Science, Pseudo-science, Non-sense, and Critical Thinking

Why the Differences Matter
 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 21. November 2018
  • |
  • 164 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-351-40249-1 (ISBN)
 

Science, Pseudo-science, Non-sense, and Critical Thinking shines an unforgiving light on popular and lucrative 'miraculous' practices that promise to offer answers during times of trouble. Throughout the book, the authors unfold the fallacies underlying these practices, as well as consumers' need and desire to believe in them.

Adopting a scientific approach, the book critically evaluates research into cold-reading practices, such as those that claim to be able to communicate with the afterlife or posess supernatural powers, before considering a range of pseudo-sciences including graphology and polygraph interrogation, exposing the pretensions of these practices in a clear and logical fashion. The book seeks to encourage critical thinking throughout, asking whether there is any scientific evidence to support these practitioners' abilities to supply us with reliable answers, and discussing the various factors that comprise the psychological mechanism of belief.

Written in a fluent and accessible style, Science, Pseudo-science, Non-sense, and Critical Thinking is aimed at interested professionals and the public at large.

  • Englisch
  • London
  • |
  • Großbritannien
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
1 schwarz-weiße Tabellen
  • 0,35 MB
978-1-351-40249-1 (9781351402491)

Gershon Ben-Shakhar is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and a leading expert in the psychophysiological detection of deception.

Marianna Barr studied English and Comparative Literature. She has written and translated poetry as well as translated numerous theoretical books, essays, and short stories.

Preface


Acknowledgments


Introduction








Chapter One


You Have Great Unfulfilled Potential: Cold (Psychic) Reading


What is Cold Reading?


Tarot Cards


Cold Reading and Psychological Science


How does it Work?


Why does it Work?


How Much Does it Cost?


Bibliography








Chapter Two


"They Love you and you know that": Astrology


An Overview of Astrology


Astrology and Science


Bibliography








Chapter Three


Show me your handwriting and I'll tell you who you are: Graphology


Science and Pseudo-Science


History of Graphology


The Use of Graphology


Is Handwriting Truly a Mirror of our Personality?


The Validity of Graphology


Bibliography








Chapter Four


Pinocchio's Nose: The Truth behind the Lie-Detector


Oops, an Innocent Man has been condemned to Life Imprisonment


Lying, Honesty and the Desire to Tell them Apart


The Truth will out: A Brief History of the Polygraph


The Relevant/Irrelevant Question Test (R/I)


The Control (Comparison) Question Test (CQT)


The Direct Lie Test (DLT)


The Concealed Information Test (CIT)


The CQT versus the CIT - where is the Scientific Basis?


Accuracy of the CQT versus the CIT


The Use of the Polygraph in Screening and Classification Processes


The Use of the Integrity Test as an Alternative to the CQT





Bibliography








Chapter Five


"Since Man Cannot Live without Miracles, he will Provide Himself with Miracles of his Own Making": The belief in Practices based on Cold Reading, Mysticism, and Pseudo-Science


The Need to Believe


Abuse of the need to believe


Popular Beliefs


Bias in Human Judgment


The Clients' Belief


The Burden of Doubt and Incertitude


The Need to Remove Personal Responsibility


The Influence of the Barnum Effect


Bias for Positive Evidence


Social and Cultural Influences (Conformity)


Shifting the Burden of Proof


The Practitioners' Belief


The Confirmation Bias


Illusory Validity


Bibliography





A Final Word
"In our post-modern era in which the distinction between truth and fiction is increasingly blurred and practices offering quick solutions are more popular than ever, Science, Pseudo-science, Non-sense, and Critical Thinking is a must read. In accessible and often humorous language, Barr and Ben-Shakhar debunk practices based on mysticism and pseudoscience, offer illuminating insights into our beliefs, and demonstrate the promise of critical thinking. Reading this book was sheer pleasure. I will recommend it to all my students because critical thinking is important not just for science, it is important for our everyday life." - Ram Frost, Professor of Psychology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

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