Seeds

Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy, 3rd Edition
 
 
Springer (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 23. Oktober 2012
  • |
  • XIII, 392 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-4614-4693-4 (ISBN)
 

This updated and much revised third edition of Seeds: Physiology of Development, Germination and Dormancy provides a thorough overview of seed biology and incorporates much of the progress that has been made during the past fifteen years. With an emphasis on placing information in the context of the seed, this new edition includes recent advances in the areas of molecular biology of development and germination, as well as fresh insights into dormancy, ecophysiology, desiccation tolerance, and longevity. Authored by preeminent authorities in the field, this book is an invaluable resource for researchers, teachers, and students interested in the diverse aspects of seed biology.

3rd ed. 2013
  • Englisch
  • NY
  • |
  • USA
Springer US
  • 29
  • |
  • 108 s/w Abbildungen, 87 farbige Abbildungen, 29 s/w Tabellen
  • 28,59 MB
978-1-4614-4693-4 (9781461446934)
10.1007/978-1-4614-4693-4
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt

J. Derek Bewley, PhD, DSc
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, CAN

Kent J. Bradford, PhD
Department of Plant Sciences, Seed Biotechnology Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Henk W.M. Hilhorst, PhD
Wageningen Seed Laboratory, Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Hiroyuki Nonogaki, PhD
Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA

Chapter 1
Structure and Composition

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Seed structure
1.2.1. Embryo
1.2.2. Non-embryonic storage tissues
1.2.3. Testa - seed coat
1.3. Seed storage reserves
1.3.1. Carbohydrates
1.3.2. Oils (Neutral lipids)
1.3.3. Proteins
1.3.4. Phytin
1.3.5. Other constituents

Chapter 2
Development and Maturation

2.1. Fertilization
2.2. Embryogeny and storage tissue formation
2.2.1. Embryonic tissues
2.2.2. Endosperm
2.2.3. Testa (seed coat)
2.3. Regulation of seed development
2.3.1. Plant hormones
2.3.2. Embryo polarity and patterning
2.3.3. ABA content and sensitivity to ABA during development
2.3.4. Regulation of the seed maturation program
2.3.5. Epigenetic control of endosperm development
2.3.6. Testa development and its interaction with the endosperm and embryo
2.3.7. Somatic embryogenesis and apomixis
2.4. Germinability during development
2.4.1. Ability to germinate during development
2.4.2. Precocious germination: Vivipary and preharvest sprouting
2.4.3. Role of preharvest drying in development of germinability
2.5. Maturation drying and the 'switch' to germination
2.5.1. The acquisition of desiccation tolerance
2.5.2. Protective mechanisms associated with drying
2.5.2.1. Membranes, proteins and water replacement
2.5.2.2. Gene expression and protein synthesis
2.5.2.3. Other changes in metabolism associated with drying
2.5.3. Gene expression changes upon rehydration
2.6. Late maturation events and seed drying
2.6.1. Physiological maturity versus harvest maturity
2.6.2. Seed development and seed quality
2.6.3. Maturation drying and biophysical aspects of dry seeds

Chapter 3
Synthesis of Storage Reserves

3.1. Assimilates for grain and seed filling 3.1.1. Source of nutrients for storage reserve synthesis
3.1.2. Import of nutrients into the developing seed
3.1.3. Factors affecting seed production and quality
3.2. Deposition of reserves within storage tissues
3.2.1. Starch synthesis
3.2.1.1. Uses and modifications of starch
3.2.2. Synthesis of polymeric carbohydrates other than starch
3.2.3. Oil (triacylglycerol) synthesis
3.2.3.1. Uses and modifications of fatty acids
3.2.4. Storage protein synthesis
3.2.4.1. Synthesis, processing and deposition of storage proteins
3.2.4.2. Uses and modifications of storage proteins
3.2.4.3. Regulation of storage protein synthesis
3.2.5. Phytin synthesis
3.2.6. Modifications of non-storage compounds to improve nutritional quality


Chapter 4
Germination

4.1. Seed germination - definition and general features
4.2. Measurement of germination
4.3. Imbibition
4.3.1. Uptake of water from the soil
4.3.2. Phase I, imbibition and imbibitional damage
4.3.3. Phase II, the lag phase
4.3.4. Phase III, completion of germination
4.3.5. Kinetics of imbibition
4.4. Respiration - oxygen consumption and mitochondrial development
4.4.1. Pathways and products
4.4.2. Respiration during imbibition and germination
4.4.3. Mitochondrial development and oxidative phosphorylation
4.4.4. Respiration under low oxygen conditions
4.5. RNA and protein synthesis
4.5.1. Transcriptomes of dry and germinating seeds
4.5.2. Proteomes of germinating seeds
4.6. The completion of germination
4.6.1. Embryo growth potential verses enclosing tissue constraints in radicle emergence
4.6.2. DNA synthesis and cell division (cell cycle)
4.7. Priming and the enhancement of germination

