Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Using Two-Photon Polymerization

Fundamentals, Technology, and Applications
 
 
William Andrew (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. September 2015
  • |
  • 512 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-35405-9 (ISBN)
 

Three-Dimensional Microfabrication Using Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) is the first comprehensive guide to TPP microfabrication-essential reading for researchers and engineers in areas where miniaturization of complex structures is key, such as in the optics, microelectronics, and medical device industries.

TPP stands out among microfabrication techniques because of its versatility, low costs, and straightforward chemistry. TPP microfabrication attracts increasing attention among researchers and is increasingly employed in a range of industries where miniaturization of complex structures is crucial: metamaterials, plasmonics, tissue engineering, and microfluidics, for example.

Despite its increasing importance and potential for many more applications, no single book to date is dedicated to the subject. This comprehensive guide, edited by Professor Baldacchini and written by internationally renowned experts, fills this gap and includes a unified description of TPP microfabrication across disciplines.

The guide covers all aspects of TPP, including the pros and cons of TPP microfabrication compared to other techniques, as well as practical information on material selection, equipment, processes, and characterization.

Current and future applications are covered and case studies provided as well as challenges for adoption of TPP microfabrication techniques in other areas are outlined. The freeform capability of TPP is illustrated with numerous scanning electron microscopy images.


  • Comprehensive account of TPP microfabrication, including both photophysical and photochemical aspects of the fabrication process
  • Comparison of TPP microfabrication with conventional and unconventional micromanufacturing techniques
  • Covering applications of TPP microfabrication in industries such as microelectronics, optics and medical devices industries, and includes case studies and potential future directions
  • Illustrates the freeform capability of TPP using numerous scanning electron microscopy images
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 31,65 MB
978-0-323-35405-9 (9780323354059)
032335405X (032335405X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword: Here, a small step toward a grand vision
  • Introduction
  • References
  • 1 - Laser Direct Writing for Additive Micro-Manufacturing
  • Chapter 1.1 - Laser-based micro-additive manufacturing technologies
  • 1 - Beyond photolithography: direct-write microfabrication
  • 2 - Introduction to nonlithographic microfabrication techniques
  • 3 - Laser-based microfabrication
  • 3.1 - Advantages of laser-based techniques for 3D microfabrication
  • 3.2 - Laser micromachining
  • 4 - Laser-based additive microfabrication
  • 4.1 - Laser chemical vapor deposition
  • 4.2 - Laser-induced forward transfer
  • 5 - 2D microfabrication by LIFT
  • 5.1 - Printing of functional materials
  • 5.1.1 - LIFT of nanoinks
  • 5.1.2 - LIFT of entire functional devices
  • 5.2 - Printing of high-viscosity nanopastes for congruent transfers
  • 5.3 - Printing of freestanding structures
  • 6 - 3D microfabrication by LIFT
  • 7 - Parallelizing the LIFT process
  • 8 - Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 1.2 - Microstereolithography
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Rapid prototyping and stereolithography
  • 3 - Improving stereolithography resolution
  • 3.1 - Reducing the thickness of the layers
  • 3.2 - Avoiding local degradations of the vertical resolution
  • 3.3 - Improving the lateral resolution
  • 4 - Microstereolithography techniques based on a scanning principle
  • 5 - Microstereolithography techniques based on a projection principle
  • 6 - Microstereolithography processes having a submicrometer resolution
  • 6.1 - Two-photon microstereolithography
  • 6.2 - One-photon under-the-surface microstereolithography
  • 7 - Microfabrication with microstereolithography
  • 7.1 - Microstereolithography components containing inserts
  • 7.2 - Microstereolithography of composite materials
  • 7.3 - Microstereolithography components for biomedical applications
  • 8 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 1.3 - Fundamentals of two-photon fabrication
