TOTAL FACILITY MANAGEMENT
A comprehensive review of what facility management means to owners, operators, occupiers, facility managers and professional advisors
The newly revised Fifth Edition of Total Facility Management is an accessible and practical text that shows readers how the concept and principles of facility management can be implemented in practice. The book deals with the most common and intractable challenges facing professionals, academics and students in the field and provides practical solutions with the means to implement them.
The new edition includes a greater focus on applicable ISO standards in facility management as well as maintaining an international perspective throughout. The book contains easy-to-access advice on how facilities can be better managed from a range of perspectives, and the subjects covered provide a comprehensive treatment of facility management.
Readers will benefit from the inclusion of:
* A thorough introduction to the fundamentals of facility management, including key roles, responsibilities and accountabilities and the core competencies of facility management
* An exploration of facility planning, facility management strategy, outsourcing, procurement, facility management organization, facility maintenance management and business continuity and recovery planning
* An examination of human resources management, well-being, workplace productivity, performance management health, safety, security and the environment
* A review of sustainable practices, change management, facility management systems, information management (including building information models and digital twins) and innovative technology.
The book is the perfect choice for undergraduate and graduate studies in facility management, construction management, project management, surveying and other AEC disciplines. Total Facility Management will also earn a place on the desk of practicing facility managers, as well as in the libraries of academics and researchers whose work requires them to understand the theory and practice of facility management.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Brian Atkin BSc, MPhil, PhD, FRICS, FCIOB is a management consultant who focuses on project management, facility management and construction management. He is a member of the British Standards Institution's FM Strategy Group and FM Technical Committee, as well as the ISO Technical Committee on facility management as head of the UK delegation.
Adrian Brooks BSc (Hons), MBA, MRICS is a Principal in Avison Young's Workplace and -Facility Management business, focused on the delivery of a broad range of services for property -owners and corporate occupiers. He is Chairman of the FM Strategy Group and Member of the Construction & Built Environment Sector Policy and Strategy Committee for the British -Standards -Institution.
Preface to the Fifth Edition xi
The organization 1
The user 2
Principles, processes, practices and procedures 2
1 Fundamentals 3
Key points 3
Practice note -Three perspectives 6
Key concepts 12
Supporting concepts 15
Key roles, responsibilities and accountabilities 18
Core competence in facility management 19
2 Facility Planning 22
Key points 22
Real estate management 24
Own, lease or rent decision 24
Fully serviced workplace 25
Space management 26
Business continuity and recovery planning 29
Design and construction for operability 30
Practice example - Bargain basement 40
Design development 41
Risk management 45
3 Facility Management Strategy 48
Key points 48
Understanding the organization 50
Business context 50
Business drivers and constraints 52
Organizational management levels 52
Capability maturity 54
Practice example - Taking one's own advice 55
Strategy formulation 56
Strategic analysis 58
Solution development 61
Strategy implementation 62
Business intelligence 64
4 Human Resources Management 68
Key points 68
Human resources planning 70
Recruitment, retention and release 72
Leadership and management styles 74
Delegation and empowerment 74
Practice example - Mind the gap 75
Learning and continuing professional development/education 77
5 Well-Being, Workplace and Productivity 80
Key points 80
Practice example - A precautionary tale 87
User behaviour 87
Cross-cultural behaviour 88
Productivity and efficiency 89
Internal environment 95
Design issues 97
Unconventional working arrangements 99
6 Health, Safety, Security and the Environment 106
Key points 106
HSSE policy 108
Social performance 109
Zero accidents 110
Practice example -The only facility is a safe facility 111
Occupational health and safety (OH&S) 112
Hazard identification and risk assessment 118
Protection of users 119
7 Facility Management Organization 122
Key points 122
Background to the facility management organization 124
Organizational structure and management 125
Extent of embeddedness 127
Practice example - Management led or management overload? 131
Service delivery options 132
Support processes and activities 138
Dynamic capabilities 139
Aligning the facility management organization and service options 141
8 Outsourcing Decision 144
Key points 144
Establishing the baseline 146
Users as key stakeholders 148
Sourcing policy 151
Practice example - Capability or capacity? 152
Attributes of service 153
Evaluating options 158
9 Procurement 163
