Citrus Fruit Processing

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 330 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-803148-3 (ISBN)
 

Citrus Fruit Processing offers a thorough examination of citrus-from its physiology and production to its processing, including packaging and by-product processing. Beginning with foundational information on agricultural practices, biology, and harvesting, Citrus Fruit Processing goes on to describe processing in the context of single-strength juices, concentrated juices, preserves, and nutrition. New technologies are constantly emerging in food processing, and citrus processing is no different. This book provides researchers with much-needed information on these technologies, including state-of-the-art methodologies, all in one volume.


  • Offers completely up-to-date coverage of scientific research on citrus and processing technology
  • Explores all aspects of citrus and its processing, including biochemistry, technology, and health
  • Provides an easy-to-follow organization that highlights the many aspects of citrus processing, including agricultural practices, juice processing, byproducts, and safety
  • Describes processing in the context of single-strength juices, concentrated juices, preserves, and nutrition


Dr. Berk is a chemical engineer and food scientist with a long history of work in food engineering, including appointments as a professor at Technion IIT, MIT, and Agro-Paris and as a consultant at UNIDO, FAO, the Industries Development Corporation, and Nestle. He is the recipient of the International Association of Food and Engineering Life Achievement Award (2011), and has written 6 books (3 with Elsevier) and numerous papers and reviews. His main research interests include heat and mass transfer and kinetics of deterioration.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 19,88 MB
978-0-12-803148-3 (9780128031483)
0128031484 (0128031484)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction: history, production, trade, and utilization
  • 1.1 - History of citriculture
  • 1.2 - Production of citrus fruit
  • 1.3 - Trade and utilization
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Morphology and chemical composition
  • 2.1 - Anatomy of the citrus fruit
  • 2.2 - Constituents of the epicarp
  • 2.2.1 - The essential oils of the epicarp
  • 2.2.2 - The pigments of the epicarp
  • 2.3 - Constituents of the mesocarp
  • 2.3.1 - Pectic substances
  • 2.3.2 - Glycosides (flavonoids)
  • 2.4 - Constituents of the endocarp
  • 2.4.1 - Volume of juice
  • 2.4.2 - Total soluble solids (TSS)
  • 2.4.3 - Sugars
  • 2.4.4 - Organic acids
  • 2.4.5 - Maturity index
  • 2.4.6 - Nitrogenous constituents
  • 2.4.7 - Fats
  • 2.4.8 - Ascorbic acid and nonenzymatic browning of citrus juices
  • 2.4.9 - Cloud and cloud stability in citrus juices
  • 2.4.10 - Aroma and juice volatiles
  • 2.4.11 - The bitter taste
  • 2.4.12 - Carotenoids of the juice
  • 2.4.13 - Coumarins and the grapefruit juice-drug interaction
  • References
  • Chapter 3 - Biological aspects of citriculture
  • 3.1 - The root system
  • 3.2 - Shoots, stems, and leaves
  • 3.3 - Flowering and fruiting
  • 3.4 - Breeding and genetic improvement
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - Agricultural production practice
  • 4.1 - Soil
  • 4.2 - Climate
  • 4.3 - Propagation
  • 4.4 - The orchard
  • 4.5 - Irrigation
  • 4.6 - Fertilization, plant nutrition
  • 4.7 - Pruning
  • 4.8 - Pest and disease management, orchard sanitation
  • 4.9 - Harvesting
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Diseases and pests
  • 5.1 - Diseases
  • 5.1.1 - Huanglongbing (HLB)
  • 5.1.2 - Citrus canker
  • 5.1.3 - Citrus Tristeza
  • 5.1.4 - Mal secco
  • 5.1.5 - Stubborn