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Nonlinear absorption
  • 3 - Photoresists
  • 4 - Direct fabrication in other materials
  • 5 - Other strategies
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Free radical photopolymerization of multifunctional monomers
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Polymerization stages and rate equations
  • 3 - Effect of diffusional processes on propagation and termination steps
  • 3.1 - Linear systems
  • 3.2 - Cross-linking systems
  • 4 - Effect of polymerization conditions on the polymerization kinetics
  • 4.1 - Viscosity effect
  • 4.2 - Oxygen effect
  • 4.3 - Polymerization in the dark (postcuring effect)
  • 5 - Effect of monomer functionality and structure
  • 6 - Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 3 - Reaction mechanisms and in situ process diagnostics
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Initiation
  • 2.1 - Threshold behavior
  • 2.2 - Multiphoton absorption
  • 2.3 - Excitation mechanisms
  • 2.4 - Sample heating
  • 3 - Polymerization
  • 3.1 - Monomer conversion
  • 3.2 - Oxygen inhibition
  • 3.3 - Diffusion processes
  • 3.4 - Polymerization kinetics
  • 4 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - Mask-directed micro-3D printing
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Conventional micro-3D printing systems
  • 2.1 - General considerations
  • 2.2 - Common sources and optics
  • 2.3 - Translational elements
  • 2.4 - Reagent considerations
  • 2.5 - Limitations of conventional micro-3D printing
  • 3 - Mask-directed micro-3D printing
  • 3.1 - Mask-directed system basics
  • 3.2 - Transition from physical to digital masks
  • 3.3 - Extended MDML technologies: multifocal and long-scan approaches
  • 4 - Conclusions and considerations toward the future
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Geometric analysis and computation using layered depth-normal images for three-dimensional microfabrication
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Background and related work
  • 3 - Layered depth-normal images and related computational framework
  • 3.1 - Layered depth-normal image
  • 3.2 - A LDNI-based geometric computational framework
  • 4 - Conversion between LDNIs and polygonal meshes
  • 4.1 - Construction of LDNIs: from B-rep to LDNIs
  • 4.2 - Contouring algorithm: from LDNIs to two-manifold polygonal meshes
  • 5 - LDNI-based geometric operations
  • 5.1 - LDNI-based uniform offsetting
  • 5.2 - LDNI-based regulation operator
  • 5.3 - LDNI-based Boolean operation
  • 5.4 - Robustness enhancement
  • 6 - Applications in 3D microfabrication and others
  • 6.1 - Complex truss structure design and fabrication
  • 6.2 - 3D model shelling and shrinkage compensation
  • 6.3 - Tool path planning - 2D slicing and XY compensation
  • 6.4 - Tool path planning - Z compensation
  • 6.5 - Manufacturability analysis of 3D models
  • 7 - Summary and outlook
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - Motion systems: an overview of linear, air bearing, and piezo stages
  • 1 - Terminology
  • 1.1 - Introduction
  • 1.2 - Definitions
  • 1.3 - Motion control coordinate system
  • 1.4 - Resolution
  • 1.5 - Minimum incremental motion
  • 1.6 - Accuracy
  • 1.7 - Repeatability
  • 1.8 - Reversal error - backlash/hysteresis
  • 1.9 - Runout of a linear stage - straightness/flatness
  • 1.10 - Angular runout of a linear stage - pitch/yaw/roll
  • 1.11 - Position stability
  • 1.12 - Load capacity - centered/transverse/axial
  • 1.13 - Stiffness - axial stiffness/angular stiffness
  • 1.14 - Speed stability
  • 1.15 - Mean time between failure
  • 2 - Mechanical components
  • 2.1 - Introduction
  • 2.2 - Guide
  • 2.2.1 - Linear ball bearings
  • 2.2.2 - Linear roller bearings
  • 2.2.3 - Air bearings
  • 2.2.4 - Flexures
  • 2.2.5 - Kinematics
  • 2.3 - Driving
  • 2.3.1 - Lead screw
  • 2.3.2 - Ball screws
  • 2.3.3 - Ironcore linear motor
  • 2.3.4 - Ironless linear motor
  • 2.3.5 - Piezo drive
  • 3 - Controller
  • 3.1 - Some principal equations
  • 3.2 - Trajectory
  • 3.3 - Reading position
  • 3.4 - Driver
  • 3.5 - Corrector
  • 3.6 - Mapping
  • 3.7 - General considerations for laser micromachining
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Focusing through high-numerical aperture objective
  • 1 - Introduction of diffraction and optical imaging
  • 2 - Focusing through high-NA objective: scalar optical fields
  • 3 - Focusing through high-NA objective : spatially homogeneously polarized optical fields
