Total Facility Management

Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 5. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 6. April 2021
  • |
  • 464 Seiten
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978-1-119-70796-7 (ISBN)

A comprehensive review of what facility management means to owners, operators, occupiers, facility managers and professional advisors

The newly revised Fifth Edition of Total Facility Management is an accessible and practical text that shows readers how the concept and principles of facility management can be implemented in practice. The book deals with the most common and intractable challenges facing professionals, academics and students in the field and provides practical solutions with the means to implement them.

The new edition includes a greater focus on applicable ISO standards in facility management as well as maintaining an international perspective throughout. The book contains easy-to-access advice on how facilities can be better managed from a range of perspectives, and the subjects covered provide a comprehensive treatment of facility management.

Readers will benefit from the inclusion of:
* A thorough introduction to the fundamentals of facility management, including key roles, responsibilities and accountabilities and the core competencies of facility management
* An exploration of facility planning, facility management strategy, outsourcing, procurement, facility management organization, facility maintenance management and business continuity and recovery planning
* An examination of human resources management, well-being, workplace productivity, performance management health, safety, security and the environment
* A review of sustainable practices, change management, facility management systems, information management (including building information models and digital twins) and innovative technology.

The book is the perfect choice for undergraduate and graduate studies in facility management, construction management, project management, surveying and other AEC disciplines. Total Facility Management will also earn a place on the desk of practicing facility managers, as well as in the libraries of academics and researchers whose work requires them to understand the theory and practice of facility management.
5. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Überarbeitete Ausgabe
  • 3,17 MB
978-1-119-70796-7 (9781119707967)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Brian Atkin BSc, MPhil, PhD, FRICS, FCIOB is a management consultant who focuses on project management, facility management and construction management. He is a member of the British Standards Institution's FM Strategy Group and FM Technical Committee, as well as the ISO Technical Committee on facility management as head of the UK delegation.

Adrian Brooks BSc (Hons), MBA, MRICS is a Principal in Avison Young's Workplace and -Facility Management business, focused on the delivery of a broad range of services for property -owners and corporate occupiers. He is Chairman of the FM Strategy Group and Member of the Construction & Built Environment Sector Policy and Strategy Committee for the British -Standards -Institution.
Preface to the Fifth Edition xi