  • 5.1.6 - Root rot and brown rot: diseases induced by Phytophthora
  • 5.1.7 - Citrus psorosis
  • 5.1.8 - Citrus exocortis
  • 5.2 - Pests
  • 5.2.1 - Insects
  • 5.2.2 - Mites
  • 5.2.3 - Nematodes
  • 5.2.4 - Snails
  • 5.2.5 - Vertebrates
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - Postharvest changes
  • 6.1 - Respiration
  • 6.2 - Transpiration
  • 6.3 - Changes in mechanical properties
  • 6.4 - Changes in taste and aroma
  • 6.5 - Stem-end rind breakdown
  • 6.6 - Chilling injury
  • 6.7 - Postharvest pathogens
  • 6.8 - Optimal storage conditions
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Packing house operations
  • 7.1 - Location of the packing house
  • 7.2 - Packing flow diagram
  • 7.3 - Transport and reception of the raw material
  • 7.4 - Degreening
  • 7.5 - Buffer storage
  • 7.6 - Dumping
  • 7.7 - Soaking (drenching)
  • 7.8 - Presorting
  • 7.9 - Washing
  • 7.10 - Drying
  • 7.11 - Waxing
  • 7.12 - Grading, labeling
  • 7.13 - Sizing
  • 7.14 - Packaging
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Production of single-strength citrus juices
  • 8.1 - Introduction and terminology
  • 8.2 - Procurement of fruit for the processing industry
  • 8.3 - Harvesting, loading, and transporting to the processing plant
  • 8.4 - Reception and storage
  • 8.5 - Washing, inspection, sizing
  • 8.6 - Extraction of juice and essential oil
  • 8.6.1 - The "Indelicato" juice extraction system
  • 8.6.2 - The JBT FoodTech (FMC) system
  • 8.6.3 - The Brown juice extraction system
  • 8.6.4 - Other juice extraction systems
  • 8.7 - Chilling
  • 8.8 - Screening
  • 8.8.1 - Vibrating screens
  • 8.8.2 - Cylindrical screens
  • 8.8.3 - Centrifuges
  • 8.8.4 - Hydrocyclones
  • 8.9 - Deaeration
  • 8.10 - Homogenization
  • 8.11 - Pulp wash
  • 8.12 - Pasteurization
  • 8.12.1 - Canned juice
  • 8.12.2 - Bottled hot-fill juice
  • 8.12.3 - Aseptically processed juice
  • 8.12.4 - Heat exchangers for heating and cooling citrus juice
  • 8.12.5 - Nonconventional pasteurization methods
  • 8.13 - Single-strength juices from concentrate
  • 8.14 - Clarified juices
  • 8.15 - Reduced acidity and debittered orange and grapefruit juices
  • 8.16 - Blended juices
  • 8.17 - "Raw" or unpasteurized juice
  • 8.18 - Fermented "juices"
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Production of citrus juice concentrates
  • 9.1 - Introduction
  • 9.2 - Principles of evaporation
  • 9.2.1 - Minimizing thermal deterioration of quality: vacuum evaporation
  • 9.2.2 - Recovering the lost aroma
  • 9.3 - Energy economy in evaporation
  • 9.3.1 - Multiple effect evaporation
  • 9.3.2 - Vapor recompression
  • 9.4 - Types of evaporators
  • 9.5 - Condensers
  • 9.6 - Essence (aroma) recovery
  • 9.7 - The 72 0Bx concentrate
  • 9.8 - Concentration by reverse osmosis and osmotic evaporation
  • 9.9 - Freeze concentration
  • 9.10 - Packaging and storage of concentrates
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - By-products of the citrus processing industry
  • 10.1 - Introduction
  • 10.2 - Peels and rag
  • 10.3 - Bases for the manufacture of citrus flavored beverages
  • 10.4 - Pulp and juice sacs
  • 10.5 - Pectin
  • 10.6 - Citrus fiber
  • 10.7 - Essential oils and limonene
  • 10.8 - Citrus seeds
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - Miscellaneous citrus products
  • 11.1 - Introduction
  • 11.2 - Canned grapefruit segments
  • 11.3 - Canned mandarin segments
  • 11.4 - Candied peel and fruit
  • 11.5 - Jams, jellies, and marmalades
  • 11.6 - Dehydrated citrus juice
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Shelf life of citrus products: packaging and storage
  • 12.1 - Introduction
  • 12.2 - Shelf life of single strength juices
  • 12.3 - Shelf life of citrus concentrates
  • 12.4 - Shelf life of citrus by-products