  • 4 - Focusing through high-NA objective: vectorial optical fields
  • 5 - Focus engineering with vectorial optical fields
  • 6 - Aberrations and mitigations
  • 7 - Discussion and summary
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Linewidth and writing resolution
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Linewidth
  • 3 - Writing resolution
  • 4 - Two-beam strategy
  • 4.1 - General concept
  • 4.2 - Mechanisms of polymerization inhibition
  • 4.2.1 - Stimulated emission
  • 4.2.2 - Triplet absorption
  • 4.2.3 - Resolution augmentation through photoinduced deactivation
  • 4.2.4 - Photoinhibition
  • 5 - Diffusion-assisted approach
  • 6 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Making two-photon polymerization faster
  • 1 - Motivation for faster fabrication
  • 2 - Typical speeds of current fabrication methods
  • 3 - Chemical methods to increase speed
  • 3.1 - Not all dosages are equal
  • 3.2 - A wide dynamic range is critical for fast processing
  • 3.3 - Custom initiators offer a wide dynamic range
  • 3.4 - Role of thermal accumulation and avalanche ionization
  • 3.5 - Conclusions
  • 4 - Physical methods to increase speed
  • 4.1 - Writing with multiple static beams
  • 4.2 - Writing with multiple dynamic beams
  • 4.3 - Replication of microstructures by molding
  • 4.4 - Conclusions
  • 5 - Engineering methods to increase speed
  • 5.1 - Fabrication using galvo mirrors
  • 5.2 - Fabrication using 3D translation stages
  • 5.3 - Conclusions
  • 6 - The future of fast writing
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Microstructures, post-TPP processing
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Chemical modification of fabricated polymer surfaces
  • 2.1 - Single polymer functionalization
  • 2.2 - Selective functionalization
  • 3 - Double inversion
  • 4 - Atomic layer deposition
  • 5 - Electroplating template
  • 6 - Pyrolysis
  • 7 - Multiphoton-induced spatially resolved functionalization
  • 8 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - A collection of microsculptures
  • References
  • 12 - Applications
  • Chapter 12.1 - 3D micro-optics via ultrafast laser writing: miniaturization, integration, and multifunctionalities
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Optical materials
  • 2.1 - Transmittance, refractive index, and extinction coefficient of polymers (SZ2080)
  • 2.2 - Material resistance under light irradiation
  • 3 - Micro-optical elements and components
  • 3.1 - Miniature standard refractive optical elements
  • 3.2 - Singular micro-optics
  • 3.3 - Multifunctional and integrated optical components
  • 4 - Toward GRIN micro-optics
  • 4.1 - The need of control over the refractive index
  • 4.2 - m-Raman measuring methodology
  • 4.3 - Spatially selective modulation of refractive index by tuning DLW parameters
  • 5 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 12.2 - Remotely driven micromachines produced by two-photon microfabrication
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Fabrication processes of metallized micromachines
  • 3 - Fabrication of copper-coated micromachines
  • 3.1 - Preparation of acrylic resin
  • 3.2 - Fabrication of 3D polymeric microstructures by two-photon microfabrication
  • 3.3 - Electroless copper plating of 3D polymer microstructures
  • 4 - Release of metallized micromachines by laser ablation
  • 4.1 - Evaluation of experimental conditions of laser ablation
  • 4.2 - Release of movable microparts by laser ablation
  • 5 - Optically driven metallized micromachines
  • 5.1 - Cross-shaped microrotor
  • 5.2 - Driving mechanism of the metallized cross-shaped microrotor
  • 5.3 - Metallized microturbine driven by ultralow-power laser beam
  • 6 - Magnetically driven micromachines
  • 7 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12.3 - Microfluidics
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Basics of microfluidics
  • 2.1 - Flow laminarity
  • 2.2 - Diffusion
  • 2.3 - Surface effects
  • 3 - Fabrication of microfluidic networks by 2PP
  • 3.1 - 2PP direct writing
  • 3.2 - Laser ablation of 2PP structures
  • 3.3 - Soft lithography with 2PP molds
  • 4 - Fabrication of microfluidic components by 2PP
  • 4.1 - Microneedles
  • 4.2 - Filters and scaffolds
  • 4.3 - Micromixers
  • 4.4 - Micropumps
  • 4.5 - Microvalves, micro-overpass, and micro-flow meters
  • 4.6 - Direct integration in sealed microchannels
  • 5 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12.4 - Cell motility and nanolithography
