Marine Structural Design

 
 
Butterworth-Heinemann (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 18. September 2015
  • |
  • 1008 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100007-6 (ISBN)
 

Marine Structural Design, Second Edition, is a wide-ranging, practical guide to marine structural analysis and design, describing in detail the application of modern structural engineering principles to marine and offshore structures.

Organized in five parts, the book covers basic structural design principles, strength, fatigue and fracture, and reliability and risk assessment, providing all the knowledge needed for limit-state design and re-assessment of existing structures.

Updates to this edition include new chapters on structural health monitoring and risk-based decision-making, arctic marine structural development, and the addition of new LNG ship topics, including composite materials and structures, uncertainty analysis, and green ship concepts.


  • Provides the structural design principles, background theory, and know-how needed for marine and offshore structural design by analysis
  • Covers strength, fatigue and fracture, reliability, and risk assessment together in one resource, emphasizing practical considerations and applications
  • Updates to this edition include new chapters on structural health monitoring and risk-based decision making, and new content on arctic marine structural design


Dr. Yong Bai obtained a Ph.D. in Offshore Structures at Hiroshima University, Japan in 1989. He is currently President of Offshore Pipelines and Risers (OPR Inc., a design/consulting firm in the field of subsea pipelines, risers and floating systems. In the 1990's, he had been a technical leader for several Asgard Transport pipeline and flowline projects at JP Kenny as Manager of the advanced engineering department. Yong was previously a lead riser engineer at Shell and assisted in offshore rules development at the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) as Manager of the offshore technology department. While a professor, he wrote several books and served as a course leader on the design of subsea pipelines and irsers as well as design of floating systems. He also serves at Zhejiang University in China as professor.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
Elsevier Science
  • 21,27 MB
978-0-08-100007-6 (9780081000076)
0081000073 (0081000073)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Marine Structural Design
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface to First Edition
  • Preface to Second Edition
  • Part 1 Structural Design Principles
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 Structural Design Principles
  • 1.1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.2 Limit-State Design
  • 1.2 Strength and Fatigue Analysis
  • 1.2.1 Ultimate Strength Criteria
  • 1.2.2 Design for Accidental Loads
  • 1.2.3 Design for Fatigue
  • 1.3 Structural Reliability Applications
  • 1.3.1 Structural Reliability Concepts
  • 1.3.2 Reliability-Based Calibration of Design Factor
  • 1.3.3 Requalification of Existing Structures
  • 1.4 Risk Assessment
  • 1.4.1 Application of Risk Assessment
  • 1.4.2 Risk-Based Inspection
  • 1.4.3 Human and Organization Factors
  • 1.5 Layout of This Book
  • 1.6 How to Use This Book
  • References
  • 2 - Marine Composite Materials and Structure
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The Application of Composites in the Marine Industry
  • 2.2.1 Ocean Environment
  • 2.2.2 Application in the Shipbuilding Industry
  • Pleasure Boats Industry
  • Recreational Applications
  • Commercial Applications
  • Military Applications
  • 2.2.3 Marine Aviation Vehicles and Off-Shore Structure
  • 2.3 Composite Material Structure
  • 2.3.1 Fiber Reinforcements
  • Glass Fibers
  • Aramid Fibers
  • Carbon Fibers
  • 2.3.2 Resin Systems
  • 2.4 Material Property
  • 2.4.1 Orthotropic Properties
  • 2.4.2 Orthotropic Properties in Plane Stress
  • 2.5 Key Challenges for the Future of Marine Composite Materials
  • References
  • 3 - Green Ship Concepts
  • 3.1 General
  • 3.2 Emissions
  • 3.2.1 Regulations on Air Pollution
  • 3.2.2 Regulations on GHGs
  • 3.2.3 Effect of Design Variables on the EEDI
  • 3.2.4 Influence of Speed on the EEDI
  • 3.2.5 Influence of Hull Steel Weight on the EEDI
  • 3.3 Ballast Water Treatment
  • 3.4 Underwater Coatings
  • References
  • 4 - LNG Carrier
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Development
  • 4.3 Typical Cargo Cycle
  • 4.3.1 Inert
  • 4.3.2 Gas Up
  • 4.3.3 Cool Down
  • 4.3.4 Bulk Loading
  • 4.3.5 Voyage
  • 4.3.6 Discharge
  • 4.3.7 Gas Free
  • 4.4 Containment Systems
  • 4.4.1 Self-Supporting Type
  • Moss Tanks (Spherical IMO-Type B LNG Tanks)
  • IHI (Prismatic IMO-Type B LNG Tanks)
  • 4.4.2 Membrane Type
  • GT96
  • TGZ Mark III
  • CS1
  • 4.5 Structural Design of the LNG Carrier
  • 4.5.1 ULS (Ultimate Limit State) Design of the LNG Carrier
  • Design of the LNG Carrier Hull Girder
  • Design Principles
  • Design Wave
  • Global Load Conditions
  • Load Condition 1-Maximum Hogging
  • Load Condition 2-Maximum Sagging
  • Combination of Stresses
  • Longitudinal Stresses
  • Transverse Stresses
  • Shear Stresses
  • Capacity Checks
  • General Principles
  • Hull Girder Moment Capacity Checks
  • Hull Girder Shear Capacity Check
  • 4.6 Fatigue Design of an LNG Carrier
  • 4.6.1 Preliminary Design Phase
  • 4.6.2 Fatigue Design Phase
  • References
  • 5 - Wave Loads for Ship Design and Classification
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Ocean Waves and Wave Statistics
  • 5.2.1 Basic Elements of Probability and Random Processes
  • 5.2.2 Statistical Representation of the Sea Surface
  • 5.2.3 Ocean Wave Spectra
  • 5.2.4 Moments of Spectral Density Function
  • 5.2.5 Statistical Determination of Wave Heights and Periods
  • 5.3 Ship Response to a Random Sea
  • 5.3.1 Introduction
  • 5.3.2 Wave-Induced Forces
  • 5.3.3 Structural Response
  • 5.3.4 Slamming and Green Water on Deck
  • 5.4 Ship Design for Classification
  • 5.4.1 Design Value of Ship Response
  • 5.4.2 Design Loads per Classification Rules
  • General
  • Load Components
  • Hull Girder Loads
  • External Pressure
  • Internal Tank Pressure
  • References
  • 6 - Wind Loads for Offshore Structures
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Classification Rules for Design
  • 6.2.1 Wind Data
  • 6.2.2 Wind Conditions
  • General
  • Wind Profile
  • Turbulence
  • Wind Spectra
  • Hurricanes
  • 6.2.3 Wind Loads
  • General
  • Wind Pressure
  • Wind Forces
  • Circular Cylinders
  • Rectangular Cross Sections
  • Finite Length Effects
  • Other Structures
  • Dynamic Wind Analysis
  • Model Wind Tunnel Tests
  • Computational Fluid Dynamics
  • 6.3 Research of Wind Loads on Ships and Platforms