  • 12.5 - Shelf life of miscellaneous citrus products
  • References
  • Chapter 13 - Nutritional and health-promoting aspects of citrus consumption
  • 13.1 - Vitamins
  • 13.1.1 - Vitamin C
  • 13.1.2 - Folic acid
  • 13.2 - Antioxidants
  • 13.3 - Bioactivity of citrus essential oils
  • 13.4 - Fiber
  • 13.5 - Dental health
  • 13.6 - Obesity
  • 13.7 - Minerals
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Quality assurance and authentication
  • 14.1 - Routine quality control and quality assurance
  • 14.2 - Food safety and HACCP
  • 14.3 - Authentication of citrus origin
  • References
  • Appendix I - Codex standard for orange juice preserved exclusively by physical means 1 codex stan 45-1981 (world-wide standard)
  • 1 - Description
  • 2 - Essential composition and quality factors
  • 2.1 - Soluble solids
  • 2.2 - Sugars
  • 2.3 - Ethanol content
  • 2.4 - Volatile acids
  • 2.5 - Essential oils
  • 2.6 - Organoleptic properties
  • 2.7 - Use of concentrates
  • 3 - Contaminants
  • 4 - Hygiene
  • 5 - Weights and measures
  • 5.1 - Fill of container
  • 5.1.1 - Minimum fill
  • 6 - Marking or labeling
  • 6.1 - Containers destined for the final consumer
  • 6.1.1 - The Name of the Food
  • 6.1.2 - List of ingredients
  • 6.1.3 - Additional requirements
  • 6.1.4 - Date marking
  • 6.1.5 - Storage instructions
  • 6.2 - Nonretail containers
  • 7 - Methods of analysis and sampling
  • Appendix II - Codex standard for concentrated orange juice preserved exclusively by physical means 1 Codex Stan 64-1981 (Wo...
  • 1 - Description
  • 1.1 - Process definition
  • 2 - Essential composition and quality factors
  • 2.1 - Requirements for the juice after reconstitution
  • 2.2 - Sugars
  • 3 - Contaminants
  • 4 - Hygiene
  • 5 - Weights and measures
  • 5.1 - Fill of vontainer
  • 5.1.1 - Minimum fill (exclusive of bulk packs)
  • 6 - Marking or labeling
  • 6.1 - Containers destined for the final consumer
  • 6.1.1 - The name of the food
  • 6.1.2 - List of ingredients
  • 6.1.3 - Additional requirements
  • 6.1.4 - Degree of concentration
  • 6.1.5 - Date marking
  • 6.1.6 - Storage instructions
  • 6.2 - Nonretail containers
  • 7 - Methods of analysis and sampling
  • Appendix III - Codex standard for certain canned citrus fruits (Codex Stan 254-2007)
  • 1 - Scope
  • 2 - Description
  • 2.1 - Product definition
  • 2.2 - Colour types (canned grapefruit or canned pummelo only)
  • 2.3 - Styles
  • 2.3.1 - Definitions of styles
  • 2.3.2 - Other styles (canned grapefruit, mandarin oranges, sweet orange varieties, and pummelos)
  • 2.4 - Sizes in whole segment style (canned mandarin oranges only)
  • 2.4.1 - Designation in accordance with size
  • 3 - Essential composition and quality factors
  • 3.1 - Composition
  • 3.1.1 - Basic ingredients
  • 3.1.2 - Packing media
  • 3.1.3 - Other permitted ingredients (canned grapefruit only)
  • 3.2 - Quality criteria
  • 3.2.1 - Color
  • 3.2.2 - Flavor
  • 3.2.3 - Texture
  • 3.2.4 - Wholeness
  • 3.2.5 - Uniformity of size
  • 3.2.6 - Defects and allowances
  • 3.3 - Classification of "defectives"
  • 3.4 - Lot acceptance
  • 4 - Food additives
  • 5 - Contaminants
  • 6 - Hygiene
  • 7 - Weights and measures
  • 7.1 - Fill of container
  • 7.1.1 - Minimum fill
  • 7.1.2 - Classification of "defectives"
  • 7.1.3 - Lot acceptance
  • 7.1.4 - Minimum drained weight
  • 7.1.4.1 - Lot acceptance
  • 8 - Labeling
  • 8.2 - Name of the product
  • 8.3 - Labeling of nonretail containers
  • 9 - Methods of analysis and sampling
  • 10 - Determination of water capacity of containers (CAC/RM 46-1972)
  • 10.1 - Scope
  • 10.2 - Definition
  • 10.3 - Procedure
  • 10.4 - Calculation and expression of results
  • Index
  • Back cover

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