Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 5. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 18. September 2018
  • |
  • 1064 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-16706-8 (ISBN)
 

Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth, Fifth Edition encompasses the full scope of acute dental trauma, including all aspects of interdisciplinary treatment. This new edition embraces the significant advances made in the subject of dental traumatology since the publication of the previous edition in 2007. Thoroughly updated throughout, it includes eight new chapters, including one chapter focused on the development of bioengineered teeth and another on clinical regenerative endodontics.

Providing the theoretical background behind the clinical applications, the text is supplemented by a step-by-step online guide to procedures at www.dentaltraumaguide.org. The book is also filled with full-color illustrations throughout-making it the ultimate guide for anyone treating individuals afflicted with dental injuries caused by traffic accidents, sporting injuries, violent assaults, and other falls, crashes, or injuries.

  • New edition of the definitive reference on dental traumatology
  • Thoroughly revised and updated with a modern look and feel
  • Eight new chapters on innovative developments in the field
  • Contributions from world-renowned authors and editors
  • Linked to www.dentaltraumaguide.org with a specific chapter on how the book complements the online guide

This comprehensive textbook is an invaluable reference for undergraduate BDS courses worldwide, as well as a core text for postgraduate pediatric, oral surgery, and endodontics courses.



The Editors

Jens O. Andreasen, DDS, Dr Odont HC, is a consultant at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Center for Rare Oral Diseases, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Frances M. Andreasen, DDS, Dr Odont, is a Research Associate at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Center for Rare Oral Diseases, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Lars Andersson, DDS, PhD, Dr Odont, is a Professor of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Medicine, Malmö University, Sweden.

5. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • Großbritannien
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 504,60 MB
978-1-119-16706-8 (9781119167068)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
The Editors