  • 6.3.1 Wind Loads on Ships
  • 6.3.2 Wind Loads on Platforms
  • References
  • 7 - Loads and Dynamic Response for Offshore Structures
  • 7.1 General
  • 7.2 Environmental Conditions
  • 7.2.1 Environmental Criteria
  • Wind
  • Waves
  • Current
  • 7.2.2 Regular Waves
  • 7.2.3 Irregular Waves
  • 7.2.4 Wave Scatter Diagram
  • 7.3 Environmental Loads and Floating Structure Dynamics
  • 7.3.1 Environmental Loads
  • 7.3.2 Sea Loads on Slender Structures
  • 7.3.3 Sea Loads on Large-Volume Structures
  • 7.3.4 Floating Structure Dynamics
  • 7.4 Structural Response Analysis
  • 7.4.1 Structural Analysis
  • 7.4.2 Response Amplitude Operator
  • 7.5 Extreme Values
  • 7.5.1 General
  • 7.5.2 Short-Term Extreme Approach
  • 7.5.3 Long-Term Extreme Approach
  • 7.5.4 Prediction of Most Probable Maximum Extreme for Non-Gaussian Process
  • Drag/Inertia Parameter Method
  • Weibull Fitting
  • Gumbel Fitting
  • Winterstein/Jensen method
  • 7.6 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Appendix A: Elastic Vibrations of Beams
  • Vibration of a Spring/Mass System
  • Elastic Vibration of Beams
  • 8 - Scantling of Ship's Hulls by Rules
  • 8.1 General
  • 8.2 Basic Concepts of Stability and Strength of Ships
  • 8.2.1 Stability
  • 8.2.2 Strength
  • 8.2.3 Corrosion Allowance
  • 8.3 Initial Scantling Criteria for Longitudinal Strength
  • 8.3.1 Introduction
  • 8.3.2 Hull Girder Strength
  • Longitudinal stress
  • Shear stress
  • 8.4 Initial Scantling Criteria for Transverse Strength
  • 8.4.1 Introduction
  • 8.4.2 Transverse Strength
  • 8.5 Initial Scantling Criteria for Local Strength
  • 8.5.1 Local Bending of Beams
  • Stiffeners
  • Girders
  • 8.5.2 Local Bending Strength of Plates
  • 8.5.3 Structure Design of Bulkheads, Decks, and Bottom
  • 8.5.4 Buckling of Platings
  • General
  • Elastic compressive buckling stress
  • Buckling evaluation
  • 8.5.5 Buckling of Profiles
  • References
  • 9 - Ship Hull Scantling Design by Analysis
  • 9.1 General
  • 9.2 Design Loads
  • 9.3 Strength Analysis Using Finite Element Methods
  • 9.3.1 Modeling
  • Global Analysis
  • Local Structural Models
  • Cargo Hold and Ballast Tank Model
  • Frame and Girder Model
  • Stress Concentration Area
  • Fatigue Model
  • 9.3.2 Boundary Conditions
  • 9.3.3 Types of Elements
  • 9.3.4 Postprocessing
  • Yielding Check
  • Buckling Check
  • 9.4 Fatigue Damage Evaluation
  • 9.4.1 General
  • 9.4.2 Fatigue Check
  • References
  • 10 - Offshore Soil Geotechnics
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Subsea Soil Investigation
  • 10.2.1 Offshore Soil Investigation Equipment Requirements
  • General
  • Seabed Corer Equipment
  • Piezocone Penetration Test
  • Drill Rig
  • Downhole Equipment
  • Laboratory Equipment
  • 10.2.2 Subsea Survey Equipment Interfaces
  • Onboard Laboratory Test
  • Core Preparation
  • Onshore Laboratory Tests
  • Nearshore Geotechnical Investigations
  • 10.3 Deepwater Foundation
  • 10.3.1 Foundations for Mooring
  • 10.3.2 Suction Caisson
  • 10.3.3 Spudcan Footings
  • 10.3.4 Pipe Piles
  • Axial Capacity
  • References
  • 11 - Offshore Structural Analysis
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.1.1 General
  • 11.1.2 Design Codes
  • 11.1.3 Government Requirements
  • 11.1.4 Certification/Classification Authorities
  • 11.1.5 Codes and Standards
  • 11.1.6 Other Technical Documents
  • 11.2 Project Planning
  • 11.2.1 General
  • 11.2.2 Design Basis
  • Unit Description and Main Dimensions
  • Rules, Regulations and Codes
  • Stability and Compartmentalization
  • Materials and Welding
  • Temporary Phases
  • Operational Design Criteria
  • In-service Inspection and Repair
  • Reassessment
  • 11.2.3 Design Brief
  • Analysis Models
  • Analysis Procedures
  • Structural Evaluation
  • 11.3 Use of Finite Element Analysis
  • 11.3.1 Introduction
  • Basic Ideas behind FEM
  • Computation Based on FEM
  • Marine Applications of FEM
  • 11.3.2 Stiffness Matrix for 2D Beam Elements
  • 11.3.3 Stiffness Matrix for 3D Beam Elements
  • 11.4 Design Loads and Load Application
  • Dead Loads
  • Variable Loads
  • Static Sea Pressure
  • Wave-Induced Loads
  • Wind Loads
  • 11.5 Structural Modeling
  • 11.5.1 General
  • 11.5.2 Jacket Structures
  • Analysis Models
  • Modeling for Ultimate Strength Analysis
  • Modeling for Fatigue Analysis
  • Assessment of Existing Platforms
  • Fire, Blast, and Accidental Loading
  • 11.5.3 Floating Production and Offloading Systems (FPSO)
  • Structural Design General
  • Analysis Models
  • Modeling for Ultimate Strength Analysis
  • Modeling for Compartmentalization and Stability
  • Modeling for Fatigue Analysis
  • 11.5.4 TLP, Spar, and Semisubmersible
  • References
  • 12 - Development of Arctic Offshore Technology
  • 12.1 Historical Background
  • 12.2 The Research Incentive
  • 12.3 Industrial Development in Cold Regions
  • 12.3.1 Arctic Ships
  • 12.3.2 Offshore Structures
  • 12.4 The Arctic Offshore Technology Program
  • 12.4.1 Three Areas of Focus
  • 12.4.2 Environmental and Climatic Change
  • 12.4.3 Materials for the Arctic
  • 12.5 Highlights
  • 12.5.1 Mechanical Resistance to Slip Movement in Level Ice
  • 12.5.2 Ice Forces on Fixed Structures
  • 12.5.3 Concrete Durability in Arctic Offshore Structures
  • 12.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 13 - Limit-State Design of Offshore Structures
  • 13.1 Limit-State Design
  • 13.2 ULS Design
  • 13.2.1 Ductility and Brittle Fracture Avoidance
  • 13.2.2 Plated Structures
  • 13.2.3 Shell Structures
  • 13.3 FLS Design
  • 13.3.1 Introduction
  • 13.3.2 Fatigue Analysis
  • 13.3.3 Fatigue Design
  • References
  • 14 - Ship Vibrations and Noise Control
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Basic Beam Theory of Ship Vibration
  • 14.3 Beam Theory of Steady-State Ship Vibration
  • 14.4 Damping of Hull Vibration
  • 14.5 Vibration and Noise Control
  • 14.5.1 Propeller Radiated Signatures
  • 14.5.2 Vortex Shedding Mechanisms
  • 14.5.3 After-Body Slamming
  • 14.6 Vibration Analysis
  • 14.6.1 Procedure Outline of Ship Vibration Analysis
  • 14.6.2 Finite Element Modeling
  • Lightship Weight Distribution
  • Loading Condition
  • Added Mass
  • Buoyancy Springs
  • 14.6.3 Free Vibration
  • 14.6.4 Forced Vibration
  • Further Reading
  • Part 2 Ultimate Strength
  • 15 - Buckling/Collapse of Columns and Beam-Columns
  • 15.1 Buckling Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Columns
  • 15.1.1 Buckling Behavior
  • 15.1.2 Perry-Robertson Formula
  • 15.1.3 Johnson-Ostenfeld Formula
  • 15.2 Buckling Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Beam-Columns
  • 15.2.1 Beam-Column with Eccentric Load
  • 15.2.2 Beam-Column with Initial Deflection and an Eccentric Load
  • 15.2.3 Ultimate Strength of Beam-Columns