Key points 163
Procurement process 165
Centralized or decentralized procurement 167
Procurement policy and procedures 167
Roles, responsibilities and accountabilities 169
Prequalification of service providers 170
Request for proposals or tender 176
Service specifications 178
Service level agreements (SLAs) 181
Practice example -When the price is right 187
Financial close 188
Competitive dialogue 190
10 Service Delivery 194
Key points 194
Users as customers 196
In-house provision 197
External service providers 198
Business continuity and transition 201
Practice example - To be at a complete loss 202
Contract management 203
Contract administration 208
11 Specialist Services and Partnership 212
Key points 212
ICT services 214
Healthcare services 217
Security and protection services 218
Custodial services 219
Professional services 220
Performance and SLAs 220
Risk, insurance and indemnities 221
Supplier management 221
Collaborative relationships 222
Practice example - Take your partners 227
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) 228
12 Performance Management 237
Key points 237
Quality or performance 239
Post-implementation review 239
Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) 240
Service review 242
Performance measurement 244
Practice example - On another level 253
Updating service specifications and SLAs 254
Quality management system 262
13 Maintenance Management 266
Key points 266
Maintenance strategy 268
Maintenance policy 269
Maintenance planning 270
Practice example - Learning an important lesson 272
Maintenance approach and methods 276
Building logbook 280
Permits and approvals 281
Building services engineering installations 282
Intelligent or smart systems 285
Manuals, registers and inventories 286
Maintenance management system 288
14 Sustainable Facilities 292
Key points 292
Sustainable development 294
Environmental management 295
Zero carbon 298
Environmental performance and energy efficiency 299
Managing water resources 300
Managing waste 301
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) 302
Management and user responsibilities 303
Economic performance 303
Life cycle costing 305
Practice example - Ever smarter, ever green 305
Technology-enhanced facilities 306
Innovative workplaces and communities 310
15 Change Management 317
Key points 317
Management of change 319
Organizational change 320
Practice example - No false moves 324
Re-occupation and business recovery 343
Innovation, research and development 345
16 Facility Management Systems 350
Key points 350
Management systems 352
Management system standards 353
Facility management system 354
Practice example - Conformity is good for business 366
Implementation of a facility management system 366
Evidence-based approach 370
17 Information Management 373
Key points 373
Managing information 375
Facility handbook 382
Facility user guide 383
Classifying information and data 384
Computer-aided facility management (CAFM) systems 396
Building information modelling (BIM) 397
Practice example - Problems can be difficult, solutions must not be 403
Internet of Things 404
Artificial intelligence 404
A Standards 410
B Glossary 413
C Prevention of Fraud and Irregularity 424
D Contracts and Agreements 430
The following points are covered in this chapter.
- There are several definitions of facility management. A standardized term now exists to emphasize the importance of people in facility management: organizational function which integrates people, place and process within the built environment with the purpose of improving the quality of life of people and the productivity of the core business.
- In any discussion of facility management, it is also necessary to stress the importance of integrative, interdependent disciplines whose overall purpose is to support an organization in the pursuit of its business objectives.
- The correct implementation of facility management enables an organization to provide the right environment for conducting its core business as signified by the achievement of user satisfaction and best value.
- There is a close relationship between facility management and asset management - a key difference is that facility management is more focused on people and quality of life.
- If a facility is not managed properly, it can impact organizational performance and productivity. Conversely, a well-managed facility can enhance performance by contributing towards the optimal working environment.
- Facility management covers a range of functions, including real estate management, financial management, human resources management, health, safety, security and the environment (HSSE), change management and contract management, in addition to maintenance, facility services (e.g. cleaning, security and catering), business support services and utility supplies.
- Quality of service or performance is a critical factor in any definition of value and the relationship between quality (or performance) and cost (or price) has to be properly understood.
- Cost savings cannot be looked at in isolation from value; it should not be assumed that paying less today is evidence of better value for money.
- The many issues and risks involved in the search for best value should be recognized and allocated to those who are able to manage them effectively.