Chapter 5
Mobilization of Stored Reserves

5.1. Seedling growth patterns
5.2. Mobilization of stored reserves
5.3. Stored oligosaccharide catabolism
5.4. Pathways of starch catabolism
5.4.1. Synthesis of sucrose
5.5. Mobilization of stored starch in cereal grains
5.5.1. Synthesis and release of -amylase and other hydrolases from the aleurone layer
5.5.2. Starch breakdown and the fate of the products of hydrolysis
5.5.3. Hormonal control of starch mobilization
5.5.4. Programmed cell death (PCD) of the aleurone layer and other tissues
5.6. Mobilization of stored carbohydrate reserves in dicots
5.6.1. Starch-storing non-endospermic legumes
5.6.2. Hemicellulose-storing endospermic legumes
5.6.3. Hemicellulose-containing seeds other than legumes
5.7. Stored triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization
5.7.1. Mobilization of TAGs from oil bodies
5.7.2. Role and formation of the glyoxysome
5.7.3. Utilization of the products of TAG catabolism
5.8. Storage protein mobilization
5.8.1. Protein mobilization during germination
5.8.2. Protein mobilization following germination of cereals
5.8.2.1. Uptake of amino acids and peptides into the embryo
5.8.3. Protein mobilization following germination of dicots
5.8.4. Protease inhibitors
5.8.5. Utilization of liberated amino acids in dicot seedlings
5.9. Phytin mobilization
5.10. Control of reserve mobilization in dicots
5.10.1. Regulation in endospermic dicots
5.10.2. Regulation in non-endospermic dicots
5.10.2.1. Mode of regulation by the axis

Chapter 6
Dormancy and the Control of Germination

6.1. Dormancy - its biological role
6.2. Categories of dormancy
6.3. Mechanisms of dormancy
6.3.1. Blocks to germination within the embryo
6.3.1.1. Undifferentiated embryo
6.3.1.2. Immature embryo
6.3.1.3. Chemical inhibitors
6.3.1.4. Regulatory and metabolic constraints
6.3.2. Blocks to germination by the covering layers
6.3.2.1. Interference with water uptake
6.3.2.2. Interference with gas exchange
6.4.2.3. Prevention of exit of inhibitors from the embryo
6.4.2.4. Mechanical restraint
6.4. Embryonic inadequacy - the causes
6.4.1. Energy metabolism of dormant seeds
6.4.2. Genetic aspects of dormancy
6.5. The environment in dormancy perception
6.6. The release from dormancy
6.6.1. Perception, signaling and role of hormones with respect to dormancy and germination
6.6.1.1. Regulation by ABA
6.6.1.2. Regulation by GA
6.6.1.3. Regulation by ethylene and brassinosteroids
6.6.1.4. ABA/GA balance and hormonal cross-talk in the regulation of dormancy
6.6.2. After-ripening
6.6.3. Low temperatures (chilling)
6.6.4. Other effects of temperature on dormancy
6.6.5. Light
6.6.5.1. Phytochrome: action spectra
6.6.5.2. Phytochrome: photoequilibria
6.6.5.3. Phytochrome: multiple forms
6.6.5.4. Phytochrome: downstream signaling
6.6.6. Dormancy release of seeds with impermeable coats
6.6.7. Breaking of dormancy by chemicals
6.6.7.1. Breaking of dormancy by nitrate
6.6.7.2. Breaking of dormancy by nitric oxide
6.6.7.3. Breaking of dormancy by smoke

Chapter7
Environmental Regulation of Dormancy and Germination

7.1. Seed dispersal and burial
7.1.1. The soil seed bank
7.2. Environmental control of germination
7.2.1. Water
7.2.1.1. Hydrotime model of germination
7.2.1.2. Hydrotime and dormancy
7.2.1.3. Ecological applications of the hydrotime model
7.2.2. Temperature
7.2.2.1. Cardinal temperatures for seed germination
7.2.2.2. Thermal time models

7.2.2.3. Temperature and water interactions: hydrothermal time models
7.2.3. Light 7.2.3.1. Phytochrome responses
7.2.4. Nitrate
7.2.5. Oxygen and other gases
7.2.6. Other chemicals
7.3. Secondary dormancy and seasonal variation
7.3.1. Dormancy cycling
7.3.2. Dormancy cycling: mechanisms and modeling
7.4. Influences of plant life cycle, distribution and origin on germination
7.4.1. Plant distribution
7.4.2. Seasonal and flowering interactions affecting dormancy

Chapter 8
Longevity, Storage and Deterioration

8.1. Ancient seeds
8.2. Longevity of seeds in storage
8.2.1. Patterns of seed viability loss during storage
8.2.2. Temperature, moisture content and seed longevity
8.2.3. Other factors that affect seed viability during storage
8.3. Seed storage and conservation
8.3.1. Short-term storage
8.3.2. Long-term genetic conservation-ex situ seed gene banks
8.3.3. Long-term genetic conservation-in situ Centers of Diversity
8.4. Mechanisms and consequences of deterioration in seeds
8.4.1. Deterioration mechanisms in stored seeds
8.4.2. Consequences of storage on germination
8.5. Mechanisms of after-ripening in dry seeds
8.6. Recalcitrant seeds

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