  • 15.2.4 Alternative Ultimate Strength Equation-Initial Yielding
  • 15.3 Plastic Design of Beam-Columns
  • 15.3.1 Plastic Bending of Beam Cross Section
  • Rectangular Cross Section
  • Tubular Cross Section (t<
  • I-Profile (t<
  • 15.3.2 Plastic Hinge Load
  • 15.3.3 Plastic Interaction under Combined Axial Force and Bending
  • Rectangular Section
  • Tubular Members
  • 15.4 Examples
  • 15.4.1 Example 15.1: Elastic Buckling of Columns with Alternative Boundary Conditions
  • 15.4.2 Example 15.2: Two Types of Ultimate Strength: Buckling versus Fracture
  • References
  • 16 - Buckling and Local Buckling of Tubular Members
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.1.1 General
  • 16.1.2 Safety Factors for Offshore Strength Assessment
  • 16.2 Experiments
  • 16.2.1 Test Specimens
  • 16.2.2 Material Tests
  • 16.2.3 Buckling Test Procedures
  • 16.2.4 Test Results
  • Eccentric Axial Compression Tests Using Large-Scale Specimens
  • Eccentric Axial Compression Test Using Small-Scale Specimens
  • Pure Bending Test for Small-Scale Specimens
  • 16.3 Theory of Analysis
  • 16.3.1 Simplified Elastoplastic Large Deflection Analysis
  • Preanalysis of Local Buckling
  • Critical Condition for Local Buckling
  • Post-Local-Buckling Analysis
  • COS Model
  • DENT Model
  • Procedure of Numerical Analysis
  • 16.3.2 Idealized Structural Unit Analysis
  • Pre-ultimate-strength Analysis
  • System Analysis
  • Evaluation of Strain at Plastic Node
  • Post-Local-Buckling Analysis
  • 16.4 Calculation Results
  • 16.4.1 Simplified Elastoplastic Large Deflection Analysis
  • H Series
  • C Series
  • D Series
  • S Series
  • A Series and B Series
  • 16.4.2 Idealized Structural Unit Method Analysis
  • Members with Constraints against Rotation at Both Ends
  • H Series
  • 16.5 Conclusions
  • 16.6 Example
  • 16.6.1 Example 16.1: Comparison of the Idealized Structural Unit Method and Plastic Node Methods
  • References
  • 17 - Ultimate Strength of Plates and Stiffened Plates
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.1.1 General
  • 17.1.2 Solution of Differential Equation
  • 17.1.3 Boundary Conditions
  • 17.1.4 Fabrication-Related Imperfections and In-service Structural Degradation
  • 17.1.5 Correction for Plasticity
  • 17.2 Combined Loads
  • 17.2.1 Buckling-SLS
  • 17.2.2 Ultimate Strength-ULS
  • 17.3 Buckling Strength of Plates
  • 17.4 Ultimate Strength of Unstiffened Plates
  • 17.4.1 Long Plates and Wide Plates
  • 17.4.2 Plates Under Lateral Pressure
  • 17.4.3 Shear Strength
  • 17.4.4 Combined Loads
  • 17.5 Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Panels
  • 17.5.1 Beam-Column Buckling
  • 17.5.2 Tripping of Stiffeners
  • 17.6 Gross Buckling of Stiffened Panels (Overall Grillage Buckling)
  • References
  • 18 - Ultimate Strength of Cylindrical Shells
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.1.1 General
  • 18.1.2 Buckling Failure Modes
  • 18.2 Elastic Buckling of Unstiffened Cylindrical Shells
  • 18.2.1 Equilibrium Equations for Cylindrical Shells
  • 18.2.2 Axial Compression
  • 18.2.3 Bending
  • 18.2.4 External Lateral Pressure
  • 18.3 Buckling of Ring-Stiffened Shells
  • 18.3.1 Axial Compression
  • 18.3.2 Hydrostatic Pressure
  • General
  • Local Inter-ring Shell Failure
  • General Instability
  • Ring Stiffener Failure
  • 18.3.3 Combined Axial Compression and External Pressure
  • 18.4 Buckling of Stringer- and Ring-Stiffened Shells
  • 18.4.1 Axial Compression
  • General
  • Local Panel Buckling
  • Stringer-Stiffened Cylinder Buckling
  • Local Stiffener Tripping
  • General Instability
  • 18.4.2 Radial Pressure
  • 18.4.3 Axial Compression and Radial Pressure
  • References
  • 19 - A Theory of Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
  • 19.1 General
  • 19.2 Elastic Beam-Column with Large Displacements
  • 19.3 The Plastic Node Method
  • 19.3.1 History of the Plastic Node Method
  • 19.3.2 Consistency Condition and Hardening Rates for Beam Cross Sections
  • 19.3.3 Plastic Displacement and Strain at Nodes
  • 19.3.4 Elastic-Plastic Stiffness Equation for Elements
  • 19.4 Transformation Matrix
  • 19.5 Appendix A: Stress-Based Plasticity Constitutive Equations
  • 19.5.1 General
  • 19.5.2 Relationship between Stress and Strain in the Elastic Region
  • 19.5.3 Yield Criterion
  • 19.5.4 Plastic Strain Increment
  • Isotropic Hardening Rule
  • Kinematic Hardening Rule
  • 19.5.5 Stress Increment-Strain Increment Relation in the Plastic Region
  • 19.6 Appendix B: Deformation Matrix
  • References
  • 20 - Collapse Analysis of Ship Hulls
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Hull Structural Analysis Based on the PNM
  • 20.2.1 Beam-Column Element
  • 20.2.2 Attached Plating Element
  • 20.2.3 Shear Panel Element
  • 20.2.4 Nonlinear Spring Element
  • 20.2.5 Tension-Tearing Rupture
  • 20.2.6 Computational Procedures
  • Computer Program SANDY
  • Computational Procedure
  • 20.3 Analytical Equations for Hull Girder Ultimate Strength
  • 20.3.1 Ultimate Moment Capacity Based on Elastic Section Modulus
  • 20.3.2 Ultimate Moment Capacity Based on Fully Plastic Moment
  • 20.3.3 Proposed Ultimate Strength Equations
  • 20.4 Modified Smith Method Accounting for Corrosion and Fatigue Defects
  • 20.4.1 Tensile and Corner Elements
  • 20.4.2 Compressive Stiffened Panels
  • 20.4.3 Crack Propagation Prediction
  • 20.4.4 Corrosion Rate Model
  • 20.5 Comparisons of Hull Girder Strength Equations and Smith Method
  • 20.6 Numerical Examples Using the Proposed PNM
  • 20.6.1 Collapse of a Stiffened Plate
  • 20.6.2 Collapse of an Upper Deck Structure
  • 20.6.3 Collapse of Stiffened Box Girders
  • 20.6.4 Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Hull Girders
  • 20.6.5 Quasi-static Analysis of a Side Collision
  • 20.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • 21 - Offshore Structures Under Impact Loads
  • 21.1 General
  • 21.2 Finite Element Formulation
  • 21.2.1 Equations of Motion
  • 21.2.2 Load-Displacement Relationship of the Hit Member
  • 21.2.3 Beam-Column Element for Modeling of the Struck Structure
  • 21.2.4 Computational Procedure
  • 21.3 Collision Mechanics
  • 21.3.1 Fundamental Principles
  • 21.3.2 Conservation of Momentum
  • 21.3.3 Conservation of Energy
  • 21.4 Examples
  • 21.4.1 Mathematical Equations for Impact Forces and Energies in Ship/Platform Collisions
  • Problem
  • Solution
  • 21.4.2 Basic Numerical Examples
  • Example 21.1: Fixed Beam under a Central Lateral Impact Load
  • Example 21.2: Rectangular Portal Frame Subjected to Impact Loads
  • Example 21.3: Tubular Space Frame under Impact Load
  • Example 21.4: Clamped Aluminum Alloy Beam Struck Transversely by a Mass
  • 21.4.3 Application to Practical Collision Problems
  • Example 21.5: Unmanned platform struck by a supply ship
  • Example 21.6: Jacket platform struck by a supply ship
