The Handbook of Linguistics

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. März 2017
  • |
  • 712 Seiten
 
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978-1-119-07227-0 (ISBN)
 
This second edition of The Handbook of Linguistics provides an updated and timely overview of the field of linguistics. The editor's broad definition of the field ensures that the book may be read by those seeking a comprehensive introduction to the subject, but with little or no prior knowledge of the area.Building on the popular first edition, this new edition features new and revised content reflecting advances within the discipline. New chapters expand the already broad coverage of the Handbook to address and take account of key changes within the field in the intervening years. It explores: psycholinguistics, linguistic anthropology and ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistic theory, language variation and second language pedagogy. With contributions from a global team of leading linguists, this comprehensive and accessible volume is the ideal resource for those engaged in study and work within the dynamic field of linguistics.
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
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  • Großbritannien
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978-1-119-07227-0 (9781119072270)
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Mark Aronoff is Distinguished Professor of Linguistics at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA. His research touches on almost all aspects of morphology and its relation to other aspects of language. He is a member of a team studying a newly-created sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, and he has served as Editor of Language, the Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, and as President of the Society. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Janie Rees-Miller is professor emerita of Modern Languages at Marietta College, USA. Before retirement, she held the William R. and Marie Adamson Flesher Chair in the Humanities. She established the ESL Program at Marietta College, USA and served as its director for over 20 years. She also taught linguistics courses for undergraduates and acted as an editor with Mark Aronoff of Contemporary Linguistics (2017), now in its seventh edition. Her research interests include second language pedagogy, pragmatics, Native American languages, and making linguistics accessible to non-linguists.
1 - The Handbook of Linguistics [Seite 1]
2 - Contents [Seite 7]
3 - List of Contributors [Seite 11]
4 - Preface to the Second Edition [Seite 13]
5 - Preface to the First Edition [Seite 15]
6 - List of Abbreviations [Seite 19]
7 - Part I: Starting Points [Seite 21]
7.1 - 1: Origins of Language [Seite 23]
7.1.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 23]
7.1.2 - 2 Evidence from Anthropology and Archeology [Seite 24]
7.1.3 - 3 Genetic Evidence [Seite 27]
7.1.4 - 4 Primatological Evidence [Seite 28]
7.1.4.1 - 4.1 Vocal Call Systems [Seite 28]
7.1.4.2 - 4.2 Cognitive Abilities [Seite 29]
7.1.4.3 - 4.3 Sign Language Experiments [Seite 30]
7.1.5 - 5 Neurobiological Evidence [Seite 32]
7.1.6 - 6 Linguistic Evidence [Seite 33]
7.1.6.1 - 6.1 Protolanguage and "True" Language [Seite 33]
7.1.6.2 - 6.2 Actual Grammar Versus Conceivable Grammars [Seite 35]
7.1.7 - 7 Conclusion [Seite 36]
7.2 - 2: Languages of the World [Seite 41]
7.2.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 41]
7.2.2 - 2 Languages of Europe and Northern Asia [Seite 42]