Abbreviations xiii

Introduction 1

The organization 1

The user 2

Principles, processes, practices and procedures 2

1 Fundamentals 3

Key points 3

Introduction 4

Background 4

Practice note -Three perspectives 6

Key concepts 12

Supporting concepts 15

Key roles, responsibilities and accountabilities 18

Core competence in facility management 19

Conclusions 20

Checklist 20

2 Facility Planning 22

Key points 22

Introduction 23

Real estate management 24

Own, lease or rent decision 24

Fully serviced workplace 25

Space management 26

Business continuity and recovery planning 29

Design and construction for operability 30

Practice example - Bargain basement 40

Design development 41

Stakeholders 42

Risk management 45

Conclusions 46

Checklist 47

3 Facility Management Strategy 48

Key points 48

Introduction 49

Understanding the organization 50

Business context 50

Business drivers and constraints 52

Organizational management levels 52

Capability maturity 54

Practice example - Taking one's own advice 55

Strategy formulation 56

Strategic analysis 58

Solution development 61

Strategy implementation 62

Business intelligence 64

Conclusions 65

Checklist 66

4 Human Resources Management 68

Key points 68

Introduction 69

Human resources planning 70

Recruitment, retention and release 72

Leadership and management styles 74

Delegation and empowerment 74

Practice example - Mind the gap 75

Learning and continuing professional development/education 77

Conclusions 78

Checklist 79

5 Well-Being, Workplace and Productivity 80

Key points 80

Introduction 81

Well-being 83

Practice example - A precautionary tale 87

User behaviour 87

Cross-cultural behaviour 88

Productivity and efficiency 89

Internal environment 95

Design issues 97

Unconventional working arrangements 99

Co-working 100

Conclusions 104

Checklist 104

6 Health, Safety, Security and the Environment 106

Key points 106

Introduction 107

HSSE policy 108

Social performance 109

Zero accidents 110


Practice example -The only facility is a safe facility 111

Occupational health and safety (OH&S) 112

Compliance 114

Hazard identification and risk assessment 118

Protection of users 119

Conclusions 119

Checklist 120

7 Facility Management Organization 122

Key points 122

Introduction 123

Background to the facility management organization 124

Organizational structure and management 125

Extent of embeddedness 127

Practice example - Management led or management overload? 131

Service delivery options 132

Support processes and activities 138

Dynamic capabilities 139

Aligning the facility management organization and service options 141

Conclusions 141

Checklist 142

8 Outsourcing Decision 144

Key points 144

Introduction 145

Establishing the baseline 146

Users as key stakeholders 148

Sourcing policy 151

Practice example - Capability or capacity? 152

Attributes of service 153

Evaluating options 158

Conclusions 160

Checklist 161

9 Procurement 163

Key points 163

Introduction 164

Procurement process 165

Centralized or decentralized procurement 167

Procurement policy and procedures 167

Roles, responsibilities and accountabilities 169

Prequalification of service providers 170

Request for proposals or tender 176

Service specifications 178

Service level agreements (SLAs) 181

Tendering 184

Practice example -When the price is right 187

Financial close 188

Competitive dialogue 190

Conclusions 191

Checklist 192

10 Service Delivery 194

Key points 194

Introduction 195

Users as customers 196

In-house provision 197

External service providers 198

Mobilization 199

Business continuity and transition 201

Practice example - To be at a complete loss 202

Contract management 203

Contract administration 208

Conclusions 209

Checklist 210

11 Specialist Services and Partnership 212

Key points 212

Introduction 213

ICT services 214

Healthcare services 217

Security and protection services 218

Custodial services 219

Professional services 220

Performance and SLAs 220

Risk, insurance and indemnities 221

Supplier management 221

Collaborative relationships 222

Practice example - Take your partners 227

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) 228

Conclusions 234

Checklist 235

12 Performance Management 237

Key points 237

Introduction 238

Quality or performance 239

Post-implementation review 239

Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) 240

Service review 242

Performance measurement 244

Practice example - On another level 253

Updating service specifications and SLAs 254

Benchmarking 255

Quality management system 262

Conclusions 263

Checklist 263

13 Maintenance Management 266

Key points 266

Introduction 267

Maintenance strategy 268

Maintenance policy 269

Maintenance planning 270

Practice example - Learning an important lesson 272

Maintenance approach and methods 276

Building logbook 280

Permits and approvals 281

Inspections 281

Building services engineering installations 282

Intelligent or smart systems 285

Manuals, registers and inventories 286

Maintenance management system 288

Conclusions 289

Checklist 290

14 Sustainable Facilities 292

Key points 292

Introduction 293

Sustainable development 294

Environmental management 295

Zero carbon 298

Environmental performance and energy efficiency 299

Managing water resources 300

Managing waste 301

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) 302

Management and user responsibilities 303

Economic performance 303

Life cycle costing 305

Practice example - Ever smarter, ever green 305

Technology-enhanced facilities 306

Innovative workplaces and communities 310

Conclusions 314

Checklist 315

15 Change Management 317

Key points 317

Introduction 318

Management of change 319

Organizational change 320

Practice example - No false moves 324

Transition 325

Re-occupation and business recovery 343

Innovation, research and development 345

Conclusions 347

Checklist 348

16 Facility Management Systems 350

Key points 350

Introduction 351

Management systems 352

Management system standards 353

Facility management system 354

Requirements 355

Practice example - Conformity is good for business 366

Implementation of a facility management system 366

Assessment 367

Evidence-based approach 370

Conclusions 370

Checklist 371

17 Information Management 373

Key points 373

Introduction 374

Managing information 375

Facility handbook 382

Facility user guide 383

Classifying information and data 384

Computer-aided facility management (CAFM) systems 396

Building information modelling (BIM) 397

Practice example - Problems can be difficult, solutions must not be 403

Internet of Things 404

Artificial intelligence 404

Conclusions 407

Checklist 408

Appendices 410

A Standards 410

B Glossary 413

C Prevention of Fraud and Irregularity 424

D Contracts and Agreements 430

References 433

Index 436


Key points

The following points are covered in this chapter.

  • There are several definitions of facility management. A standardized term now exists to emphasize the importance of people in facility management: organizational function which integrates people, place and process within the built environment with the purpose of improving the quality of life of people and the productivity of the core business.
  • In any discussion of facility management, it is also necessary to stress the importance of integrative, interdependent disciplines whose overall purpose is to support an organization in the pursuit of its business objectives.
  • The correct implementation of facility management enables an organization to provide the right environment for conducting its core business as signified by the achievement of user satisfaction and best value.
  • There is a close relationship between facility management and asset management - a key difference is that facility management is more focused on people and quality of life.
  • If a facility is not managed properly, it can impact organizational performance and productivity. Conversely, a well-managed facility can enhance performance by contributing towards the optimal working environment.
  • Facility management covers a range of functions, including real estate management, financial management, human resources management, health, safety, security and the environment (HSSE), change management and contract management, in addition to maintenance, facility services (e.g. cleaning, security and catering), business support services and utility supplies.
  • There is no universal approach to managing a facility since each organization will have its own distinct needs - understanding those needs is the key to effective facility management measured in terms of user satisfaction and best value.
  • Quality of service or performance is a critical factor in any definition of value and the relationship between quality (or performance) and cost (or price) has to be properly understood.
  • Cost savings cannot be looked at in isolation from value; it should not be assumed that paying less today is evidence of better value for money.
  • The many issues and risks involved in the search for best value should be recognized and allocated to those who are able to manage them effectively.


