Essential Oils in Food Processing

Chemistry, Safety and Applications
 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 6. Oktober 2017
  • |
  • 392 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-14935-4 (ISBN)
 
A guide to the use of essential oils in food, including information on their composition, extraction methods, and their antioxidant and antimicrobial applications
Consumers' food preferences are moving away from synthetic additives and preservatives and there is an increase demand for convenient packaged foods with long shelf lives. The use of essential oils fills the need for more natural preservativesto extend the shelf-life and maintaining the safety of foods. Essential Oils in Food Processing offers researchers in food science a guide to the chemistry, safety and applications of these easily accessible and eco-friendly substances.
The text offers a review of essential oils components, history, source and their application in foods and explores common and new extraction methods of essential oils from herbs and spices. The authors show how to determine the chemical composition of essential oils as well as an explanation of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of these oils in foods. This resource also delves into the effect of essential oils on food flavor and explores the interaction of essential oils and food components. Essential Oils in Food Processing offers a:
* Handbook of the use of essential oils in food, including their composition, extraction methods and their antioxidant and antimicrobial applications
* Guide that shows how essential oils can be used to extend the shelf life of food products whilst meeting consumer demand for "natural" products
* Review of the use of essential oils as natural flavour ingredients
* Summary of relevant food regulations as pertaining to essential oils
Academic researchers in food science, R&D scientists, and educators and advanced students in food science and nutrition can tap into the most recent findings and basic understanding of the chemistry, application, and safe us of essential oils in food processing.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 7,11 MB
978-1-119-14935-4 (9781119149354)
1119149355 (1119149355)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hashemi, Department of Food Science and Technology,College of Agriculture, Fasa University, Fasa, Iran.
Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.
Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana, Department of Food science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo, Brazil.
  • "Title Page"
  • "Copyright Page"
  • "Contents"
  • "List of Contributors"
  • "Acknowledgements"
  • "Introduction"
  • "Chapter 1 Essential Oils and Their Characteristics"
  • "1.1 Introduction"
  • "1.1.1 Chemical Characteristics of Essential Oils"
  • "1.1.2 Factors Influencing the Quantity and Quality of Essential Oil in Plants"
  • "1.1.3 Pathogens Attack"
  • "1.1.4 Environmental Factors"
  • "1.1.5 Hydric Stress"
  • "1.1.6 Plant Nutrition"
  • "1.1.7 Genetic Factors and Chemical Diversity"
  • "1.2 Conclusions"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 2 Extraction Methods of Essential Oils From Herbs and Spices"
  • "2.1 Introduction"
  • "2.2 Conventional Methods of Extraction"
  • "2.2.1 Hydrodistillation"
  • "2.2.2 Steam Distillation"
  • "2.2.3 Solvent Extraction"
  • "2.3 Novel Extraction Methods"
  • "2.3.1 Supercritical Fluid Extraction"
  • "2.3.2 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction "
  • "2.3.2.1 Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction "
  • "2.3.2.2 Combination of UAE with Other Techniques"
  • "2.3.3 Ohmic-Assisted Hydrodistillation "
  • "2.3.4 Pulsed Electrical-Assisted Extraction "
  • "2.3.5 Microwave-Assisted Extraction "
  • "2.3.5.1 Vacuum Microwave Hydrodistillation (VMHD)"
  • "2.3.5.2 Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG)"
  • "2.3.5.3 Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction (SFME) "
  • "2.4 Conclusions"