7.2.2.1 - 2.1 Indo-European Languages [Seite 42]
7.2.2.2 - 2.2 Uralic Languages [Seite 43]
7.2.2.3 - 2.3 Altaic Families [Seite 43]
7.2.2.4 - 2.4 Chukotko-Kamchatkan Languages [Seite 44]
7.2.2.5 - 2.5 Caucasian Families [Seite 44]
7.2.2.6 - 2.6 Other Languages of Europe and Northern Eurasia [Seite 45]
7.2.2.7 - 2.7 Proposals for Larger Groupings [Seite 45]
7.2.3 - 3 Languages of Southern, Eastern, and Southeastern Asiaand Oceania [Seite 45]
7.2.3.1 - 3.1 Dravidian Languages [Seite 46]
7.2.3.2 - 3.2 Austro-Asiatic Languages [Seite 46]
7.2.3.3 - 3.3 Sino-Tibetan [Seite 46]
7.2.3.4 - 3.4 Daic Languages [Seite 47]
7.2.3.5 - 3.5 Hmong-Mien (Miao-Yao) Languages [Seite 47]
7.2.3.6 - 3.6 Austronesian Languages [Seite 47]
7.2.3.7 - 3.7 Papuan Families [Seite 48]
7.2.3.8 - 3.8 Australian Families [Seite 49]
7.2.3.9 - 3.9 Other Languages of Southern, Eastern, and Southeastern Asia [Seite 49]
7.2.3.10 - 3.10 Proposals for Larger Groupings [Seite 49]
7.2.4 - 4 Languages of Africa and Southwestern Asia [Seite 50]
7.2.4.1 - 4.1 Afroasiatic Languages [Seite 50]
7.2.4.2 - 4.2 Niger-Congo Languages [Seite 51]
7.2.4.3 - 4.3 Nilo-Saharan Families [Seite 53]
7.2.4.4 - 4.4 Khoisan Families [Seite 54]
7.2.4.5 - 4.5 Proposals for Larger Groupings [Seite 54]
7.2.5 - 5 Languages of the Americas [Seite 54]
7.2.5.1 - 5.1 Languages of North America [Seite 55]
7.2.5.2 - 5.2 Languages of Meso-America [Seite 55]
7.2.5.3 - 5.3 Languages of South America [Seite 56]
7.2.5.4 - 5.4 Proposals for Larger Groupings [Seite 56]
7.2.6 - 6 Pidgin and Creole Languages [Seite 57]
7.2.7 - 7 Deaf Sign Languages [Seite 57]
7.3 - 3: Typology and Universals [Seite 59]
7.3.1 - 1 Introduction: The Typological and Generative Approaches to Language Universals [Seite 59]
7.3.2 - 2 How Many Languages Are Needed for a Typological Study? [Seite 62]
7.3.3 - 3 How Does One Person Use Data from So Many Languages? [Seite 64]
7.3.4 - 4 How Can One Compare Grammatical Structures from Many Different Languages? [Seite 66]
7.3.5 - 5 The Nature of Language Universals [Seite 68]
7.3.6 - 6 Explanations for Language Universals [Seite 72]
7.4 - 4 :Field Linguistics: Gathering Language Data from Native Speakers [Seite 77]
7.4.1 - 1 What Is "Field Linguistics"?* [Seite 77]
7.4.2 - 2 How Is "Field" Data Gathered? [Seite 78]
7.4.2.1 - 2.1 Basic Techniques of Field Linguistics [Seite 78]
7.4.2.2 - 2.2 Getting Started with Field Work [Seite 80]
7.4.3 - 3 What to Ask a Speaker, and What a Speaker Says [Seite 83]
7.4.3.1 - 3.1 Working in the Field [Seite 84]
7.4.4 - 4 Analyzing the Data, and What to Do with It [Seite 87]
7.4.4.1 - 4.1 Basic Analysis [Seite 87]
7.4.4.2 - 4.2 Writing the Language [Seite 87]
7.4.4.3 - 4.3 Describing the Language [Seite 88]
7.4.5 - 5 Contributions of Field Linguistics to Linguistic Theory and Other Scholarly Work [Seite 89]
7.4.6 - 6 The Highest Contribution [Seite 91]
7.5 - 5: Writing Systems* [Seite 95]
7.5.1 - 1 The Diversity of Writing Systems [Seite 96]
7.5.1.1 - 1.1 Syllabaries [Seite 96]
7.5.1.2 - 1.2 Alphabets [Seite 97]
7.5.1.3 - 1.3 Abjads [Seite 99]
7.5.1.4 - 1.4 Abugidas [Seite 100]
7.5.1.5 - 1.5 Morphosyllabaries [Seite 101]
7.5.1.6 - 1.6 Informed Inventions [Seite 103]
7.5.2 - 2 The Unity of Writing Systems [Seite 103]
7.5.2.1 - 2.1 Origin of Writing [Seite 104]
7.5.2.2 - 2.2 Diffusion of Writing [Seite 105]
7.5.2.3 - 2.3 External Characteristics [Seite 107]
7.5.3 - 3 Writing and Language [Seite 108]
7.5.4 - 4 The Study of Writing [Seite 109]
8 - Part II: Theoretical Bases [Seite 115]
8.1 - 6: The History of Linguistics: Approaches to Linguistics [Seite 117]
