Immunochemistry of Proteins

Volume 3
 
 
Springer (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 6. Dezember 2012
  • |
  • XVIII, 322 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Wasserzeichen-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-4613-2922-0 (ISBN)
 
The structural features responsible for the immunogenicity of certain parts of native protein molecules have been of interest to immunochem ists and protein chemists for over three decades. However, until re cently no concerted effort was (or could be) devoted to the elucidation of the complete antigenic structure of a protein. In order for these en deavors to be successful and meaningful, knowledge of both the amino acid sequence and the detailed three-dimensional structure of the protein is necessary. Such information was not available for a protein until early in the 1960s. This and the fact that protein chemistry was not in fact sufficiently developed early in the 1960s to enable the successful unrav eling of the entire antigenic structure of a protein were major reasons for the slow progress in this field. Determination of the antigenic structures of proteins, therefore, posed a chemical challenge of enormous propor tions. For these reasons, many investigators diverted their attention to study of the immunochemistry of amino acid polymers in the hope that the information derived from these systems might prove useful in the understanding of the immunochemistry of proteins. A great many data on these systems were accumulated that have provided valuable infor mation on the immune mechanism. Unfortunately, it has now become clear the information from amino acid polymers has not helped in under standing the immunochemistry of proteins.
1979
  • Englisch
  • NY
  • |
  • USA
Springer US
978-1-4613-2922-0 (9781461329220)
10.1007/978-1-4613-2922-0
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
1 Effector Sites on Antibodies.- I. Introduction.- II. General Structure and Organization of Immunoglobulins.- A. General Structure.- B. Domain Theory.- C. Fragmentation of Immunoglobulins.- D. Shape of Immunoglobulins.- III. Effector Functions Mediated by Antibodies.- A. Protein-Binding Properties of Immunoglobulins.- B. Cell-Binding Properties of Immunoglobulins.- IV. Conclusions.- V. References.- 2 Antigenic Features of Immunoglobulins.- I. Introduction.- II. Basic Features of Antigenic Determinants.- III. Constant Region Determinants.- A. Heavy-Chain Isotypic Determinants.- B. Light-Chain Isotypic Determinants.- C. Nonisotypic Light-Chain Constant Region.- D. Determinants.- IV. Allotypic Markers.- A. Allotypes of Human Immunoglobulins.- B. Allotypes of Rabbit Immunoglobulins.- V. Variable Region Determinants.- A. Light-Chain Variable Region Determinants.- B. Heavy-Chain Variable Region Determinants.- VI. Interspecies Antigenic Determinants.- VII. Other Significant Immunoglobulin Determinants.- A. Rheumatoid Factor Determinants.- B. J-Chain Determinants.- C. Secretory Piece Determinants.- VIII. Summary and Conclusions.- IX. References.- 3 Combining Regions of Antibodies.- I. Background.- A. Introduction.- B. Antibody Populations.- C. How Many Antibodies and Antigens Exist?.- D. Combining Region Variability.- II. Structural Studies.- A. Primary Structure.- B. Affinity Labeling.- C. Polymeric Ligand Probes of the Combining Region: How Large Is It?.- D. Electron Microscopic Studies of the Antigen-Antibody Complexes.- E. X-Ray Crystallography.- F. Conformational Changes Secondary to Antigen Binding.- III. Structure-Function Relationships.- A. Introduction.- B. Relationships between Primary Structure and Binding Specificity.- C. Variable Region Groups and Subgroups.- D. Hapten Contact and Hypervariable Regions.- E. Conservation of Variable Regions.- F. Kinetics of Antigen Binding.- G. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Binding.- IV. Biological Significance of Antigen Binding.- A. Polyfunctional Antibody-Combining Regions.- B. Specificity of Immune Sera.- C. Epidemiological Considerations.- D. Maturation of Antibody Specificity.- V. Summary.- VI. References.- 4 Biochemistry and Biological Reactions of Complement Proteins.- I. Introduction.- II. Classical Pathway.- A. Complement Nomenclature.- B. C1 Subcomponent Composition.- C. Other Proteins of the Classical Pathway.- III. Alternative Pathway.- A. Introduction.- B. Nomenclature.- C. Proteins of the Alternative Pathway.- IV. The Complement Attack Mechanism.- A. Proteins of the C Attack Mechanism.- B. Activation of the C Attack Mechanism.- C. Interactions of the C Attack Proteins.- D. Interaction between the C Attack Proteins and Membranes.- E. Control of the Complement Attack Mechanism.- V. Conclusion.- VI. Addendum.- VII. References.- 5 Immunochemistry of Bovine Serum Albumin.- I. Introduction.- II. Structure of Bovine Serum Albumin.- A. Conformational Transitions of Albumin.- B. Molecular Organization of Bovine Serum Albumin.- C. Microheterogeneity.- D. Fragmentation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Proteolytic Enzymes.- E. Conformational Studies on Fragments from Bovine Serum Albumin and on Modified Albumin.- III. Immunochemistry of Chemical Derivatives of Bovine Serum Albumin.- A. Modification of the Cystine Residues in Bovine Serum Albumin.- B. Modification of Amino Groups.- C. Modification of Carboxylic Groups of Bovine Serum Albumin.- IV. Immunochemistry of Fragments of Bovine Serum Albumin.- A. Cleavage by Chymotrypsin.- B. Cleavage by Cyanogen Bromide.- C. Cleavage of Citraconyl-BSA by Trypsin.- D. Cleavage by Trypsin.- E. Immunochemical Cross-Reaction of Fragments 11-193 and 377-571.- F. Immunochemistry of Chemical Derivatives of Peptide Fragments.- V. Immunochemical Studies on Human Serum Albumin.- A. Effect of Chemical Modification on Immunochemical Reactivity of Human Serum Albumin.- B. Immunochemistry of Fragments from Human Serum Albumin.- VI. Structural and Immunochemical Studies on Serum Albumin from Various Species.- A. Structural Studies.- B. Immunochemical Cross-Reactivity of Serum Albumins.- C. Immunochemical Reactivity of Fragments of Albumins.- VII. Conclusion.- VIII. References.- Author Index.

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