Roots of Brazilian Relative Economic Backwardness

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 19. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 292 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-809757-1 (ISBN)
 

Roots of Brazil's Relative Economic Backwardness explains Brazil's development level in light of modern theories regarding economic growth and international economics. It focuses on both the proximate and fundamental causes of Brazil's slow development, turning currently dominant hypotheses upside down.

To support its arguments, the book presents extensive statistical analysis of Brazilian long-term development, with some new series on per capita GDP, population ethnical composition, and human capital stock, among others. It is an important resource in the ongoing debate on the causes of Latin American underdeveloped economies.


  • Argues that low human capital accumulation is the major source of Brazilian relative underdevelopment
  • Considers class conflict as the major determinant of Brazil's historically low human capital accumulation and underdevelopment
  • Presents new statistical information about Brazilian early development


Alexandre Rands Barros is Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, U.S.A., and was Senior Associate Member in St. Antony´s College in the University of Oxford in England at two non-continuous moments. He was a Professor of Economics at Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife-PE, Brazil. Currently he is president in a Brazilian private company, although he continues to work on academic research about Brazilian Development.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 21,48 MB
978-0-12-809757-1 (9780128097571)
0128097574 (0128097574)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Roots of Brazilian Relative Economic Backwardness
  • Roots of Brazilian Relative Economic Backwardness
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 1.2 STRUCTURE OF THE ARGUMENTS OF THE BOOK
  • 1.3 SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR HYPOTHESES
  • 1.3.1 The Proximate Cause of Brazilian Relative Backwardness
  • 1.3.2 The Ultimate Cause of Brazilian Relative Backwardness
  • 1.4 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON ASSUMPTIONS AND ANALYTICAL METHOD
  • 2 - Historical Origins of Brazilian Relative Backwardness
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 LONG-TERM DATA ON PER CAPITA GDP GROWTH: FIRST EXERCISE
  • 2.3 ALTERNATIVE DECOMPOSITION OF THE HISTORICAL SOURCES OF RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS
  • 2.4 CONCLUSIONS
  • 3 - A Simple Model of World Equilibrium With International Trade and No Restriction on Factor Mobility
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 MODEL SETUP IN THE WORLD ECONOMY WITH MANY GOODS AND MANY FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
  • 3.2.1 Demand for Each Good in the Economy
  • 3.2.2 Production of Each Good in the World Economy
  • 3.3 GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM
  • 3.4 DECOMPOSING THE WORLD INTO COUNTRIES
  • 3.5 CONCLUSIONS
  • 4 - Some Empirical Evidence on the Sources of Brazilian Current Relative Backwardness
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 SOME BASIC DEVELOPMENT ARITHMETIC
  • 4.3 HUMAN CAPITAL AVAILABILITY DIFFERENCES
  • 4.4 PHYSICAL CAPITAL AVAILABILITY DIFFERENCES
  • 4.5 NATURAL RESOURCES
  • 4.6 EXPLORING FURTHER THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF THE MANY FACTORS OF PRODUCTION IN BRAZILIAN RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS
  • 4.6.1 Estimating Variables and Parameters of the Relevant Production Functions
  • 4.6.2 Method for Decomposition of Per Capita GDP Differences
  • 4.6.3 Figures Comparing Brazil to the Benchmark Countries
  • 4.7 CONCLUSIONS
  • APPENDIX
  • 5 - Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital and Its Role in Physical Capital Accumulation
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2 INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN CAPITAL
  • 5.3 MODEL UNVEILING THE LOGIC OF RATIONAL INTERGENERATIONAL HUMAN CAPITAL TRANSMISSION22THE MODEL PRESENTED HERE IS A MODIFIED ...
  • 5.4 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
  • 5.5 NOTE ON FREE CAPITAL MOBILITY
  • 5.6 SOME CONSEQUENCES FOR BRAZILIAN RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS
  • 5.7 CONCLUSIONS
  • 6 - Migration Profile and Human Capital Building in Brazil and the United States in the 19th Century
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 EUROPEAN MASS MIGRATION IN THE 19TH CENTURY
  • 6.3 NECESSARY ASSUMPTIONS TO BUILD SURROGATED PER CAPITA GDP
  • 6.3.1 Human Capital of Immigrants Is Similar to That of the Population in Their Country of Origin
  • 6.3.2 Families Tend to Reproduce Their Human Capital in Their Offspring
  • 6.3.3 Immigrant Communities Generated a Growth Rate of Their Populations Equal to the Average Growth Rate of the Population of th ...
  • 6.3.4 Free Mobility of Population Among Countries, and Costs of Migration Were Not Enough to Generate Significant Differences in ...