8.1.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 117]
8.1.2 - 2 Grammatical Traditions [Seite 117]
8.1.3 - 3 The Rise of Universal Grammar [Seite 119]
8.1.4 - 4 The Rise of the Comparative Method [Seite 120]
8.1.4.1 - 4.1 The Scythian Hypothesis and the Notion of Indo-European [Seite 121]
8.1.4.2 - 4.2 Sir William Jones [Seite 122]
8.1.4.3 - 4.3 The Neogrammarians [Seite 125]
8.1.5 - 5 Philosophical-Psychological (-Typological-Evolutionary) Approaches [Seite 126]
8.1.6 - 6 The Rise of Structuralism [Seite 127]
8.1.6.1 - 6.1 Ferdinand De Saussure (1857-1913) [Seite 127]
8.1.6.2 - 6.2 The Prague School and its Antecedents [Seite 128]
8.1.6.3 - 6.3 Franz Boas (1858-1942) [Seite 129]
8.1.6.4 - 6.4 Edward Sapir (1884-1939) [Seite 130]
8.1.6.5 - 6.5 Leonard Bloomfield (1887-1949) [Seite 130]
8.1.7 - 7 Noam Chomsky and Linguistic Theory Since 1957 [Seite 131]
8.1.8 - 8 Typology [Seite 133]
8.1.9 - 9 Conclusions [Seite 134]
8.2 - 7: Generative Grammar: Rule Systems for Describing Sentence Structure [Seite 139]
8.2.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 139]
8.2.1.1 - 1.1 "Grammar" [Seite 139]
8.2.1.2 - 1.2 "Generative" [Seite 140]
8.2.2 - 2 Tenets of Generative Grammar [Seite 141]
8.2.2.1 - 2.1 Grammars Should be Descriptive, Not Prescriptive. [Seite 141]
8.2.2.2 - 2.2 Grammars Should Characterize Competence, Not Performance. [Seite 141]
8.2.2.3 - 2.3 Grammars Should be Fully Explicit. [Seite 141]
8.2.2.4 - 2.4 Linguistic Analyses Should be Maximally General. [Seite 141]
8.2.2.5 - 2.5 The Theory of Grammar Should Make Universal Claims. [Seite 142]
8.2.2.6 - 2.6 Grammars Should be Psychologically Relevant. [Seite 142]
8.2.3 - 3 Common Formal Elements [Seite 143]
8.2.3.1 - 3.1 Context-Free Grammar [Seite 143]
8.2.3.2 - 3.2 Transformational Grammar [Seite 144]
8.2.3.3 - 3.3 Other Enhancements to CFG [Seite 145]
8.2.4 - 4 Some Phenomena Studied by Generative Grammarians [Seite 147]
8.2.4.1 - 4.1 Binding Principles [Seite 147]
8.2.4.2 - 4.2 Filler-Gap Dependencies [Seite 148]
8.2.4.3 - 4.3 Island Constraints [Seite 151]
8.2.5 - 5 Varieties of Generative Grammar [Seite 152]
8.2.5.1 - 5.1 Transformational Theories [Seite 152]
8.2.5.2 - 5.2 Nontransformational Analyses [Seite 153]
8.2.6 - 6 The Future of Generative Grammar [Seite 157]
8.3 - 8: Functional Linguistics: Communicative Functions and Language Structure [Seite 161]
8.3.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 161]
8.3.2 - 2 Communicative Functions of Language [Seite 162]
8.3.3 - 3 A Brief Look at the Development of Linguistic Theory in the Twentieth Century [Seite 165]
8.3.4 - 4 Functional Approaches [Seite 169]
8.3.5 - 5 Formal vs. Functional Approaches to Language [Seite 172]
8.3.6 - 6 Conclusion [Seite 174]
9 - Part III: Core Fields [Seite 179]
9.1 - 9: Linguistic Phonetics: The Sounds of Languages [Seite 181]
9.1.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 181]
9.1.2 - 2 Linguistic Phonetics and General Phonetic Theory [Seite 181]
9.1.3 - 3 The Scope of Linguistic Phonetics [Seite 182]
9.1.4 - 4 The Coverage of a Linguistic Phonetic Theory [Seite 183]
9.1.5 - 5 The Shape of a General Phonetic Theory [Seite 184]
9.1.6 - 6 Organic and Phonetic Aspects of Speech [Seite 184]
9.1.7 - 7 Articulatory, Acoustic, and Perceptual Levels of Description of Speech [Seite 185]
9.1.8 - 8 Linear and Nonlinear Units of Speech Organization [Seite 186]
9.1.8.1 - 8.1 The Relationship Between Phonetic Segments and Phonetic Features as Units of Speech Production [Seite 186]
9.1.8.2 - 8.2 Phonetic and phonological features [Seite 186]
9.1.8.3 - 8.3 The phonological syllable [Seite 187]