  • "Acknowledgements"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 3 Identification of Essential Oil Components "
  • "3.1 Introduction"
  • "3.2 Essential Oils as Multicomponent Complex Mixtures"
  • "3.2.1 Classification and Main Components"
  • "3.2.2 Compositional Variation and Dependence on Internal and External Factors"
  • "3.2.3 Essential Oil Isolation and Preparation for Chromatographic Analysis"
  • "3.3 Essential Oil Component Identification"
  • "3.3.1 Gas Chromatography"
  • "3.3.1.1 Columns"
  • "3.3.1.2 Injection Systems"
  • "3.3.1.3 Detection Systems"
  • "3.3.2 Retention Indices"
  • "3.3.3 Mass Spectrometry"
  • "3.3.3.1 Ionisation Processes"
  • "3.3.3.2 Ion Types and Fragmentation Patterns"
  • "3.3.3.3 Mass Spectra Interpretation"
  • "3.3.4 Hyphenated Techniques"
  • "3.4 GC-MS "
  • "3.4.1 Tandem Methods"
  • "3.4.2 Multidimensional and Comprehensive Techniques"
  • "3.5 Isolation of Individual Components or Enriched Fractions"
  • "3.6 Conclusions"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 4 Chemical Composition of Essential Oils "
  • "4.1 Introduction"
  • "4.2 Chemical Composition of Essential Oils"
  • "4.2.1 Terpenes and Terpenoids"
  • "4.2.2 Aromatic Compounds"
  • "4.3 Synthesis and Biosynthesis of Essential Oils"
  • "4.3.1 Terpenes and Terpenoids"
  • "4.3.2 Sesquiterpenes and Sesquiterpenoids"
  • "4.3.3 Aromatic Compounds"
  • "4.4 Effective Factors on the Composition of Essential Oils"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 5 Basic Structure, Nomenclature, Classification and Properties of Organic Compounds of Essential Oil "
  • "5.1 Introduction"
  • "5.1.1 Antioxidant Properties"
  • "5.1.1.1 DPPH Assay"
  • "5.1.1.2 The Bleaching Assay"
  • "5.1.2 Anti-Microbial and Antiâ??Viral Activity "
  • "5.1.3 Anti-Aflatoxigenic Activity "
  • "5.1.4 Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Pro-Kinetic and Pro-Immunity Activity (Pharmacologic Properties) "
  • "5.1.5 Anti-Carcinogenic and Cytotoxicity Activity "
  • "5.2 Final Conclusions"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 6 Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil "
  • "6.1 Chemical Composition of Essential Oils"
  • "6.1.1 Terpene Origin Compounds"
  • "6.1.2 Aromatic Compounds"
  • "6.2 Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils"
  • "6.3 Synergistic and Antagonism Effect of Essential Oils with Other Antimicrobials"
  • "6.4 Interaction Between Essential Oils and Essential Oils with Other Food Antimicrobials"
  • "6.5 Food Packaging Containing Essential Oils"
  • "6.5.1 Antimicrobial Activity of Packaging Containing Essential Oils"
  • "6.5.1.1 Biopolymers"
  • "6.5.1.2 Synthetic Polymers"
  • "6.5.2 Antimicrobial Activity of Packaging in Vapor Phase"
  • "6.5.3 Release Properties of Essential Oils From Packaging"
  • "6.6 Encapsulation of Essential Oils"
  • "6.7 Application of Essential Oils as Antimicrobial Agents in Different Food Products"
  • "6.7.1 Bakery Products"
  • "6.7.2 Dairy Products"
  • "6.7.3 Meat Products"
  • "6.7.4 Fruits and Vegetables"
  • "6.7.5 Others"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 7 Bioactivity of Essential Oils Towards Fungi and Bacteria: Mode of Action and Mathematical Tools "
  • "7.1 The Main Traits of Essential Oils"
  • "7.2 Antibacterial Activity of EOs"
  • "7.2.1 Effect on Cell Morphology"
  • "7.2.2 Disruption of the Outer Membrane of Gramâ??Negative Bacteria"
  • "7.2.3 Effect on the Cytoplasmatic Membrane"
  • "7.2.4 Homeostasis, Enzymes and Other Activities"
  • "7.2.5 Changes in Proteome and Transcriptome"
  • "7.2.6 EOs and Bacterial Spores"
  • "7.3 Antifungal Activity of EOs"
  • "7.4 Mathematical Tools"
  • "7.4.1 Bacteria and Yeasts"
  • "7.4.2 Filamentous Fungi"
  • "7.4.3 Fractional Inhibitory Index"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 8 Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils in Foods"
  • "8.1 Introduction"
  • "8.2 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils"
  • "8.3 Edible Oils and Fats"