  • 21.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 22 - Offshore Structures Under Earthquake Loads
  • 22.1 General
  • 22.2 Earthquake Design per API RP2A
  • 22.3 Equations and Motion
  • 22.3.1 Equation of Motion
  • 22.3.2 Nonlinear Finite Element Model
  • 22.3.3 Analysis Procedure
  • 22.4 Numerical Examples
  • 22.4.1 Example 22.1: Clamped Beam under Lateral Load
  • 22.4.2 Example 22.2: Two-Dimensional Frame Subjected to Earthquake Loading
  • 22.4.3 Example 22.3: Offshore Jacket Platform Subjected to Earthquake Loading
  • 22.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 23 - Ship Collision and Grounding
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.1.1 Collision and Grounding Design Standards
  • 23.2 Mechanics of Ship Collision and Grounding
  • 23.2.1 Internal Mechanics
  • 23.2.2 External Mechanics
  • 23.3 Ship Collision Research
  • 23.3.1 Ship-Ship Collision Research
  • 23.4 Ship Grounding Research
  • 23.4.1 Ship Grounding on Shoal
  • Theoretical Model for Longitudinal Girders
  • Theoretical Model for Floors
  • Theoretical Model for Outer Bottom Plating
  • Theoretical Model for Stiffeners
  • 23.5 Designs against Collision and Grounding
  • 23.5.1 Buffer Bow
  • 23.5.2 Sandwich Panels
  • 23.5.3 Innovative Double-Hull Designs
  • References
  • Part 3 Fatigue and Fracture
  • 24 - Mechanism of Fatigue and Fracture
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Fatigue Overview
  • 24.3 Stress-Controlled Fatigue
  • 24.4 Cumulative Damage for Variable Amplitude Loading
  • 24.5 Strain-Controlled Fatigue
  • 24.6 Fracture Mechanics in Fatigue Analysis
  • 24.7 Examples
  • 24.7.1 Example 24.1: Fatigue Life Cycle Calculation
  • 24.7.2 Example 24.2: Fracture-Mechanics-Based Crack Growth Life Integration
  • References
  • 25 - Fatigue Capacity
  • 25.1 S-N Curves
  • 25.1.1 General
  • 25.1.2 Effect of Plate Thickness
  • 25.1.3 Effect of Seawater and Corrosion Protection
  • 25.1.4 Effect of Mean Stress
  • 25.1.5 Comparisons of S-N Curves in Design Standards
  • 25.1.6 Fatigue Strength Improvement
  • 25.1.7 Experimental S-N Curves
  • 25.2 Estimation of the Stress Range
  • 25.2.1 Nominal Stress Approach
  • 25.2.2 Hot-Spot Stress Approach
  • 25.2.3 Notch Stress Approach
  • 25.3 Stress Concentration Factors
  • 25.3.1 Definition of SCFs
  • 25.3.2 Determination of SCF by Experimental Measurement
  • 25.3.3 Parametric Equations for SCFs
  • 25.3.4 Hot-Spot Stress Calculation Based on FEA
  • 25.4 Examples
  • 25.4.1 Example 25.1: Fatigue Damage Calculation
  • References
  • 26 - Fatigue Loading and Stresses
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Fatigue Loading for Oceangoing Ships
  • 26.3 Fatigue Stresses
  • 26.3.1 General
  • 26.3.2 Long-Term Fatigue Stress Based on the Weibull Distribution
  • 26.3.3 Long-Term Stress Distribution Based on the Deterministic Approach
  • 26.3.4 Long-Term Stress Distribution-Spectral Approach
  • 26.4 Fatigue Loading Defined Using Scatter Diagrams
  • 26.4.1 General
  • 26.4.2 Mooring- and Riser-Induced Damping in Fatigue Sea States
  • 26.5 Fatigue Load Combinations
  • 26.5.1 General
  • 26.5.2 Fatigue Load Combinations for Ship Structures
  • 26.5.3 Fatigue Load Combinations for Offshore Structures
  • 26.6 Examples
  • 26.6.1 Example 26.1: Long-Term Stress Range Distribution-Deterministic Approach
  • 26.6.2 Example 26.2: Long-Term Stress Range Distribution-Spectral Approach
  • 26.7 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 27 - Simplified Fatigue Assessment
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 Deterministic Fatigue Analysis
  • 27.3 Simplified Fatigue Assessment
  • 27.3.1 Calculation of Accumulated Damage
  • 27.3.2 Weibull Stress Distribution Parameters
  • 27.4 Simplified Fatigue Assessment for Bilinear S-N Curves
  • 27.5 Allowable Stress Range
  • 27.6 Design Criteria for Connections around Cutout Openings
  • 27.6.1 General
  • 27.6.2 Stress Criteria for Collar Plate Design
  • 27.7 Examples
  • 27.7.1 Example 27.1: Fatigue Design of a Semisubmersible
  • References
  • 28 - Spectral Fatigue Analysis and Design
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.1.1 General
  • 28.1.2 Terminology
  • 28.2 Spectral Fatigue Analysis
  • 28.2.1 Fatigue Damage Acceptance Criteria
  • 28.2.2 Fatigue Damage Calculated Using the Frequency-Domain Solution
  • Fatigue Damage for the ith Sea State
  • Fatigue Damage for All Sea States
  • 28.3 Time-Domain Fatigue Analysis
  • 28.3.1 Application
  • 28.3.2 Analysis Methodology for Time-Domain Fatigue of Pipelines
  • 28.3.3 Analysis Methodology for Time-Domain Fatigue of Risers
  • 28.3.4 Analysis Methodology for Time-Domain Fatigue of Nonlinear Ship Response
  • 28.4 Structural Analysis
  • 28.4.1 Overall Structural Analysis
  • Space Frame Model
  • Fine FEA Model
  • Design Loading Conditions
  • Analysis and Validation
  • 28.4.2 Local Structural Analysis
  • 28.5 Fatigue Analysis and Design
  • 28.5.1 Overall Design
  • 28.5.2 Stress Range Analysis
  • 28.5.3 Spectral Fatigue Parameters
  • Wave Environment
  • Stress Concentration Factors
  • S-N Curves
  • Joint Classification
  • Structural Details
  • 28.5.4 Fatigue Damage Assessment
  • Initial Hot-Spot Screening
  • Specific Hot-Spot Analysis
  • Specific Hot-Spot Design
  • Detail Improvement
  • 28.5.5 Fatigue Analysis and Design Checklist
  • 28.5.6 Drawing Verification
  • 28.6 Classification Society Interface
  • 28.6.1 Submittal and Approval of Design Brief
  • 28.6.2 Submittal and Approval of Task Report
  • 28.6.3 Incorporation of Comments from Classification Society
  • References
  • 29 - Application of Fracture Mechanics
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.1.1 General
  • 29.1.2 Fracture Mechanics Design Check
  • Maximum Allowable Stress
  • Minimum Required Fracture Toughness
  • Maximum Tolerable Defect Size
  • 29.2 Level 1: The CTOD Design Curve
  • 29.2.1 The Empirical Equations
  • 29.2.2 The British Welding Institute CTOD Design Curve
  • 29.3 Level 2: The Central Electricity Generating Board R6 Diagram
  • 29.4 Level 3: The FAD
  • 29.5 Fatigue Damage Estimation Based on Fracture Mechanics
  • 29.5.1 Crack Growth Due to Constant Amplitude Loading
  • 29.5.2 Crack Growth due to Variable Amplitude Loading
  • 29.6 Comparison of Fracture Mechanics and S-N Curve Approaches for Fatigue Assessment
  • 29.7 Fracture Mechanics Applied in Aerospace and Power Generation Industries
  • 29.8 Examples
  • 29.8.1 Example 29.1: Maximum Tolerable Defect Size in Butt Weld
  • References
  • 30 - Material Selections and Damage Tolerance Criteria
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 Material Selection and Fracture Prevention
  • 30.2.1 Material Selection
  • 30.2.2 Higher-Strength Steel
  • 30.2.3 Prevention of Fracture
  • 30.3 Weld Improvement and Repair