9.1.9 - 9 The Componential Organization of Speech Production [Seite 188]
9.1.10 - 10 Speech Production Processes [Seite 189]
9.1.10.1 - 10.1 Initiation and Direction of Airflow [Seite 189]
9.1.10.2 - 10.2 Phonation Type [Seite 190]
9.1.10.3 - 10.3 Articulation [Seite 192]
9.1.10.4 - 10.4 Intersegmental Coordination [Seite 197]
9.1.10.5 - 10.5 Temporal Organization of Speech [Seite 201]
9.1.11 - 11 Conclusion [Seite 201]
9.2 - 10: Phonology*: Sound Structure [Seite 205]
9.2.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 205]
9.2.2 - 2 Inventories and Contrasts [Seite 206]
9.2.2.1 - 2.1 Inventories [Seite 206]
9.2.2.2 - 2.2 Contrast [Seite 208]
9.2.3 - 3 Structure Above the Level of the Segment: Prosodic Organization [Seite 209]
9.2.3.1 - 3.1 Syllable Structure [Seite 210]
9.2.3.2 - 3.2 A Constraint-Based Account [Seite 215]
9.2.4 - 4 Subsegmental Structure [Seite 218]
9.2.4.1 - 4.1 Features and Segmenthood [Seite 218]
9.2.4.2 - 4.2 Alternations [Seite 220]
9.2.5 - 5 Phonology in a Broader Context [Seite 227]
9.2.5.1 - 5.1 Phonology As a System [Seite 227]
9.2.5.2 - 5.2 Emerging Trends and Research Questions [Seite 227]
9.3 - 11: Morphology1 [Seite 231]
9.3.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 231]
9.3.1.1 - 1.1 The lexeme concept [Seite 231]
9.3.1.2 - 1.2 Types of Word Formation: Inflection, Derivation, Compounding [Seite 232]
9.3.1.3 - 1.3 Other Types of Realization: Clitics and Periphrases [Seite 239]
9.3.2 - 2 The Morpheme Concept and Agglutinating Morphology [Seite 241]
9.3.2.1 - 2.1 Item-and-Arrangement Morphology [Seite 241]
9.3.2.2 - 2.2 Deviations from Agglutination [Seite 242]
9.3.3 - 3 Morpheme Order [Seite 245]
9.3.4 - 4 Rule Function Morphology [Seite 246]
9.3.5 - 5 Paradigms and Principal Parts [Seite 247]
9.3.6 - 6 Lexeme Structure and Lexical Relatedness [Seite 247]
9.3.6.1 - 6.1 Derivational Morphology [Seite 247]
9.3.6.2 - 6.2 Four Types of Lexical Relatedness [Seite 248]
9.3.6.3 - 6.3 Mixed Categories [Seite 249]
9.3.6.4 - 6.4 Complex Predicates [Seite 250]
9.3.7 - 7 Conclusions [Seite 251]
9.4 - 12: The Lexicon [Seite 255]
9.4.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 255]
9.4.2 - 2 Words [Seite 255]
9.4.2.1 - 2.1 Lexical Forms, Lexical Units, and Lexemes [Seite 255]
9.4.2.2 - 2.2 Individuating Word Forms: Graphic and Phonetic Clues [Seite 256]
9.4.2.3 - 2.3 Grammatical Properties of Words [Seite 256]
9.4.2.4 - 2.4 Semantic Properties of Words [Seite 257]
9.4.3 - 3 Lexical Semantics [Seite 258]
9.4.3.1 - 3.1 Theoretical Approaches [Seite 258]
9.4.4 - 4 How Many Meanings? Contextual Variability of Word Meaning [Seite 259]
9.4.4.1 - 4.1 Ambiguity [Seite 260]
9.4.4.2 - 4.2 Polysemy and Homonymy [Seite 261]
9.4.5 - 5 Sense Relations [Seite 261]
9.4.5.1 - 5.1 Paradigmatic Sense Relations [Seite 261]
9.4.5.2 - 5.2 Syntagmatic Sense Relations [Seite 268]
9.4.6 - 6 Meaning Extensions and Change [Seite 269]
9.4.6.1 - 6.1 Established Readings and Nonce Readings [Seite 269]
9.4.6.2 - 6.2 Literal and Nonliteral Readings [Seite 269]
9.4.6.3 - 6.3 Metaphor [Seite 270]
9.4.6.4 - 6.4 Metonymy [Seite 270]
9.4.6.5 - 6.5 Specialization and Generalization [Seite 270]
9.4.6.6 - 6.6 Amelioration and Pejoration [Seite 270]
9.4.7 - 7 Larger Groupings of Words [Seite 270]
9.4.7.1 - 7.1 Word Fields [Seite 270]
9.4.7.2 - 7.2 Word Families [Seite 272]
9.4.7.3 - 7.3 Domain-Specific Vocabulary [Seite 273]
9.4.7.4 - 7.4 Layers of Vocabulary [Seite 273]
9.4.7.5 - 7.5 The Mental Lexicon [Seite 273]
9.4.7.6 - 7.6 Vocabularies [Seite 274]
9.4.8 - 8 Conclusion [Seite 274]
9.5 - 13: Syntax [Seite 275]