  • 6.3.5 Perfect Capital Mobility Among Countries
  • 6.4 DATA AND ITS ORIGINS
  • 6.5 SIMPLE EXERCISE COMPARING AMERICAN AND BRAZILIAN PER CAPITA GDP
  • 6.5.1 Migration and Per Capita GDP
  • 6.5.2 Potential Role of Embodied Human Capital in Development Differences in 1900
  • 6.5.3 Role of Embodied Human Capital in the Rise of Disparity Over the 19th Century
  • 6.6 CONCLUSIONS AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
  • 7 - Genesis of Brazilian Human Capital: From Colony to the 19th Century
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 SOME COMMENTS ON THE NATURE OF HUMAN CAPITAL
  • 7.3 AFRICANS, NATIVE AMERICANS, AND EUROPEANS IN THE BRAZILIAN SETUP
  • 7.4 EVOLUTION TO THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY
  • 7.5 SIMULATED STRUCTURE OF BRAZILIAN SOCIETY IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY
  • 7.5.1 Relative Income of Ethnic Groups
  • 7.6 CONCLUSIONS AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
  • 8 - Relative Declining in the 19th Century
  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8.2 LONG-TERM TREND OF BRAZILIAN HUMAN CAPITAL AVAILABILITY IN THE 19TH CENTURY
  • 8.2.1 Estimating Brazilian Per Capita GDP in the 19th Century
  • 8.2.2 Estimation of Human Capital in Brazil in the 19th Century
  • 8.2.3 Estimation of Human Capital in Other European Countries
  • 8.3 GENERATED HUMAN CAPITAL SERIES
  • 8.4 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON HUMAN CAPITAL BUILDING IN EUROPE IN THE 19TH CENTURY
  • 8.5 MODEL INTERPRETATION OF THE WIDENING EDUCATIONAL GAP IN THE 19TH CENTURY
  • 8.6 CONCLUSIONS
  • 9 - Stabilization of Relative Backwardness
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF BACKWARDNESS
  • 9.3 EXPLAINING THE STABILIZATION OF RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS
  • 9.4 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
  • 9.5 ROLE OF IMMIGRATION TO HALT THE RELATIVE DECLINE
  • 9.6 CONCLUSIONS AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
  • 10 - Alternative Explanations for Brazilian Relative Backwardness
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 GENERAL FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND ALTERNATIVE VIEWS EXPLAINING BRAZILIAN RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS
  • 10.3 LATIN AMERICAN STRUCTURALIST HYPOTHESIS
  • 10.4 DEPENDENCY THEORY
  • 10.5 NEW INSTITUTIONALISTS
  • 10.5.1 Differences in Total Factor Productivity
  • 10.5.2 Differences in Equilibrium Return to Capital
  • 10.5.3 Differences in Equilibrium Return to Human Capital
  • 10.5.4 Differences in Equilibrium Return to Natural Resources
  • 10.5.5 Disparities Emerging From Productive Structural Differences
  • 10.5.6 Disparities Emerging From Social Determination of the Labor Participation Rate
  • 10.5.7 Dynamics and Static Comparisons
  • 10.5.8 Determinants of Institutions
  • 10.5.9 Faoro's Institutional Hypothesis Explaining Brazilian Backwardness
  • 10.6 CONCLUSIONS AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS
  • 11 - The Fundamental Cause of the Emergence of Relative Backwardness
  • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 11.2 MODEL SET-UP
  • 11.2.1 Implications of This Model for Steady-State per Capita GDP
  • 11.3 MAJOR FUNDAMENTAL DETERMINANT OF BRAZILIAN RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS
  • 11.4 MAJOR DIFFERENCES FROM ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES
  • 11.4.1 Major Differences From Dependency Theory
  • 11.4.2 Major Differences From the New Institutionalist Hypothesis
  • 11.5 CONCLUSIONS
  • 12 - Social Conflict as the Source of Brazilian Relative Backwardness
  • 12.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 12.2 MAJOR SOCIAL CONFLICTS IN BRAZILIAN HISTORY
  • 12.3 DYNAMICS OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS AND THE RELATIVE BACKWARDNESS LEGACY
  • 12.3.1 Social Formation (1500-1822)
  • 12.3.2 Backwardness Consolidation (1822-1930)
  • 12.3.3 Search for National Identity (1930 to Present)
  • 12.4 CONCLUSION
  • 13 - Social Conflicts and Human Capital Accumulation in the Period of Search for National Identity
  • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 13.2 MAJOR PROTAGONIST SOCIAL CLASSES WITHIN THIS PERIOD
  • 13.3 SOCIAL AFFINITIES AMONG SOCIAL CLASSES
  • 13.4 CLASS CONFLICTS IN THE PERIOD OF SEARCH FOR NATIONAL IDENTITY AND INCENTIVES FOR EDUCATIONAL POLICY
  • 13.5 RELEVANT FACTS ABOUT HUMAN CAPITAL EVOLUTION AFTER 1930
  • 13.6 GENERAL VIEW OF CLASS CONFLICT CONSEQUENCES FOR THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN CAPITAL
  • 13.6.1 Identification of Subperiods in the Brazilian Search for Social Identity
  • 13.7 CONCLUSIONS
  • 14 - Conclusion
  • 14.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 14.2 RESTATEMENT OF THE MAJOR HYPOTHESIS
  • 14.2.1 Fundamental Causes of Brazilian Underdevelopment
  • 14.3 SOME RELEVANCE OF THE CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • W
  • Back Cover

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