  • 30.3.1 General
  • 30.3.2 Fatigue-Resistant Details
  • 30.3.3 Weld Improvement
  • Grinding
  • Controlled Erosion
  • Remelting Techniques
  • 30.3.4 Modification of Residual Stress Distribution
  • Stress Relief
  • Compressive Overstressing
  • Peening
  • 30.3.5 Discussion
  • 30.4 Damage Tolerance Criteria
  • 30.4.1 General
  • 30.4.2 Residual Strength Assessment Using Failure Assessment Diagram
  • 30.4.3 Residual Life Prediction Using Paris Law
  • 30.4.4 Discussions
  • 30.5 Nondestructive Inspection
  • References
  • Part 4 Structural Reliability
  • 31 - Basics of Structural Reliability
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.2 Uncertainty and Uncertainty Modeling
  • 31.2.1 General
  • 31.2.2 Natural versus Modeling Uncertainties
  • 31.3 Basic Concepts
  • 31.3.1 General
  • 31.3.2 Limit State and Failure Mode
  • 31.3.3 Calculation of Structural Reliability
  • Cornell Safety Index Method
  • The Hasofer-Lind Safety Index Method
  • Analytical Approach
  • Simulation Approach
  • 31.3.4 Calculation by FORM
  • 31.3.5 Calculation by SORM
  • 31.4 Component Reliability
  • 31.5 System Reliability Analysis
  • 31.5.1 General
  • 31.5.2 Series System Reliability
  • 31.5.3 Parallel System Reliability
  • 31.6 Combination of Statistical Loads
  • 31.6.1 General
  • 31.6.2 Turkstra's Rule
  • 31.6.3 Ferry Borges-Castanheta Model
  • 31.7 Time-Variant Reliability
  • 31.8 Reliability Updating
  • 31.9 Target Probability
  • 31.9.1 General
  • 31.9.2 Target Probability
  • 31.9.3 Recommended Target Safety Indices for Ship Structures
  • 31.10 Software for Reliability Calculations
  • 31.11 Numerical Examples
  • 31.11.1 Example 31.1: Safety Index Calculation of a Ship Hull
  • 31.11.2 Example 31.2: ß Safety Index Method
  • 31.11.3 Example 31.3: Reliability Calculation of Series System
  • 31.11.4 Example 31.4: Reliability Calculation of Parallel System
  • References
  • 32 - Structural Reliability Analysis Using Uncertainty Theory
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Preliminaries
  • 32.2.1 Uncertainty Theory
  • 32.2.2 Uncertain Reliability
  • 32.3 Structural Reliability
  • 32.4 Numerical Examples
  • 32.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 33 - Random Variables and Uncertainty Analysis
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.2 Random Variables
  • 33.2.1 General
  • 33.2.2 Statistical Descriptions
  • 33.2.3 Probabilistic Distributions
  • Normal (or Gaussian) Distribution
  • Lognormal Distribution
  • Rayleigh Distribution
  • Weibull Distribution
  • 33.3 Uncertainty Analysis
  • 33.3.1 Uncertainty Classification
  • Inherent Uncertainty
  • Measurement Uncertainty
  • Statistical Uncertainty
  • Model Uncertainty
  • 33.3.2 Uncertainty Modeling
  • 33.4 Selection of Distribution Functions
  • 33.5 Uncertainty in Ship Structural Design
  • 33.5.1 General
  • 33.5.2 Uncertainties in Loads Acting on Ships
  • Quasi-static Wave Bending Moment
  • Still-water Bending Moments
  • Load Combinations
  • 33.5.3 Uncertainties in Ship Structural Capacity
  • References
  • 34 - Reliability of Ship Structures
  • 34.1 General
  • 34.2 Closed Form Method for Hull Girder Reliability
  • 34.3 Load Effects and Load Combination
  • 34.4 Procedure for Reliability Analysis of Ship Structures
  • 34.4.1 General
  • 34.4.2 Response Surface Method
  • 34.5 Time-Variant Reliability Assessment of FPSO Hull Girders
  • 34.5.1 Load Combination Factors
  • 34.5.2 Time-Variant Reliability Assessment
  • 34.5.3 Conclusions
  • References
  • 35 - Reliability-Based Design and Code Calibration
  • 35.1 General
  • 35.2 General Design Principles
  • 35.2.1 Concept of Safety Factors
  • 35.2.2 Allowable Stress Design
  • 35.2.3 Load and Resistance Factored Design
  • 35.2.4 Plastic Design
  • 35.2.5 Limit-State Design
  • 35.2.6 Life Cycle Cost Design
  • 35.3 Reliability-Based Design
  • 35.3.1 General
  • 35.3.2 Application of Reliability Methods to the ASD Format
  • 35.4 Reliability-Based Code Calibrations
  • 35.4.1 General
  • 35.4.2 Code Calibration Principles
  • 35.4.3 Code Calibration Procedure
  • 35.4.4 Simple Example of Code Calibration
  • Problem
  • Solution
  • 35.5 Numerical Example for Tubular Structure
  • 35.5.1 Case Description
  • 35.5.2 Design Equations
  • 35.5.3 Limit-State Function
  • 35.5.4 Uncertainty Modeling
  • 35.5.5 Target Safety Levels
  • 35.5.6 Calibration of Safety Factors
  • 35.6 Numerical Example for Hull Girder Collapse of FPSOs
  • 35.7 LRFD Example for Plates of Semisubmersible Platforms
  • 35.7.1 Case Description
  • 35.7.2 Design Steps
  • 35.7.3 Statistical Results
  • References
  • 36 - Fatigue Reliability
  • 36.1 Introduction
  • 36.2 Uncertainty in Fatigue Stress Model
  • 36.2.1 Stress Modeling
  • 36.2.2 Stress Modeling Error
  • 36.3 Fatigue Reliability Models
  • 36.3.1 Introduction
  • 36.3.2 Fatigue Reliability-S-N Approach
  • 36.3.3 Fatigue Reliability-FM Approach
  • 36.3.4 Simplified Fatigue Reliability Model-Lognormal Format
  • 36.4 Calibration of FM Model by S-N Approach
  • 36.5 Fatigue Reliability Application-Fatigue Safety Check
  • 36.5.1 Target Safety Index for Fatigue
  • 36.5.2 Partial Safety Factors
  • 36.6 Numerical Examples
  • 36.6.1 Example 36.1: Fatigue Reliability Based on Simple S-N Approach
  • Problem
  • Solution
  • 36.6.2 Example 36.2: Fatigue Reliability of Large Aluminum Catamaran
  • Description of the Case
  • Results and assessment
  • References
  • 37 - Probability- and Risk-Based Inspection Planning
  • 37.1 Introduction
  • 37.2 Concepts for Risk-Based Inspection Planning
  • 37.3 Reliability-Updating Theory for Probability-Based Inspection Planning
  • 37.3.1 General
  • 37.3.2 Inspection Planning for Fatigue Damage
  • No Crack Detection
  • Crack Detected and Measured
  • Repair Events
  • Reliability Updating through Repair
  • 37.4 Risk-Based Inspection Examples
  • 37.5 Risk-Based "Optimum" Inspection
  • 37.5.1 Inspection Performance
  • 37.5.2 Inspection Strategies
  • What?
  • How?
  • When?
  • Who?
  • Why?
  • "Optimum" Inspection Method
  • Inspection Data System
  • References
  • Part 5 Risk Assessment
  • 38 - Risk Assessment Methodology
  • 38.1 Introduction
  • 38.1.1 Health, Safety and Environment Protection
  • 38.1.2 Overview of Risk Assessment
  • 38.1.3 Planning of Risk Analysis
  • 38.1.4 System Description
  • 38.1.5 Hazard Identification
  • 38.1.6 Analysis of Causes and Frequency of Initiating Events
  • 38.1.7 Consequence and Escalation Analysis
  • 38.1.8 Risk Estimation
  • 38.1.9 Risk Reducing Measures
  • 38.1.10 Emergency Preparedness
  • 38.1.11 Time-Variant Risk
  • 38.2 Risk Estimation
  • 38.2.1 Risk to Personnel
  • Individual Risks
  • Society Risks and f-N Curves
  • 38.2.2 Risk to Environment
  • 38.2.3 Risk to Assets (Material Damage and Production Loss/Delay)