9.5.1 - 1 The Domain of Syntax [Seite 275]
9.5.2 - 2 The Chomskyan Perspective [Seite 276]
9.5.2.1 - 2.1 The Use of Formal Mathematical Tools [Seite 276]
9.5.2.2 - 2.2 The Goal of Accuracy and Explicitness [Seite 277]
9.5.2.3 - 2.3 The Goal of Simplicity and Generality [Seite 277]
9.5.3 - 3 Lessons of Syntactic Research [Seite 279]
9.5.3.1 - 3.1 The Vastness of Syntax [Seite 279]
9.5.3.2 - 3.2 The Centrality of Constraints [Seite 282]
9.5.4 - 4 The Similarities and Differences Among Human Languages [Seite 286]
9.5.4.1 - 4.1 The Syntax of Edo [Seite 286]
9.5.4.2 - 4.2 The Syntax of Japanese [Seite 288]
9.5.4.3 - 4.3 The Syntax of Mohawk [Seite 290]
9.5.5 - 5 A Glance Ahead [Seite 294]
9.6 - 14: Formal Semantics* [Seite 299]
9.6.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 299]
9.6.2 - 2 Meanings and Denotations [Seite 300]
9.6.3 - 3 Dynamic Semantics: Beyond Static Sentence Meanings [Seite 308]
9.6.4 - 4 Meanings and Situations: Beyond Possible Worlds [Seite 311]
9.6.5 - 5 Underspecified Representations: Beyond Compositionality [Seite 313]
9.6.6 - 6 Conclusion [Seite 314]
9.7 - 15: Historical Linguistics: Language Change Over Time [Seite 319]
9.7.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 319]
9.7.2 - 2 Framing the Issues [Seite 321]
9.7.3 - 3 Substance of Change: What Types Occur? How DoThey Spread? [Seite 323]
9.7.4 - 4 Mechanisms of Change: How Is Change Manifested in Language? [Seite 326]
9.7.5 - 5 Explanation of Change: Why Does It Happen? [Seite 328]
9.7.6 - 6 Some Dramatic Discoveries and Important Methods [Seite 331]
9.7.7 - 7 For the Future: What Remains to Be Done? [Seite 334]
9.7.8 - 8 Conclusion [Seite 334]
10 - Part IV: Languages and the Mind [Seite 341]
10.1 - 16: Neurolinguistics* [Seite 343]
10.1.1 - 1 Aphasiology [Seite 343]
10.1.1.1 - 1.1 A Very Brief History of Aphasiology [Seite 343]
10.1.1.2 - 1.2 Modern Aphasiology [Seite 346]
10.1.1.3 - 1.3 Disturbances of Word Meanings [Seite 347]
10.1.1.4 - 1.4 Disorders of Sentence Comprehension [Seite 348]
10.1.1.5 - 1.5 Comments on Modern Aphasiology [Seite 351]
10.1.2 - 2 Language and the Brain [Seite 351]
10.1.2.1 - 2.1 The Overall Organization of the Brain for Language [Seite 351]
10.1.2.2 - 2.2 The Organization of the Perisylvian Association Cortex for Language [Seite 354]
10.1.2.3 - 2.3 Lexical Access and Word Meaning [Seite 355]
10.1.2.4 - 2.4 Syntactic Operations [Seite 356]
10.1.3 - 3 Conclusion [Seite 358]
10.2 - 17: Psycholinguistics [Seite 365]
10.2.1 - 1 Psycholinguistics as a Field of Study [Seite 366]
10.2.2 - 2 Language Production [Seite 367]
10.2.3 - 3 Language Comprehension [Seite 369]
10.2.4 - 4 Developmental Psycholinguistics [Seite 378]
10.2.5 - 5 Applied Psycholinguistics [Seite 380]
10.3 - 18: Sign Languages* [Seite 391]
10.3.1 - 1 Linguistic Structure of Sign Languages [Seite 392]
10.3.1.1 - 1.1 Sentence Structure: Syntax [Seite 392]
10.3.1.2 - 1.2 The Structure of Sounds and Their Sign Language Equivalents: Phonology [Seite 395]
10.3.1.3 - 1.3 Word Structure: Morphology [Seite 399]
10.3.2 - 2 Language as an Art Form: Sign Language Poetry [Seite 403]
10.3.3 - 3 The Acquisition of Sign Languages [Seite 404]
10.3.4 - 4 Neural Control of Sign Languages [Seite 407]
10.3.5 - 5 Some Recent Discoveries and Challenges [Seite 408]
10.3.5.1 - 5.1 Basic, Unexplained Similarities Among Sign Languages [Seite 408]
10.3.5.2 - 5.2 Neurological Differences [Seite 410]
10.3.5.3 - 5.3 New Sign Languages in Isolated Village Populations: The Relationship Between Language Age and Language Structure [Seite 410]
10.3.6 - 6 Conclusion [Seite 412]