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 - Features relevant to natural topographies
  • 1.2 - Contact guidance and its significance
  • 2 - Experiments and analysis
  • 2.1 - Experimental model systems
  • 2.1.1 - Model systems of lamellipodia- and pseudopod-dominated directed cell migration
  • 2.2 - Nanotopography influences cell motility
  • 2.3 - Guidance of cell motion and actin waves with nanoridges
  • 3 - Summary
  • References
  • 13 - Challenges and Opportunities
  • Chapter 13.1 - Fabrication of 3D micro-architected/nano-architected materials
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Benefits of architected materials
  • 2.1 - Strength and stiffness at low density
  • 2.2 - High stiffness and high damping coefficient at low density
  • 2.3 - High stiffness and large deformation in shape morphing systems
  • 2.4 - Negative Poisson's ratio and negative coefficient of thermal expansion
  • 2.5 - Functionally graded properties
  • 2.6 - Active cooling
  • 2.7 - Control of acoustic properties through material-wave interaction
  • 3 - Benefits of micro-architectures/nano-architectures
  • 3.1 - Scale-dependent yield strength in metals
  • 3.2 - Scale-dependent fracture strength in ceramics
  • 3.3 - Nanophononic crystals and optical metamaterials
  • 4 - Modeling and design tools
  • 4.1 - Modeling and geometry optimization using analytical and FE-in-the-loop tools
  • 4.2 - Classical topology optimization
  • 4.3 - Design optimization using design theory methodologies
  • 5 - Established fabrication approaches
  • 6 - Fabrication of micro-architected/nano-architected materials with two-photon polymerization techniques: challenges and o...
  • 6.1 - Unique benefits of two-photon polymerization
  • 6.2 - Challenges in fabrication of 3D architected materials with 2pp technologies
  • 6.3 - Ultrastrong ceramic/polymer microlattices
  • 6.4 - Hollow ceramic microlattices with extreme recoverability
  • 6.5 - Optical metamaterials
  • 6.6 - Future directions
  • 7 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 13.2 - Two-Photon Polymerization as a Component of Desktop Integrated Manufacturing Platforms
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - State of the art of maskless material patterning
  • 2.1 - Proximity-probe lithography
  • 2.1.1 - Scanning-probe lithography
  • 2.1.2 - Dip-pen lithography
  • 2.2 - Electrospinning
  • 2.3 - Charged-particle lithography
  • 2.3.1 - Electron beam lithography
  • 2.3.2 - Ion beam lithography
  • 2.4 - Photon-based maskless lithography
  • 2.4.1 - Interference lithography
  • 2.4.2 - Dynamic mask lithography
  • 2.4.2.1 - DMD-based maskless lithography
  • 2.4.2.2 - GLV-based maskless lithography
  • 2.4.2.3 - ZPA-based maskless lithography
  • 2.4.3 - Stereolithography
  • 2.4.3.1 - Scanning stereolithography
  • 2.4.3.2 - Projection stereolithography
  • 2.4.3.3 - TPP-stereolithography
  • 3 - Applications with special manufacturing requirements
  • 3.1 - Metamaterials/plasmonic metamaterials
  • 3.2 - Tissue engineering scaffolds
  • 4 - Integrated photonic DIMPs
  • 4.1 - Photonic DIMP combining two-photon polymerization with stereolithography
  • 4.2 - Photonic DIMP combining two-photon polymerization and stereolithography, with atomic layer deposition and oxygen plasma
  • 4.3 - Photonic DIMP combining two-photon polymerization with interference lithography
  • 4.4 - Photonic DIMP combining two-photon polymerization with electrospinning
  • References
  • Chapter 13.3 - Engineered microenvironments for cancer study
  • 1 - Introduction to the tumor microenvironment
  • 2 - Tumor microengineering
  • 2.1 - Spheroids
  • 2.2 - Microwell arrays
  • 2.3 - Microfluidic devices
  • 2.4 - 3D printing
  • 3 - Cancer biology insights
  • 3.1 - Cell-ECM interactions
  • 3.1.1 - Cell response to ECM structure
  • 3.1.2 - Cell response to ECM composition
  • 3.1.3 - Cell response to ECM mechanical properties
  • 3.2 - Cell-cell interactions
  • 3.2.1 - Cell-cell interactions in angiogenesis
  • 3.2.2 - Cell-cell interactions in metastasis
  • 3.3 - Cell-fluid interactions
  • 4 - Therapeutic insights
  • 5 - Future perspectives for "mesoscale" cancer studies
  • References
  • Appendix A - Basic Photoshop for electron microscopy
  • 1 - Levels
  • 2 - Quick pseudocolor
  • 3 - Serious pseudocolor
  • 4 - Mag Line Markers
  • 5 - Resizing
  • 6 - File formats
  • Appendix B - Numerical Examples
  • References
  • Subject Index
  • Back Cover