  • 38.3 Risk Acceptance Criteria
  • 38.3.1 General
  • 38.3.2 Risk Matrices
  • 38.3.3 The ALARP Principle
  • 38.3.4 Comparison Criteria
  • 38.4 Using Risk Assessment to Determine Performance Standard
  • 38.4.1 General
  • 38.4.2 Risk-Based Fatigue Criteria for Critical Weld Details
  • 38.4.3 Risk-Based Compliance Process for Engineering Systems
  • References
  • 39 - Risk-Based Decision-Making
  • 39.1 Basic Probability Concepts
  • 39.2 The RBDM Process
  • 39.2.1 Risk Assessment
  • 39.2.2 Risk Management
  • 39.2.3 Impact Assessment
  • 39.2.4 Risk Communication
  • 39.3 A Step-by-step Example of the RBDM Process in the Field
  • References
  • 40 - Risk Assessment Applied to Offshore Structures
  • 40.1 Introduction
  • 40.2 Collision Risk
  • 40.2.1 Colliding Vessel Categories
  • 40.2.2 Collision Frequency
  • Powered Ship Collision
  • Drifting Vessel Collisions
  • 40.2.3 Collision Consequence
  • 40.2.4 Collision Risk Reduction
  • 40.3 Explosion Risk
  • 40.3.1 Explosion Frequency
  • 40.3.2 Explosion Load Assessment
  • 40.3.3 Explosion Consequence
  • 40.3.4 Explosion Risk Reduction
  • Prevent Gas Leakage
  • Prevent Ignitable Concentrations
  • Prevent Ignition
  • Prevent High Turbulence
  • Prevent High Blockage
  • Avoid Human Activities from Explosion Potential
  • Install Fire and Blast Barriers
  • Active Deluge on Gas Leakage
  • Improve Resistance of Equipment and Structures
  • 40.4 Fire Risk
  • 40.4.1 Fire Frequency
  • 40.4.2 Fire Load and Consequence Assessment
  • Fire Types and Characteristics
  • Fire Response Analysis Procedures
  • Smoke Effect Analysis
  • Structural Response to Fire
  • 40.4.3 Fire Risk Reduction
  • 40.4.4 Guidance on Fire and Explosion Design
  • 40.5 Dropped Objects
  • 40.5.1 Frequency of Dropped Object Impact
  • Annual Lift Number and Load Distribution
  • Probability of Dropped Load
  • Probability of Hitting Objects
  • 40.5.2 Drop Object Impact Load Assessment
  • Fall through the Air
  • Impact with Water
  • Fall through Water
  • 40.5.3 Consequence of Dropped Object Impact
  • 40.6 Case Study-Risk Assessment of Floating Production Systems
  • 40.6.1 General
  • Process Systems
  • Marine Systems
  • Structural Systems
  • 40.6.2 Hazard Identification
  • 40.6.3 Risk Acceptance Criteria
  • 40.6.4 Risk Estimation and Reducing Measures
  • Process Leakage
  • Offloading and Shuttle Tanker Risk
  • Marine System Risk
  • Collision Risk
  • Explosion Risk
  • Fire Risk
  • Dropped Object Risk
  • 40.6.5 Comparative Risk Analysis
  • 40.6.6 Risk-Based Inspection
  • Structures Including Vessel Hull and Topside Structures
  • Mooring Systems and the Thruster System that Assists the Station-Keeping System
  • Import/Export Systems Such as Risers, Flow Lines, and Offloading Systems
  • 40.7 Environmental Impact Assessment
  • References
  • 41 - Formal Safety Assessment Applied to Shipping Industry
  • 41.1 Introduction
  • 41.2 Overview of FSA
  • 41.3 Functional Components of the FSA
  • 41.3.1 System Definition
  • The Ship Hardware
  • The Stakeholders
  • The Ship Life Cycle
  • 41.3.2 Hazard Identification
  • Collision and Grounding
  • Fire
  • Explosion
  • Loss of Structural Integrity
  • Loss of Power
  • Hazardous Material
  • Loading Errors
  • Extreme Environmental Conditions
  • 41.3.3 Frequency Analysis of Ship Accidents
  • 41.3.4 Consequence of Ship Accidents
  • Loss of Human Life
  • Loss of Cargo
  • Damage to Ship or Other Ships
  • Damage to the Environment
  • 41.3.5 Risk Evaluation
  • 41.3.6 Risk Control and Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • 41.4 HOF in the FSA
  • 41.5 An Example Application to the Ship's Fuel System
  • 41.6 Concerns Regarding the Use of FSA in Shipping
  • References
  • 42 - Economic Risk Assessment for Field Development
  • 42.1 Introduction
  • 42.1.1 Field Development Phases
  • 42.1.2 Background of Economic Evaluation
  • 42.1.3 Quantitative Economic Risk Assessment
  • 42.2 Decision Criteria and Limit-State Functions
  • 42.2.1 Decision and Decision Criteria
  • A. Should the Field be Developed Now?
  • B. Given That the Field is Under Development, How Should It Be Developed?
  • C. How Should the Project be Carried Out?
  • 42.2.2 Limit-State Functions
  • 42.3 Economic Risk Modeling
  • 42.3.1 Cost Variable Modeling
  • Costs of Facilities and Drilling
  • Costs of Operation and Maintenance
  • 42.3.2 Income Variable Modeling
  • Reservoir Size and Production Profile
  • Prices of Oil, Gas, and LNG
  • Taxes, Inflation, and Interest Rates
  • 42.3.3 Failure Probability Calculation
  • 42.4 Results Evaluation
  • 42.4.1 Importance and Omission Factors
  • 42.4.2 Sensitivity Factors
  • 42.4.3 Contingency Factors
  • References
  • Appendix A: Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return
  • Net Present Value
  • Internal Rate of Return
  • 43 - Human Reliability Assessment
  • 43.1 Introduction
  • 43.2 Human Error Identification
  • 43.2.1 Problem Definition
  • 43.2.2 Task Analysis
  • 43.2.3 Human Error Identification
  • 43.2.4 Representation
  • 43.3 Human Error Analysis
  • 43.3.1 Human Error Quantification
  • 43.3.2 Impact Assessment
  • 43.4 Human Error Reduction
  • 43.4.1 Error Reduction
  • 43.4.2 Documentation and Quality Assurance
  • 43.5 Ergonomics Applied to Design of Marine Systems
  • 43.6 QA and Quality Control
  • 43.7 Human and Organizational Factors in Offshore Structures
  • 43.7.1 General
  • 43.7.2 Reducing Human and Organizational Errors in Design
  • References
  • 44 - Risk-Centered Maintenance
  • 44.1 Introduction
  • 44.1.1 General
  • 44.1.2 Application
  • 44.1.3 RCM History
  • 44.2 Preliminary Risk Analysis
  • 44.2.1 Purpose
  • 42.2.2 PRA Procedure
  • 44.3 RCM Process
  • 44.3.1 Introduction
  • 44.3.2 RCM Analysis Procedures
  • 44.3.3 Risk-Centered Maintenance (Risk-CM)
  • Operational Risk Assessment
  • Human Contribution to Risk
  • 44.3.4 RCM Process-Continuous Improvement of Maintenance Strategy
  • 44.4 RCM Application to a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger on Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading
  • 44.4.1 Introduction of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
  • 44.4.2 RCM Process
  • Heat Exchangers Inventory Description
  • Risk Criteria
  • Risk Analysis
  • FEMCA Analysis
  • Function
  • Functional Failure
  • Failure Effect
  • Failure Reason
  • Maintenance Strategy
  • Task Logic Tree
  • Corrective Tasks
  • Scheduled Tasks
  • References
  • Part 6 Fixed Platforms and FPSO
  • 45 - Structural Reassessment of Offshore Structures
  • 45.1 Introduction
  • 45.2 Corrosion Model and Crack Defects Analysis
  • 45.2.1 Corrosion Model
  • 45.2.2 Crack Defects Analysis
  • Crack Failure Modes
  • Classified by Stress and Failure Mode
  • Classified by the Position of the Crack
  • Classified by the Shape of the Crack