10.4 - 19: First Language Acquisition [Seite 417]
10.4.1 - 1 Learning Sounds [Seite 417]
10.4.1.1 - 1.1 Auditory Processing and Memory [Seite 417]
10.4.1.2 - 1.2 Early Articulation [Seite 418]
10.4.2 - 2 Learning Words [Seite 419]
10.4.2.1 - 2.1 The first words [Seite 419]
10.4.2.2 - 2.2 Early Semantics [Seite 420]
10.4.2.3 - 2.3 Mutual Exclusivity and Competition [Seite 422]
10.4.2.4 - 2.4 Humpty-Dumpty and Whorf [Seite 423]
10.4.3 - 3 Learning Grammar [Seite 423]
10.4.3.1 - 3.1 The First Word Combinations [Seite 423]
10.4.3.2 - 3.2 Missing Glue [Seite 425]
10.4.3.3 - 3.3 Productivity [Seite 425]
10.4.3.4 - 3.4 The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition [Seite 426]
10.4.3.5 - 3.5 Lexical Groups [Seite 427]
10.4.3.6 - 3.6 Errors that Never Occur [Seite 428]
10.4.3.7 - 3.7 Emergentist Accounts [Seite 429]
10.4.4 - 4 A Fourth Perspective [Seite 430]
10.4.5 - 5 Conclusion [Seite 431]
11 - Part V: Languages in Use [Seite 435]
11.1 - 20: Pragmatics: Language and Communication [Seite 437]
11.1.1 - 1 The Puzzle of Language Use: How Do We Ever Understand Each Other? [Seite 437]
11.1.2 - 2 Pragmatics as the Application of Conversational Principles to Sentence Meanings [Seite 439]
11.1.2.1 - 2.1 Knowledge of Language: Sentence Meanings as Partial Specifications of Interpretation [Seite 439]
11.1.2.2 - 2.2 Knowledge of Language: A Set of Procedures for Interpreting Utterances [Seite 441]
11.1.3 - 3 The Process of Reasoning: How Do Hearers Ever Manage to Choose the Right Interpretation? [Seite 442]
11.1.3.1 - 3.1 Grice's Cooperative Principle and the Conversational Maxims [Seite 442]
11.1.3.2 - 3.2 Relevance Theory [Seite 446]
11.1.4 - 4 Grammar as Defining Procedures for Proposition Construction [Seite 452]
11.1.4.1 - 4.1 Syntax Mechanisms and Ellipsis Construal [Seite 457]
11.1.5 - 5 Summary [Seite 459]
11.2 - 21: Discourse Analysis* [Seite 465]
11.2.1 - 1 What is Discourse? A Preliminary Characterization [Seite 465]
11.2.1.1 - 1.1 Communicative Motivations for the Selection of Linguistic Forms [Seite 466]
11.2.2 - 2 Linguistic Resources for Doing and Being [Seite 473]
11.2.2.1 - 2.1 Roles and Identities [Seite 475]
11.2.2.2 - 2.2 Activities and Tasks [Seite 475]
11.2.2.3 - 2.3 Knowledge and Stances [Seite 476]
11.2.3 - 3 Future Directions [Seite 478]
11.2.4 - 4 Discourse Analysis, Linguistics, and More [Seite 478]
11.3 - 22: Linguistics and Literature* [Seite 483]
11.3.1 - 1 Literary Language and Its Distinctive Characteristics [Seite 483]
11.3.2 - 2 Poetry: Text Divided into Lines [Seite 485]
11.3.3 - 3 Metrical Poetry [Seite 486]
11.3.4 - 4 Sound Patterning in Poetry [Seite 490]
11.3.5 - 5 Parallelism [Seite 491]
11.3.6 - 6 The Syntax of Poetry [Seite 491]
11.3.7 - 7 The Component Parts of a Narrative [Seite 492]
11.3.8 - 8 The Representation of Thought and Speech [Seite 493]
11.3.9 - 9 Genre [Seite 494]
11.3.10 - 10 Complexity and Difficulty [Seite 494]
11.4 - 23: Linguistic Anthropology and Ethnolinguistics [Seite 499]
11.4.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 499]
11.4.1.1 - 1.1 Naming as Disciplinary (and Social) Practice [Seite 500]
11.4.2 - 2 An Ethnographic Approach to Language [Seite 500]
11.4.2.1 - 2.1 A Note on Recording and Transcription [Seite 501]
11.4.2.2 - 2.2 Communicative Competence, Speech Communities, and Indexicality [Seite 502]
11.4.2.3 - 2.3 Embodied Participation in Conversation [Seite 504]
11.4.3 - 3 Language Socialization [Seite 504]
11.4.3.1 - 3.1 From Linguistic Input to Interactional Scaffolding [Seite 506]
11.4.3.2 - 3.2 Socialization Throughout the Life Cycle [Seite 507]
11.4.4 - 4 Language Ideologies [Seite 507]
