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Introduction to Renewable Biomaterials

First Principles and Concepts
Ali S. AyoubLucian A. Lucia(Herausgeber*in)
Wiley (Verlag)
Erschienen am 6. September 2017
288 Seiten
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978-1-118-69858-7 (ISBN)
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Covers the entire evolutionary spectrum of biomass, from its genetic modification and harvesting, to conversion technologies, life cycle analysis, and its value to the current global economy
This original textbook introduces readers to biomass--a renewable resource derived from forest, agriculture, and organic-based materials--which has attracted significant attention as a sustainable alternative to petrochemicals for large-scale production of fuels, materials, and chemicals. The current renaissance in the manipulation and uses of biomass has been so abrupt and focused, that very few educational textbooks actually cover these topics to any great extent. That's why this interdisciplinary text is a welcome resource for those seeking a better understanding of this new discipline. It combines the underpinning science of biomass with technology applications and sustainability considerations to provide a broad focus to its readers.
Introduction to Renewable Biomaterials: First Principles and Concepts consists of eight chapters on the following topics: fundamental biochemical & biotechnological principles; principles and methodologies controlling plant growth and silviculture; fundamental science and engineering considerations; critical considerations and strategies for harvesting; first principles of pretreatment; conversion technologies; characterization methods and techniques; and life cycle analysis. Each chapter includes a glossary of terms, two to three problem sets, and boxes to highlight novel discoveries and instruments. Chapters also offer questions for further consideration and suggestions for further reading.
* Developed from a successful USDA funded course, run by a partnership of three US universities: BioSUCEED - BioProducts Sustainability, a University Cooperative Center for Excellence in Education
* Covers the entire evolutionary spectrum of biomass, from genetic modification to life cycle analysis
* Presents the key chemistry, biology, technology, and sustainability aspects of biomaterials
* Edited by a highly regarded academic team, with extensive research and teaching experience in the field
Introduction to Renewable Biomaterials: First Principles and Concepts is an ideal text for advanced academics and industry professionals involved with biomass and renewable resources, bioenergy, biorefining, biotechnology, materials science, sustainable chemistry, chemical engineering, crop science and technology, agriculture.
1. Auflage
John Wiley & Sons
9,08 MB
978-1-118-69858-7 (9781118698587)
Schweitzer Klassifikation
Thema Klassifikation
DNB DDC Sachgruppen
BISAC Klassifikation
Warengruppensystematik 2.0
About the Editors
Ali S. Ayoub, PhD is an internationally recognized expert in the biopolymer science and engineering field and has successfully developed groundbreaking inventions in areas relevant to polymeric materials and the biorefinery concept. He is a senior scientist in the chemical industry, as well as an adjunct professor and associate graduate faculty member at North Carolina State University. He is associated with the United States Department of Interior and symposiums related to natural polymers within the American Chemical Society.
Lucian A. Lucia, PhD is an Associate Professor in Forest Biomaterials and Chemistry, North Carolina State University and an honorary Professor of Green Chemistry at Qilu University of Technology (China). He was the Principle Investigator for the acclaimed BioSUCCEED educational/research framework (BioProducts Sustainability, a University Cooperative Center for Excellence in Education). He has been elected Fellow to a number of prestigious organizations and is co-Founder and co-Editor of the international journal BioResources.

Chapter 1
Fundamental Biochemical and Biotechnological Principles of Biomass Growth and Use

Manfred Kircher

KADIB-Kircher Advice in Bioeconomy Kurhessenstr, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

For the first time in history, we face the risk of a global decline. But we are also the first to enjoy the opportunity of learning quickly from developments in societies anywhere else in the world today, and from what has unfolded in societies at any time in the past.

Jared Diamond, [2005]

1.1 Learning Objectives

This chapter discusses about vegetable biomass and its future role as industrial feedstock to provide fuel and chemicals. In the transition phase from the current fossil-based into the bio-based economy, vegetable biomass needs to face up to competition against the fossil benchmark, which is at mineral oil. Therefore, this chapter starts with an analysis of the fossil economy, especially in the chemical sector.

In future, when fossil feedstock inevitably becomes scarce and the bio-economy increasingly unfolds, vegetable biomass must meet the industrial feedstock demand for a growing global population. While further serving the traditional food, feed, and fiber markets, this is no easy challenge. More sustainable carbon sources and applications are another topic of this chapter.

Turning the bio-economy into reality is more than a technical issue. From an abstract point of view, it needs scientific and technical push as well as market pull to make the bio-innovation leap. But first and foremost, it needs people with visionary: devoted scientists, future-oriented entrepreneurs, a supportive political framework, and last but not least a willing general public. These so-called pillars of competitiveness are presented as well.

The learning objectives of this chapter are

  1. 1. the significance of carbon in our economy;
  2. 2. the fundamental biochemical and biotechnological principles of fossil- and bio-based carbon sources concerning nature, production, and processing; and
  3. 3. the complex challenges in making vegetable biomass the dominant sustainable feedstock.