  • The Effect on the Strength of the Material Due to the Crack
  • 45.3 The Residual Ultimate Strength of Hull Structural Components
  • 45.3.1 Effects of Crack Defects on Plates and Stiffened Panels
  • Numerical Analysis Method
  • Crack Length and Location Influence
  • Unstiffened Plate with a Transverse Crack Located in the Center (UTC)
  • Unstiffened Plate with a Transversely Oriented Mid-Length Edge Crack (UT1E)
  • Unstiffened Plate with Two Transversely Oriented Mid-Length Edge Cracks (UT2E)
  • Stiffened Plate with a Transverse Crack Located in the Center of the Plate (STC)
  • Stiffened Plate with Two Cracks Located in the Plate and the Stiffener Web (STCW)
  • Conclusion
  • 45.3.2 Effects of Localized Corrosion on Plates and Stiffened Panels
  • Numerical Modeling and Analysis Method of Square Plates and Stiffened Panels
  • Effects of Localized Corrosion on Plates
  • Effects of Localized Corrosion on Stiffened Panels
  • 50% Volume Loss at Location P11
  • Corrosion Location P21, P31, and P41
  • Corrosion Locations P22, P32, and P42
  • Corrosion Locations P23, P33, and P43
  • 45.4 The Residual Ultimate Strength of Hull Structures with Crack and Corrosion Damage
  • 45.4.1 Analysis Method of Ultimate Strength
  • 45.4.2 Modeling
  • 45.4.3 Residual Ultimate Strength with Crack Damage
  • 46.4.4 Residual Ultimate Strength with Corrosion Damage
  • References
  • 46 - Time-Dependent Reliability Assessment of Offshore Jacket Platforms
  • 46.1 Introduction
  • 46.2 The Time-Dependent Reliability Model for the Jacket Platform
  • 46.3 Probability Model for Resistance of the Jacket Platform
  • 46.3.1 Base Shear Capacity
  • 46.3.2 Probability Model of the Initial Base Shear Capacity
  • 46.3.3 Degradation of the Base Shear Capacity under Corrosion Effect
  • Corrosion Model
  • Corrosion Effect on the Base Shear Capacity
  • 46.4 Probability Model for Load Effect of the Jacket Platform
  • 46.4.1 Parameter Probability Models of Typhoon Load
  • 46.4.2 Load Effect of the Jacket Platform under Typhoon Load
  • 46.4.3 The Probability Model of the Load Effect
  • 46.5 Time-Dependent Reliability Assessment
  • 46.5.1 The Example Platform
  • 46.5.2 Probability Model for Resistance of the Jacket Platform
  • FE Model and the Base Shear Capacity of the Example Jacket Platform
  • Probability Model of the Initial Base Shear Capacity
  • Degradation of the Base Shear Capacity under Corrosion Effect
  • 46.5.3 Probability Model for Load Effect of the Jacket Platform
  • 46.5.4 Time-Dependent Reliability Assessment Results of the Platform
  • 46.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 47 - Reassessment of Jacket Structure
  • 47.1 General
  • 47.2 Modeling
  • 47.2.1 Structural Model
  • 47.2.2 Metocean Data
  • 47.2.3 Foundation Model
  • 47.2.4 Corrosion Rate Model
  • 47.3 Pushover Analysis
  • 47.3.1 Ultimate Strength Analysis
  • 47.3.2 Reserve Strength Ratio
  • 47.3.3 Incremental Wave Theory
  • 47.4 Corrosion Effect on the Jacket Structure
  • 47.5 Comparing Corrosion Effect
  • 47.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 48 - Risk and Reliability Applications to FPSO
  • 48.1 General
  • 48.2 Risk-Based Classification
  • 48.2.1 Applicability of Risk-Based Classification
  • 48.2.2 Owner/Operator's Responsibilities
  • 48.2.3 Classifications' Responsibilities
  • 48.2.4 Submittals and Requirements for Design Verification
  • 48.3 Risk-Based Inspection
  • 48.3.1 Strengths and Weaknesses of Risk-Based Inspection (Advantages of Risk-Based Inspection)
  • 48.3.2 Elements and Procedures of Risk-Based Inspection
  • 48.3.3 Methodology of Risk-Based Inspection
  • Qualitative Approach
  • Quantitative Approach
  • Consequence Analysis
  • Analysis of Failure Probability
  • Methods for Determining Inspection Frequency
  • Reliability Updating Based on Inspection Information
  • 48.4 Risk-Based Survey
  • 48.4.1 Current Practice of Surveys
  • FPSO Surveys (Construction and Installation Surveys)
  • The Surveys for Maintenance of Class
  • 48.4.2 The Main Drawbacks of the Current Survey Practice
  • 48.4.3 Risk-Based Survey for Maintenance of Class
  • The Survey Process and Its Integration with the Owner's Inspection Program
  • Procedures of Risk-Based Survey
  • Owner's/Operator's Responsibilities
  • Responsibility of the Bureau
  • Further Reading
  • 49 - Explosion and Fire Response Analysis for FPSO
  • 49.1 Introduction
  • 49.2 Accident Causation Analysis
  • 49.2.1 Formal Safety Assessment
  • 49.3 Phase I: Identification of Dangerous Sources
  • 49.3.1 The Structure Function of Fault Tree
  • 49.4 Phase II: Risk Assessment and Management
  • 49.4.1 Procedure for Fire Risk Assessment and Management
  • 49.4.2 Procedure for Explosion Risk Assessment and Management
  • 49.5 Phase III: Risk Restraining Project
  • 49.6 Examples of Explosion Response of FPSO
  • 49.6.1 Introduction
  • 49.6.2 Gas Dispersion CFD Simulations
  • Gas Dispersion Scenario
  • The Spatial Distribution of Gas Concentration
  • Actual Gas Cloud and Equivalent Gas Cloud
  • Effect of Leak Rates
  • 49.6.3 Gas Explosion CFD Simulation
  • Gas Explosion Scenario
  • 49.6.4 Nonlinear Structural Response Analysis
  • Structure Model
  • The Distribution of Structure Stress, Displacement, and Strain
  • The Distribution of Displacement on Main Columns
  • The Displacements on the Midpoint of the Main Girder
  • The Deflection of the Frame
  • 49.7 Example of Fire Response of FPSO
  • 49.7.1 Fire CFD Simulation
  • Fire Scenario
  • FDS Structure Model
  • FDS Results
  • 49.7.2 ANASYS Analysis
  • Temperature Simulation
  • Structure Analysis
  • Results
  • References
  • 50 - Asset Integrity Management (AIM) for FPSO
  • 50.1 Introduction
  • 50.2 Basic Theory for RBM
  • 50.3 Risk-Based Inspection
  • 50.3.1 Introduction
  • 50.3.2 The Main Research Contents
  • 50.3.3 Modeling the Risk
  • General
  • Estimation of Risk
  • 50.3.4 RBI Process
  • General
  • Data Gathering
  • Screening Assessment
  • Detailed Assessment
  • Risk Evaluation and Optimized Inspection Plan
  • 50.4 Safety Integrity Level Assessment
  • 50.4.1 Introduction
  • 50.4.2 The Main Research Contents
  • 50.4.3 Research Method
  • Data Collection and Processing
  • Determine the Level
  • Determine the Level Verification and Test Cycle of SIL
  • 50.5 Reliability-Centered Maintenance
  • 50.5.1 Introduction
  • 50.5.2 The Main Research Contents
  • 50.5.3 Research Method
  • Data Gathering
  • Initial Screening
  • Detailed Risk Assessment
  • Establish and Optimize the Maintenance Strategy
  • 50.6 Engineering Projects
  • 50.6.1 Introduction
  • 50.6.2 Screening Analysis
  • High Risk Projects
  • Low Risk Projects
  • 50.6.3 Detailed Assessment
  • 50.6.4 Risk Mitigation Plan
  • 50.6.5 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Y
  • Back Cover
Chapter 1