11.4.4.1 - 4.1 Ideologies, Institutions, and Social Power [Seite 509]
11.4.4.2 - 4.2 Multilingual Contexts and Socialization into Ideologies [Seite 510]
11.4.5 - 5 Language Contact [Seite 511]
11.4.5.1 - 5.1 Contact, Shift, and Endangerment [Seite 511]
11.4.5.2 - 5.2 Language Maintenance and Revitalization [Seite 512]
11.4.6 - 6 Verbal Art and Performance [Seite 513]
11.4.6.1 - 6.1 Poetics and Performance [Seite 514]
11.4.6.2 - 6.2 Intertextuality, Circulation, and Voice [Seite 514]
11.4.7 - 7 Conclusion [Seite 515]
11.5 - 24: Sociolinguistic Theory: Systematic Study of the Social Uses of Language [Seite 525]
11.5.1 - 1 Concept and Percept [Seite 525]
11.5.2 - 2 The Science of Parole [Seite 526]
11.5.2.1 - 2.1 The Variable as Structural Unit [Seite 527]
11.5.3 - 3 Social Correlates [Seite 529]
11.5.3.1 - 3.1 Social Classes [Seite 529]
11.5.3.2 - 3.2 Social Networks [Seite 531]
11.5.3.3 - 3.3 Sex and Gender [Seite 531]
11.5.3.4 - 3.4 Ethnicity [Seite 533]
11.5.3.5 - 3.5 Age [Seite 534]
11.5.4 - 4 Theory and the Accidents of History [Seite 536]
11.6 - 25: Language Variation: Sociolinguistic Variationist Analysis [Seite 539]
11.6.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 539]
11.6.2 - 2 The Range of Language Variation [Seite 540]
11.6.3 - 3 Dividing the Landscape of Language Variation [Seite 540]
11.6.4 - 4 The Locus of Language Variation [Seite 541]
11.6.5 - 5 Rules and Constraints on Variation [Seite 543]
11.6.6 - 6 Quantitative Analysis [Seite 543]
11.6.7 - 7 Lexicon [Seite 545]
11.6.8 - 8 Morphology [Seite 546]
11.6.9 - 9 Syntax [Seite 547]
11.6.10 - 10 Phonology [Seite 549]
11.6.11 - 11 Phonetics [Seite 551]
11.6.12 - 12 Community Outreach [Seite 552]
11.6.13 - 13 Conclusion [Seite 553]
11.7 - 26: Multilingualism [Seite 561]
11.7.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 561]
11.7.2 - 2 Origins of Multilingualism: Causes and Consequences [Seite 562]
11.7.3 - 3 Individual vs. Societal Multilingualism [Seite 564]
11.7.4 - 4 Language Choice in Multilingual Communities [Seite 565]
11.7.4.1 - 4.1 Domains of Use [Seite 565]
11.7.4.2 - 4.2 Diglossia [Seite 566]
11.7.4.3 - 4.3 Code-Switching [Seite 568]
11.7.5 - 5 Language Shift and Death [Seite 571]
11.7.6 - 6 The Changing Face of Multilingualism in the Modern World [Seite 573]
11.7.7 - 7 Conclusions [Seite 574]
11.8 - 27: Second Language Acquisition: One Person with Two Languages [Seite 577]
11.8.1 - 1 Overall Issues [Seite 577]
11.8.2 - 2 Early Days: Links and Questions [Seite 579]
11.8.3 - 3 What Is the Sequence of L2 Acquisition? [Seite 580]
11.8.4 - 4 What Are the Similarities between L2 Learning andL1 Acquisition? [Seite 582]
11.8.5 - 5 Does Age Affect L2 Learning? [Seite 583]
11.8.6 - 6 Do L2 Learners Attain the Same Level of Language as Native Speakers? [Seite 585]
11.8.7 - 7 How Important Is Transfer to L2 Learning? [Seite 586]
11.8.8 - 8 What Is the Relationship between Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition? [Seite 588]
11.8.9 - 9 What Is the Role of Language Input? [Seite 590]
11.8.10 - 10 What Strategies and Processes Do L2 Learners Use? [Seite 591]
11.8.11 - 11 How Are the Two Languages Related in the Mind? [Seite 592]
11.8.12 - Conclusion [Seite 594]
12 - Part VI: Applications of Linguistics [Seite 603]
12.1 - 28: Second Language Pedagogy: Where Theory Meets Practice [Seite 605]
12.1.1 - 1 Methodologies1 [Seite 605]
12.1.2 - 2 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) [Seite 607]
12.1.2.1 - 2.1 CLT: Theoretical Bases and Implications for Practice [Seite 607]
12.1.2.2 - 2.2 CLT and the Question of Grammar [Seite 609]