Foreword: Here, a Small Step Toward a Grand Vision


"natura nihil facit supervacaneum" (nature creates nothing superfluous)

et

"multum in parvo" (much in little)

In the broadest interpretation, three-dimensional (3D) manufacturing/microfabrication embodies a number of material processing techniques where layer-by-layer or controlled self-assembly on a scaffolding is utilized to fashion a desired 3D structure. On cursory examination, 3D manufacturing appears to be an efficient means to make something, because regardless of the product shape, there is minimum waste. Only the amount of material necessary is used - no more, no less. The approach adheres to a manufacturing ideal where material properties can be varied or graded on a part, almost at will, and function can follow form from the nanoscale to the mesoscale. It has some likeness to biology where material is grown, cell by cell or in this case by form-function to form-function. In the most soaring of visions, a 3D manufactured product would not only have the necessary complex shape but also include properties for "sensing" the local environment, harvesting energy, and "communicating" its state. This would be accomplished by the seamless integration of materials and functionality. We are far from realizing this vision, but recent strides in fields such as materials development and controlled process tooling bring hope that 3D manufacturing could impact the world much like the industrial and electronics revolutions. One particular area where materials development/characterization has been most congruent with process tooling is the use of controlled polymerization to fabricate 3D structures. The technology (i.e., stereolithography) was the first to gain wide commercial acceptance in the genre of direct write additive manufacturing (AM) and mostly applied to fabricating prototype structures with feature resolutions measured on the order of 100 µm. This assembled work places its focus on a subset of AM technology, two-photon polymerization (TPP), where minimum linewidth and writing resolution of 9 and 52 nm, respectively, have already been achieved.

TPP technology utilizes the high intensity that is available from femtosecond lasers to controllably breach a reactivity threshold in a polymer resin to induce polymerization and thereby form a freestanding structure. Complex structures can be formed by interfering laser beams, holography (i.e., continuous image projection), or laser direct write. One advantage to the latter approach is the ease of fashioning both structure and site-specific defects. TPP technology continues to achieve hallmarks for precision, resolution, and formed structure complexity because it addresses the issue from many different technical points, many of which are detailed in this assembled work. There is the desire to gain control of the photoabsorption process through the development of "engineered" polymers, control of the polymerization photochemistry by precise metering of the photon dose near reaction threshold, the implementation of quenching processes via chemical (e.g., oxygen) or optical (e.g., depletion/inhibition beams) means, the utilization of the unique optical spatial properties when focusing a polarization-modulated laser beam through a high numerical aperture (NA) objective (e.g., vector beams), the development of CAD/CAM software to surpass the limitations in the de facto standard for layer-based prototyping (i.e., STL file format), and the integration of motion control hardware to combine nanometer precision, millimeter to centimeter scale motion, and high speed (>1 m/s).

