 10.3.10.2 Methane Hydrates
  • 10.3.10.3 Mine Waste Disposal
  • 10.4 CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 10.4.1 Environmental Variables Affected by Climate Change
  • 10.4.1.1 Temperature
  • 10.4.1.2 Global Water Cycles and Salinity
  • 10.4.1.3 Hypoxia
  • 10.4.1.4 Sea-Level Rise and Storm Surges
  • 10.4.1.5 Ocean Acidification
  • 10.4.2 Multiple Stressors: Interactions of Climate Change and Contaminants
  • 10.4.2.1 Effects on Contaminant Fate, Transport, and Bioaccumulation
  • 10.4.2.2 Effects on Contaminant Toxicity
  • 10.4.3 Implications for Environmental Risk Assessment
  • 10.5 FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS AND NEW TOOLS FOR ASSESSING IMPACTS IN MARINE ECOSYSTEMS
  • 10.5.1 Epigenetics
  • 10.5.2 Environmental Genomics in Marine Ecotoxicology
  • 10.5.3 Ecological Modeling
  • 10.6 CONCLUSIONS
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • W
  • X
  • Back Cover

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