12.1.2.3 - 2.3 Clt Applications: Content-Based Instruction (CBI) and Task-Based Instruction (TBI) [Seite 610]
12.1.2.4 - 2.4 Criticisms of CLT, CBI, and TBI [Seite 611]
12.1.3 - 3 The Postmethods Era [Seite 612]
12.1.4 - 4 The Relationship between Theory and Practice [Seite 614]
12.1.5 - 5 English as Lingua Franca: A Challenge [Seite 615]
12.1.6 - 6 What Does the Future Hold? [Seite 617]
12.2 - 29: Educational Linguistics [Seite 623]
12.2.1 - 1 Applied Linguistics and Theories of Language [Seite 623]
12.2.2 - 2 Social Languages [Seite 625]
12.2.3 - 3 Equity [Seite 627]
12.2.4 - 4 Language out of School [Seite 628]
12.2.5 - 5 Linguistic Microanalysis [Seite 632]
12.2.6 - 6 Conclusion [Seite 633]
12.3 - 30:Linguistics and Reading* [Seite 637]
12.3.1 - 1 Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing in Reading [Seite 637]
12.3.2 - 2 Word Recognition [Seite 639]
12.3.3 - 3 Learning to Read [Seite 641]
12.3.4 - 4 Learning to Spell [Seite 643]
12.3.5 - 5 Dyslexia [Seite 643]
12.3.6 - 6 The Effects of Literacy [Seite 644]
12.3.7 - 7 Conclusions and Future Directions [Seite 644]
12.4 - 31: Language and Law [Seite 647]
12.4.1 - 1 Civil Cases [Seite 648]
12.4.1.1 - 1.1 Trademark Infringement [Seite 648]
12.4.1.2 - 1.2 Product Liability [Seite 649]
12.4.1.3 - 1.3 Contract Disputes [Seite 649]
12.4.1.4 - 1.4 Speaker Identification [Seite 650]
12.4.1.5 - 1.5 Authorship [Seite 651]
12.4.1.6 - 1.6 Discrimination [Seite 652]
12.4.1.7 - 1.7 Copyright Infringement and Plagiarism [Seite 653]
12.4.1.8 - 1.8 Defamation [Seite 653]
12.4.2 - 2 Criminal Cases [Seite 654]
12.4.2.1 - 2.1 Police Interrogation and Eliciting Confessions [Seite 657]
12.4.3 - 3 Research on the Language of Law [Seite 657]
12.4.3.1 - 3.1 Jury Instructions [Seite 657]
12.4.3.2 - 3.2 Statutes and Statutory Interpretation [Seite 658]
12.4.3.3 - 3.3 Bureaucratic language [Seite 658]
12.4.4 - 4 The Future of Linguistics and the Law [Seite 659]
12.5 - 32: Translation [Seite 665]
12.5.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 665]
12.5.2 - 2 Translation: A Communicative Device [Seite 665]
12.5.3 - 3 Modes of Interpreting: Consecutive and Simultaneous [Seite 666]
12.5.4 - 4 Translation Principles [Seite 668]
12.5.5 - 5 False Friends [Seite 669]
12.5.5.1 - 5.1 Synchronic Interlingual False Friends [Seite 669]
12.5.5.2 - 5.2 Diachronic Intralingual False Friends [Seite 670]
12.5.5.3 - 5.3 Diachronic Interlingual False Friends [Seite 670]
12.5.5.4 - 5.4 Synchronic Intralingual False Friends [Seite 670]
12.5.6 - 6 Translating by Factors [Seite 671]
12.5.7 - 7 Machine Translation and Computer-Assisted Translation [Seite 672]
12.6 - 33: Language Planning and Policy [Seite 675]
12.6.1 - 1 Introduction [Seite 675]
12.6.2 - 2 Central Concepts and Questions [Seite 676]
12.6.2.1 - 2.1 Definitions: Language Policy vs. Language Planning [Seite 676]
12.6.2.2 - 2.2 Areas Of Language Policy and Planning: Corpus, Status, and Acquisition [Seite 677]
12.6.2.3 - 2.3 Historical Phases of LPP [Seite 678]
12.6.2.4 - 2.4 LPP Goals and Frameworks [Seite 679]
12.6.3 - 3 Key Areas of Active Scholarship and Debate [Seite 683]
12.6.3.1 - 3.1 Family Language Policy [Seite 684]
12.6.3.2 - 3.2 Social Media and Language Policy [Seite 685]
12.6.3.3 - 3.3 Linguistic Landscape [Seite 686]
12.6.3.4 - 3.4 Indigenous Language Revitalization [Seite 686]
12.6.3.5 - 3.5 Ethnography of Language Policy [Seite 688]
12.6.4 - 4 How LPP Relates to Other Areas/Subdisciplines [Seite 689]
13 - Index [Seite 695]
14 - End User License Agreement [Seite 711]

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