  • "8.4 Meat and Poultry Products"
  • "8.5 Dairy Products"
  • "8.6 Conclusions"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 9 Mode of Antioxidant Action of Essential Oils"
  • "9.1 Introduction"
  • "9.2 Lipid Oxidation and Antioxidant Activity of Chemical Compounds"
  • "9.3 Methods for Determining the Antioxidant Properties of Chemicals"
  • "9.3.1 Autoxidation of a Substrate"
  • "9.3.2 TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species)"
  • "9.3.3 The Rancimat Test"
  • "9.3.4 ORAC Assay"
  • "9.3.5 DPPH Test"
  • "9.4 Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils"
  • "9.4.1 Essential Oils Components"
  • "9.4.2 Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils"
  • "9.4.3 Antioxidant Activity of Films, Edible Coatings and Nanomaterials Containing EOs"
  • "9.5 Antioxidant Activity of EOs in Real Food Samples"
  • "9.5.1 EOs Directly Added to Food"
  • "9.5.1.1 Fish"
  • "9.5.1.2 Meat"
  • "9.5.1.3 Oil"
  • "9.5.2 EOs in Modified Atmosphere Packaging"
  • "9.5.3 Edible Coatings"
  • "9.6 Conclusions"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 10 Principles of Sensory Evaluation in Foods Containing Essential Oil"
  • "10.1 Introduction"
  • "10.2 Sensory Aspects of Essential Oils"
  • "10.2.1 Selected Examples"
  • "10.3 Desirable Applications of Essential Oils and Their Relation with Sensory Analysis"
  • "10.3.1 Antimicrobial Applications"
  • "10.3.2 Antioxidant Applications"
  • "10.3.3 Other Applications"
  • "10.4 The Relationship Between Composition of Essential Oils and Sensory Properties"
  • "10.5 Factors Influencing Sensory Measurements"
  • "10.5.1 Physiological Factors"
  • "10.5.2 Psychological Considerations"
  • "10.5.3 Other Factors"
  • "10.6 Selection and Training of Panelists"
  • "10.6.1 Panelists for Descriptive Testing"
  • "10.6.2 Trained Descriptive Panel"
  • "10.6.3 Selection and Training of Panelists for Discrimination Tests"
  • "10.7 Sample Preparation"
  • "10.8 Sensory Analysis Methods"
  • "10.9 Descriptive Tests"
  • "10.10 Discrimination Tests"
  • "10.11 Time-Intensity Methods "
  • "10.12 Preference Tests"
  • "10.13 Sensory Analysis Reports"
  • "10.14 New Approaches to Reduce Undesirable Sensory Effects of Essential Oils"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 11 Global Regulation of Essential Oils"
  • "11.1 Introduction"
  • "11.2 Global Institutions Involved in Essential Oil Regulation"
  • "11.2.1 World Health Organisation (WHO)"
  • "11.2.2 Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO)"
  • "11.2.3 FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC)"
  • "11.2.4 International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)"
  • "11.2.5 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)"
  • "11.2.6 EU Commission"
  • "11.2.7 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)"
  • "11.2.8 Essential Oil Association of the United States (EOA)"
  • "11.2.9 Australian Regulatory"
  • "11.2.10 Canadian Food and Drug Regulation"
  • "11.2.11 The American Essential Oil Trade Association (AEOTA)"
  • "11.2.12 The International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades (IFEOAT)"
  • "11.3 Conclusion"
  • "References"
  • "Chapter 12 Safety Evaluation of Essential Oils"
  • "12.1 Introduction"
  • "12.1.1 Use and Applications of Essential Oils"
  • "12.2 Essential Oils and General Safety"
  • "12.3 Safety of Essential Oils Used in Cosmetics and Industrial Applications"
  • "12.4 Safety of Essential Oils Used in Agriculture"
  • "12.5 Topical Administration of Essential Oils â?? Safety Issues"
  • "12.5.1 Essential Oils and Aromatherapy"
  • "12.6 Essential Oils and Eye Safety"
  • "12.7 Phototoxicity of Essential Oils"
  • "12.8 Acute and Subâ??Chronic Oral Toxicity of Essential Oils"
  • "12.9 Constituents-Based Toxicity Evaluation of Essential Oils"
  • "12.10 Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity of the Essential Oils"
  • "12.11 Conclusion"
  • "References"
  • "Index"

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