This opening chapter sets the scene, by discussing the importance of facility management to an organization - typically, a facility owner, operator or occupier as the recipient of facility services - and how approaches can differ between organizations even within the same sector. There is no single arrangement for facility management that will fit all situations. Nonetheless, the concept of the informed client function is common to all and is discussed in this chapter - see Section 'Key concepts'. It is a theme that stands behind this book and one that reflects the facility owner's perspective, its values, culture and needs. Recognizing that the organization responsible for managing the facility and for service delivery can be an entity in its own right is important too - see Section 'Key roles, responsibilities and accountabilities'.1 This chapter also discusses the necessity of securing best value in the delivery of services and examines some of the associated issues and risks. The context for facility management is first described and an overview follows in the form of a simple functional model. This is developed to show the distinction between core and non-core business - something that is essential to understand the focus for facility management.
Origins of facility management
Facility management - the operational environment needed to support and enhance an organization's core business processes and activities - has evolved over the past 150?years or so. It originated in the 1800s, when the American railroad companies thought it better to provide the utility of facilities and not merely buildings. This broader interpretation of facility is reflected in this book.
It was not until the late 1950s that facility management became associated with the effective and efficient coordination of services applied holistically to enhance the performance of an organization. The collective practices that we recognize today have therefore evolved relatively slowly.
Forty years ago, there was only brief mention of facility management. Buildings were maintained, serviced and cleaned: that was about it. Building maintenance was arguably the term most commonly identified with these tasks, yet it explicitly excluded a role that embraced the softer side of an organization's support services and concern for the health, safety and general well-being of personnel. A unified concept for facility management was far from attracting broad acceptance in the real estate (or property management) world. Few common practices and procedures were in circulation and it was left to innovative organizations - many of them in the fast-growing financial services, information and communication technology (ICT) and media sectors - to devise ways of more effectively managing their facilities. Today, facility management is a service sector in its own right and has helped to establish a new professional discipline with its own concepts, principles, processes, standards, codes and technical vocabulary.
Facility management has been regarded as a relative newcomer among the real estate, architecture, engineering and construction disciplines. This is because it has been seen in the traditional sense of cleaning, janitorial services, helpdesk, repairs and maintenance. Nowadays, it covers real estate management, financial management, human resources management, HSSE, change management and contract management, in addition to minor building works, building maintenance, building services engineering maintenance, facility services and utility supplies. These last four areas are arguably the most visible. The others are perhaps less obvious, although of no less importance. For facility management to be effective, both the hard issues, such as building services engineering maintenance, and the soft issues, such as managing people and change, have to be considered.
The International Facility Management Association (IFMA) has defined facility management as a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality, comfort, safety and efficiency of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology. This definition underscores the holistic nature of the discipline and the interdependence of multiple factors in its success. Elsewhere, it has been defined as the integration of processes within an organization to maintain and develop the agreed services that support and improve the effectiveness of its primary activities.
A long-standing definition is provided by Barrett and Baldry (2003), who saw it as an integrated approach to operating, maintaining, improving and adapting the buildings and infrastructure of an organization in order to create an environment that strongly supports the primary objectives of that organization. They continue by reminding us that the scope of facility management is not constrained by the physical characteristics of buildings. The behaviour and efficiency of users and the effectiveness of ICT are important too. Whatever definition is adopted, either in this book or by individual organizations, it should stress the importance of integrative, interdependent disciplines whose overall purpose is to support the organization in the pursuit of its business objectives.
International standards have defined facility management as an organizational function which integrates people, place and process within the built environment with the purpose of improving the quality of life of people and the productivity of the core business (see ISO 41011). It is unusual for a definition to repeat a word. People appears twice to emphasize its importance in the management of a facility.
Practice note - Three perspectives
Facility management occupies an interesting position alongside asset management and, for that matter, real estate (or property) management. With a focus on people and spaces, facility management has differentiated itself clearly from the other two functions and disciplines. In some organizations, real estate management, asset management and facility management can co-exist; in others, one takes the lead and the other two act in support. Much depends on the history of an organization, i.e. how it got to where it is today, and the context in which it operates. The emphasis will be different from one organization to the next. A large municipality might have care-homes, schools, libraries, sports halls and housing under its ownership and so property management might be the appropriate term. The services needed to support people at work and in their leisure-time would be provided as part of facility management. Household and business waste disposal and local highways maintenance would constitute an interest in asset management. There are no hard and fast rules by which an organization should categorize its interests, with custom and practice varying...
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