Brushing aside these technical achievements, critics commonly fault TPP technology for its impractical throughput for piece part fabrication. It is an unfair accusation, made by critics who envision TPP being applied on the scale of many centimeters and larger. That is not the strength of the TPP technology. TPP will always be a single technique within the hierarchical 3D manufacturing schema, but it provides a key link. By virtue of the feature sizes that TPP technology can fashion, it provides a material processing approach that enables a "communication" link to be fashioned between the submicrometer/nanometer world and its "unique" physics with that of the macroworld and its known continuum physics. It is the ability to fabricate structures that can affect processes at the molecular and biological length scales and thereby derive a better understanding of how local disturbances affect process evolution. Nota bene: While it was microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology that permitted the "reach" into the microworld, it is nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) technology that actually "touches" it. 3D fabrication by TPP expands the micromanufacturing genre by permitting the near free-form fabrication of submicrometer/nanometer structures without the structural constraints imposed by silicon material processing.

For TPP to go beyond just the fashioning of prototype structures to the fabrication of viable commercial commodities, issues regarding process control, increases in piece part throughput, and repeatability have to be addressed. One of the strengths of this assembled work is that it not only presents the state of the art, but it also addresses these critical issues, along with an assessment of current limitations. For example, approaches to making TPP faster are addressed directly (e.g., the implementation of multiple laser beams and parallel processing to the use of digital light modulators/spatial light modulators). There is also a look into the future with possible near- and far-term applications (e.g., structures within microfluidics/lab-on-chip, scaffolding to produce tissue mimics/models for administering patient-specific therapeutics for disease control and reduced remission) and an assessment of material processing technologies that can likely be merged/clustered with TPP to develop an integrated (i.e., hybrid process) tool. While applications exist in which a desired structure can be elegantly fashioned on a desktop TPP tool, I believe TPP or its variant will find maximum market insertion when it can be merged among a cluster of 3D or AM manufacturing tools for manufacturing macroscale objects, in which TPP is used to fabricate critical submicrometer structures at specific locations. Why this perspective? Because to date, there is no other means to place submicrometer structures that can act as "self-awareness" sensors on macroscale objects within the schema of direct digital development manufacturing. Pick and place "tools" based on laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT), such as presented in this book, could place sensors using sub-millimeter-sized objects but direct fabrication will be necessary for making submicrometer-scale structures. Second, the femtosecond laser used in TPP can also "drive" other AM processes (including metal sintering, albeit at higher powers). Consequently, the TPP technique is amenable to the development of an all laser-"driven" material processing tool. For example, it is possible to envision a high-viscosity resin "droplet" being placed at a specific location (possible with LIFT) within which a submicrometer structure is then fabricated. Third, TPP is a high-intensity process, and this fact opens the opportunity to expand the capabilities offered by the femtosecond laser source. There is significant literature where laser-induced phase transformations in materials enable functionality not possible otherwise. It requires the symbiosis of light and matter. One particular application area, 3D micro-optics, is discussed in this book in the context of TPP, but it is possible to adapt the same tool to fabricate structures that "guide" light (i.e., within a proximal material) by femtosecond laser compaction (i.e., index change). Fourth, TPP, in possible combination with LIFT or a similar material transfer process, permits the submicrometer fabrication of structures composed of composite materials (i.e., polymers doped with nanoparticles and nanorods that increase the stiffness/strength or provide piezoelectric, magnetic, electrical, or fluorescent properties). The approach expands the physical means of interaction that a fabricated structure can have with the local environment. Fifth, there is the possibility of applying a post-material processing step to a TPP-fabricated structure and thereby further expand its overall functionality. The approaches addressed in this book present examples of structures that have undergone a postfabrication step such as metallization, electroplating, selective functionalization (i.e., by the use of a second polymer with orthogonal functionality), carbonization (i.e., pyrolysis of the polymer to form a carbon structure), and atomic layer deposition. The possibilities of this multistep process are addressed in yet another chapter via an example: the development of a miniature, remotely driven (i.e., optically driven) machine that is fabricated via multistep operation that starts with TPP, adds electroplating, and is then released by laser ablation. Finally, nature builds structures in a hierarchical manner and so doing develops functionality as necessary (i.e., "natura nihil facit supervacaneum"). TPP technology permits the mimicking of nature, at least at the submicrometer realm, by enabling the development of architected structures or materials to engender functionality much like biology (i.e.,...

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