Introduction


Abstract


This chapter discusses a modern theory for design and analysis of marine structures. The term "marine structures" refers to ship and offshore structures. The objective of this book is to summarize the latest developments of design codes, engineering practices, and research in the form of a book, focusing on applications of finite element analysis and risk/reliability methods. The purpose of this book is to summarize these technological developments in order to promote advanced structural design. The emphasis on finite element methods, dynamic response, risk/reliability, and information technology differentiates this book from existing ones. This chapter also illustrates the process of a structural design based on finite element analysis and risk/reliability methods. When this book was first drafted, the author's intention was to use it in teaching his course Marine Structural Design. The material presented in this book may be used for several MS or PhD courses, such as Ship Structural Design, Design of Floating Production Systems, Ultimate Strength of Marine Structures, Fatigue and Fracture, and Risk and Reliability in Marine Structures. This book addresses the marine and offshore applications of steel structures. In addition to the topics that are normally covered by civil engineering books on design of steel structures this book also covers hydrodynamics, ship impacts, and fatigue/fracture. In a comparison with books on design of spacecraft structures, this book describes applications of finite element methods and risk/reliability methods in greater detail. Hence, it should also be of interest to engineers and researchers working on civil engineering and spacecraft structures.

Keywords


Accidental loads; Applications; Calibration; Concepts; Fatigue assessment; Limit-state design; Risk assessment

1.1. Structural Design Principles


1.1.1. Introduction


This book is devoted to the modern theory for design and analysis of marine structures. The term "marine structures" refers to ships and offshore structures. The objective of this book is to summarize the latest developments of design codes, engineering practices, and research into the form of a book, focusing on applications of finite element analysis and risk/reliability methods. Calculating wave loads and load combinations is the first step in marine structural design. For structural design and analysis, a structural engineer needs to understand the basic concepts of waves, motions, and design loads. Extreme value analysis for dynamic systems is another area that has had substantial advances from 1995 to 2015. It is an important subject for the determination of the design values for motions and strength analysis of floating structures, risers, mooring systems, and tendons for tension leg platforms. Once the functional requirements and loads are determined, an initial scantling may be sized based on formulas and charts in classification rules and design codes. The basic scantling of the structural components is initially determined based on stress analysis of beams, plates, and shells under hydrostatic pressure, bending, and concentrated loads. Three levels of marine structural design have been developed: Level 1: Design by rules Level 2: Design by analysis Level 3: Design based on performance standards Until the 1970s, structural design rules were based on the design by rules approach, which used experiences expressed in tables and formulas. These formula-based rules were followed by direct calculations of hydrodynamic loads and finite element stress analysis. The finite element methods (FEM) have now been extensively developed and applied to the design of ships and offshore structures. Structural analysis based on FEM has provided results that enable designers to optimize structural designs. The design by analysis approach is now applied throughout the design process. The finite element analysis has been very popular for strength and fatigue analysis of marine structures. During the structural design process, the dimensions and sizing of the structure are optimized, and structural analysis is reconducted until the strength and fatigue requirements are met. The use of FEM technology has been supported both by the rapid development of computers and by information technologies. Information technology is widely used in structural analysis, data collection, processing, and interpretation, as well as in the design, operation, and maintenance of ships and offshore structures. The development of both computers and information technologies has made it possible to conduct complex structural analysis and process the results. To aid the FEM-based design, various types of computer-based tools have been developed, such as CAD (computer-aided design) for scantling, CAE (computer-aided engineering) for structural design and analysis, and CAM (computer-aided manufacturing) for fabrication. Structural design may also be conducted based on performance requirements such as designing for accidental loads, where managing risks is of importance.

1.1.2. Limit-State Design


In a limit-state design, the design of structures is checked for all groups of limit states to ensure that the safety margin between the maximum loads and the weakest possible resistance of the structure is large enough and that fatigue damage is tolerable. Based on the first principles, the limit-state design criteria cover various failure modes such as Serviceability limit state Ultimate limit state (including buckling/collapse and fracture) Fatigue limit state Accidental limit state (progressive collapse limit state). Each failure mode may be controlled by a set of design criteria. Limit-state design criteria are developed based on ultimate strength and fatigue analysis, as well as the use of the risk/reliability methods. The design criteria have traditionally been expressed in the format of working stress design (WSD) (or allowable stress design), where only one safety factor is used to define the allowable limit. However, in recent years, there is an increased use of the load and resistance factored design (LRFD) that comprises a number of load factors and resistance factors reflecting the uncertainties and the safety requirements. A general safety format for LRFD design may be expressed as

d=Rd

(1.1)

where Sd = SSk·?f, design load effect Rd = SRk/?m, design resistance (capacity) Sk = Characteristic load effect Rk = Characteristic resistance ?f = Load factor, reflecting the uncertainty in load ?m = Material factor, the inverse of the resistance factor. Figure 1.1 illustrates the use of the load and resistance factors where only one load factor and one material factor are used, for the sake of simplicity. To account for the uncertainties in the strength parameters, the design resistance Rd is defined as characteristic resistance Rk divided by the material factor ?m. The characteristic load effect Sk is also scaled up by multiplying by the load factor ?f. The values of the load factor ?f and material factor ?m are defined in design codes. They have been calibrated against the WSD criteria and the inherent safety levels in the design codes. The calibration may be conducted using structural reliability methods that allow us to correlate the reliability levels in the LRFD criteria with the WSD criteria and to ensure the reliability levels will be greater than or equal to the target reliability. An advantage of the LRFD approach is its simplicity (in comparison with direct usage of the structural reliability methods) while it still accounts for the uncertainties in loads and structural capacities based on structural reliability methods. The LRFD is also called the partial safety factor design.
Figure 1.1 Use of load and resistance factors for strength design. While the partial safety factors are calibrated using the structural reliability methods, the failure consequence may also be accounted for through the selection of the target reliability level. When the failure consequence is higher, the safety factors should also be higher. Use of the LRFD criteria may provide unified safety levels for the whole structures or a group of the structures that are designed according to the same code.

1.2. Strength and Fatigue Analysis


Major factors that should be considered in marine structural design include Still water and wave loads, and their possible combinations Ultimate strength of structural components and systems Fatigue/fracture in critical structural details. Knowledge of hydrodynamics, buckling/collapsing, and fatigue/fracture is the key to understanding structural engineering.

1.2.1. Ultimate Strength Criteria


Ultimate strength criteria are usually...

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