This opening chapter sets the scene, by discussing the importance of facility management to an organization - typically, a facility owner, operator or occupier as the recipient of facility services - and how approaches can differ between organizations even within the same sector. There is no single arrangement for facility management that will fit all situations. Nonetheless, the concept of the informed client function is common to all and is discussed in this chapter - see Section 'Key concepts'. It is a theme that stands behind this book and one that reflects the facility owner's perspective, its values, culture and needs. Recognizing that the organization responsible for managing the facility and for service delivery can be an entity in its own right is important too - see Section 'Key roles, responsibilities and accountabilities'.1 This chapter also discusses the necessity of securing best value in the delivery of services and examines some of the associated issues and risks. The context for facility management is first described and an overview follows in the form of a simple functional model. This is developed to show the distinction between core and non-core business - something that is essential to understand the focus for facility management.


Origins of facility management

Facility management - the operational environment needed to support and enhance an organization's core business processes and activities - has evolved over the past 150?years or so. It originated in the 1800s, when the American railroad companies thought it better to provide the utility of facilities and not merely buildings. This broader interpretation of facility is reflected in this book.

It was not until the late 1950s that facility management became associated with the effective and efficient coordination of services applied holistically to enhance the performance of an organization. The collective practices that we recognize today have therefore evolved relatively slowly.

Forty years ago, there was only brief mention of facility management. Buildings were maintained, serviced and cleaned: that was about it. Building maintenance was arguably the term most commonly identified with these tasks, yet it explicitly excluded a role that embraced the softer side of an organization's support services and concern for the health, safety and general well-being of personnel. A unified concept for facility management was far from attracting broad acceptance in the real estate (or property management) world. Few common practices and procedures were in circulation and it was left to innovative organizations - many of them in the fast-growing financial services, information and communication technology (ICT) and media sectors - to devise ways of more effectively managing their facilities. Today, facility management is a service sector in its own right and has helped to establish a new professional discipline with its own concepts, principles, processes, standards, codes and technical vocabulary.


Facility management has been regarded as a relative newcomer among the real estate, architecture, engineering and construction disciplines. This is because it has been seen in the traditional sense of cleaning, janitorial services, helpdesk, repairs and maintenance. Nowadays, it covers real estate management, financial management, human resources management, HSSE, change management and contract management, in addition to minor building works, building maintenance, building services engineering maintenance, facility services and utility supplies. These last four areas are arguably the most visible. The others are perhaps less obvious, although of no less importance. For facility management to be effective, both the hard issues, such as building services engineering maintenance, and the soft issues, such as managing people and change, have to be considered.

The International Facility Management Association (IFMA) has defined facility management as a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality, comfort, safety and efficiency of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology. This definition underscores the holistic nature of the discipline and the interdependence of multiple factors in its success. Elsewhere, it has been defined as the integration of processes within an organization to maintain and develop the agreed services that support and improve the effectiveness of its primary activities.

A long-standing definition is provided by Barrett and Baldry (2003), who saw it as an integrated approach to operating, maintaining, improving and adapting the buildings and infrastructure of an organization in order to create an environment that strongly supports the primary objectives of that organization. They continue by reminding us that the scope of facility management is not constrained by the physical characteristics of buildings. The behaviour and efficiency of users and the effectiveness of ICT are important too. Whatever definition is adopted, either in this book or by individual organizations, it should stress the importance of integrative, interdependent disciplines whose overall purpose is to support the organization in the pursuit of its business objectives.

International standards have defined facility management as an organizational function which integrates people, place and process within the built environment with the purpose of improving the quality of life of people and the productivity of the core business (see ISO 41011). It is unusual for a definition to repeat a word. People appears twice to emphasize its importance in the management of a facility.

Practice note - Three perspectives

Facility management occupies an interesting position alongside asset management and, for that matter, real estate (or property) management. With a focus on people and spaces, facility management has differentiated itself clearly from the other two functions and disciplines. In some organizations, real estate management, asset management and facility management can co-exist; in others, one takes the lead and the other two act in support. Much depends on the history of an organization, i.e. how it got to where it is today, and the context in which it operates. The emphasis will be different from one organization to the next. A large municipality might have care-homes, schools, libraries, sports halls and housing under its ownership and so property management might be the appropriate term. The services needed to support people at work and in their leisure-time would be provided as part of facility management. Household and business waste disposal and local highways maintenance would constitute an interest in asset management. There are no hard and fast rules by which an organization should categorize its interests, with custom and practice varying...

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