1.2 Comparison of Fossil-Based versus Bio-Based Raw Materials

1.2.1 The Nature of Fossil Raw Materials

The current global economy is very much based on fossil resources to produce energy (electricity, fuel, heat) and organic chemicals. The initial source of these feedstock has been biomass transformed through geological processes into crude oil, natural gas, black coal as well as lignite and peat. What makes these materials valuable for use in energy and chemistry processes is their high energy as well as carbon content (Table 1.1). The most valuable fossil resources are the hydrocarbons that consist only of carbon and hydrogen. Subgroups are, for example, alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons; CnH2n+2), cycloalkanes (CnH2n), alkenes (unsaturated hydrocarbons; CnH2n), and aromatics (ring-shaped molecules) differing in the number of carbon and hydrogen and molecular structure.

Table 1.1 Composition (%) and heat value (MJ kg-1) (Herrmann and Weber, [2011]) of fossil feedstock

C H N O S MJ kg-1 Natural gas 75-85 9-24 Traces Traces Traces 32-45 Mineral oil 83-87 10-14 0.1-2 0.5-6 0.5-6 43 Black coal 60-75 6 Traces 17-34 0.5-3 25-33 Lignite 58-73 4.5-8.5 Traces 21-36 3 22 Peat 50-60 5-7 1-4 30-40 0.2-2 15

Coal, especially black coal, is the oldest fossil resource. Formed from terrestrial plant biomass, it has been consolidated between other rock strata and altered to form coal seams by the combined impact of pressure and heat under low-oxygen conditions over about 300 million years. Black coal is extracted by open-cast mining as well as deep mining (up to a depth of 1500 m). It is composed primarily of carbon.

Fossil oil has been formed over a time period of about 100 million years by the exposure to similar conditions on sedimentation layers of marine organisms such as algae and plankton. Under such conditions, the long-chain organic molecules of the vegetable biomass are split into short-chain compounds forming liquid oil. It accumulates in specific geological formations called crude oil reservoirs.

Some fractions even split down to molecules with only one carbon and become gaseous methane (CH4). Therefore, oil deposits (and coal mines) always contain methane of more or less similar age. Methane sources covered by nonpermeable geological layers lead to real methane deposits. From such geological formations, the gas can be extracted in the form of natural gas. Natural gas can also be the result of biological catabolic processes degrading biomass. These deposits are also found under nonpermeable geological formations but have been formed over a period of about 20 million years.

As oil and gas generation needs high-pressure conditions the corresponding deposits are highly pressurized. If such sites are drilled, oil and gas escape through the well - a process called primary recovery allowing to exploit 5-10% of the total oil and gas. By pumping (secondary recovery) and more sophisticated methods (tertiary recovery) more oil and gas can be extracted. Obviously exploiting an oil and gas deposit is easy in the beginning but becomes more and more technically complex and costly with time.

Lignite has a similar origin as black coal. It has been exposed to the harsh geological conditions for up to 65 million years and can be extracted by open-cast mining. The carbon content is lower than that in black coal, but extraction costs are in average more beneficial.

Peat is another fossil resource. It is as well formed from terrestrial plants under aplent moor conditions when the biomass decays for several 1000 years under low-oxygen conditions. Peat contains the lowest carbon and highest water share under fossil resources. It is recovered from ground.

All fossil resources have the following common characteristics: (i) they are rich in carbon and energy; (ii) their composition is not very complex and quite homogeneous; (iii) they can be produced at moderate, though growing cost; and (iv) fossil resources can be shipped easily by railway, tankers, and pipelines.

1.2.2 Industrial Use Energy

All fossil feedstocks are characterized by high energy content. By oxidation (adding oxygen) the chemical energy stored in the molecules is released in the form of heat - a process called burning in everyday language. Therefore, fossil feedstock is an efficient and easy material to produce energy. In 1709, it was used for the first time in England for industrial purposes when black coal instead of wood-based charcoal was used for iron melting in a coke blast furnace. Discovering this energy source came just in time to start metal-based industrialization because charcoal production had significantly decimated the area under forests. Since then black coal is one of the most relevant primary energy carriers. In 1859, the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company drilled the first oil well in Titusville (Pennsylvania, USA). Only 10 years later, John. D. Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company in 1870, thus starting the era of multinational companies serving the global energy markets. Gas exploitation followed in 1920 in the United States and in 1960 in Europe. Table 1.2 shows the share of fossil material use in different global regions.

Table 1.2 Use of fossil feedstock in different global regions (%) (EKT Interactive Oil and Gas Training, [2014])

North America Europe Asia Pacific Mineral oil 55 40 37 Natural gas 30 38 12 Coal 15 22 51

In summary, production of heat, fuel, and electrical power from fossil resources has been the starting point of industrialization and is still today by far the dominant application. Ninety-three percent of oil, 98% of gas and coal, and 100% of peat are going into energy markets (Höfer, [2009a]; Ulber et al., [2011b]). It is estimated that even in 2040 mineral oil, natural gas, and coal will serve more than three-fourths of total world energy supply (US Energy Information Administration, 2013). The mix of fossil feedstock differs among global regions dependent on regional resources and trade routes. Chemicals

The cheap and seemingly unlimited availability of fossil resources not only triggered an energy-hungry industrialization but also the innovation leap into today's chemical industry. High carbon content in combination with easy logistics through pipelines and tankers made especially oil and gas an ideal industrial feedstock. Seven percent of the global oil and about 2% of world natural gas consumption go into chemicals...

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