Jens O. Andreasen, DDS, Dr Odont HC, is a consultant at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Center for Rare Oral Diseases, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Frances M. Andreasen, DDS, Dr Odont, is a Research Associate at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Center for Rare Oral Diseases, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Lars Andersson, DDS, PhD, Dr Odont, is a Professor of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Medicine, Malmoe University, Sweden.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 Wound Healing Subsequent to Injury
  • Definition
  • Nature of a traumatic injury
  • Wound healing biology
  • Repair versus regeneration
  • Cell differentiation
  • Progenitor cells (stem cells)
  • Cell cycle
  • Cell migration
  • Dynamics of wound repair
  • Inflammation phase
  • Proliferative phase (fibroplasia)
  • Remodeling phase
  • Types of wound after injury
  • Tissues and compounds in wound healing
  • Hemostasis phase and coagulation cascade
  • Coagulation
  • Fibrin
  • Fibronectin
  • Complement system
  • Necrotic cells
  • Matrix
  • Inflammatory phase mediators
  • Mediators responsible for vascular changes
  • Mediators with chemotactic effects
  • Growth factors
  • Experimental data indicating clinical implications of growth factors
  • Carriers/delivery systems for growth factors
  • Cells in wound healing
  • Platelets
  • Erythrocytes
  • Mast cells
  • Neutrophils
  • Macrophages
  • Lymphocytes
  • Fibroblasts
  • Endothelial cells and pericytes
  • Angiogenesis
  • Cellular events in angiogenesis
  • Other factors controlling angiogenesis
  • Wound strength development
  • Remodeling phase
  • Hypertrophic scar and keloid
  • Epithelial cells
  • Microenvironment in wounds
  • Wound healing module
  • Factors affecting the wound healing process
  • Blood circulation and oxygenation of the wound
  • Topical oxygenation
  • Hyperbaric oxygenation
  • Smoking and alcohol
  • Infection
  • Foreign bodies
  • Sutures
  • Distant wound response
  • Age
  • Optimizing oral wound healing
  • Essentials
  • General steps in wound healing
  • Main roles of the individual tissue cells
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Response of Oral Tissues to Trauma
  • Repair and regeneration of oral tissues
  • Developing teeth
  • Dental follicle
  • Enamel-forming organ
  • Cervical loop
  • Inner enamel epithelium
  • Reduced enamel epithelium
  • Enamel and enamel matrix
  • Hertwig's epithelial root sheath
  • Teeth with developed roots
  • Gingival and periosteal complex
  • Cementum-periodontal ligament complex
  • Alveolar bone and marrow complex
  • Pulp-dentin complex
  • Dentin
  • Pulp
  • Biologic effects of calcium hydroxide
  • Biologic effects of new pulp capping or pulpotomy materials
  • Anatomy of dentin bridges
  • Extent of pulpal inflammation related to time of pulp exposure
  • Repair or regeneration of pulp due to luxation injuries or avulsion and replantation
  • Dentin response to infection
  • Pulp response to infection
  • Internal root resorption
  • Oral mucosa and skin
  • Essentials
  • Dental follicle
  • Cervical loop
  • Ameloblasts
  • Reduced enamel epithelium
  • Enamel organ
  • Hertwig's epithelial root sheath
  • Gingiva and periosteal complex
  • Cementum-periodontal ligament complex
  • Alveolar bone and marrow complex
  • Pulp-dentin complex
  • Oral mucosa and skin
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Response of Traumatized Dental Tissues to Various Treatment Procedures
  • Role of repositioning
  • Experimental studies
  • Clinical studies
  • Role of splinting
  • Periodontal healing
  • Pulp healing
  • Conclusion
  • Role of antibiotics
  • Root fractures
  • Crown infractions and crown fractures with or without pulp exposure
  • Alveolar fractures
  • Jaw fractures
  • Luxation injuries
  • Avulsion and replantation
  • Topically administered antibiotics and periodontal healing
  • Systemic administered antibiotics and periodontal healing
  • Systemic applied antibiotics and pulpal healing
  • Role of treatment delay
  • Uncomplicated crown fractures (enamel-dentin fractures)
  • Complicated crown fractures (enamel-dentin fractures with pulp exposure)
  • Crown-root fractures
  • Root fractures
  • Fractures of the alveolar process
  • Mandibular fractures
  • Luxation injuries
  • Avulsion and replantation
  • Primary tooth injuries
  • Essentials
  • Role of repositioning
  • Role of splinting
  • Role of antibiotics
  • Role of treatment delay
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Prediction and Timing of Healing Complications
  • Introduction
  • Pulp healing/pulp of necrosis
  • Periondontal ligament healing and root resorption
  • Marginal bone loss
  • Avulsion injuries
  • Intrusive luxation
  • Root fractures
  • Crown-root fractures
  • Observation time until complications can be diagnosed
  • Repair-related resorption
  • Infection-related resorption
  • Ankylosis-related resorption
  • Tooth survival and tooth loss
  • Use of predictors in an interactive dental trauma guide
  • Essentials
  • Most significant predictors for pulp necrosis
  • Most significant predictors for progressive root resorption
  • Most significant predictors for marginal bone loss
  • Most significant predictors for tooth loss
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Characteristics of Oral Stem Cells and Their Role in Dental Tissue Regeneration
  • Introduction
  • General concept of stem cells
  • Stem cell definition and properties
  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • Mesenchymal stem cell niches
  • Dental pulp stem cells
  • Localization of DPSCs in vivo
  • Characterization of DPSCs in vitro
  • Role of DPSCs in reparative dentin formation
  • Stem cells from apical papilla
  • Localization of SCAP in vivo
  • Characterization of SCAP in vitro
  • Implication of SCAP for regenerative endodontics
  • Periodontal ligament stem cells
  • Localization of PDLSCs in vivo
  • Characterization of PDLSCs in vitro
  • PDLSCs in periodontal regeneration for avulsed teeth
  • Gingival mesenchymal stem cells
  • Localization of GMSCs in vivo
  • Characteristics of GMSCs in vitro
  • Regenerative potential of GMSCs in vivo
  • Dental follicle stem cells
  • Conclusion
  • Essentials
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Development of a Bio-Root
  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • Development history
  • Components of stem cell-mediated bio-root regeneration
  • Stem cells
  • Scaffolds
  • Biofactors and cell sheets
  • Stem cell-mediated root regeneration in miniature pig models
  • Functional tooth regeneration
  • Regeneration procedure of stem cell-mediated bio-roots
  • Evaluation
  • Stem cell-based tissue engineering and functional bio-root regeneration
  • Clinical assessment and evaluation of bio-roots and dental implants
  • Biomechanical properties and element analysis
  • Bioengineered dentin-induced PDL/cementum-like tissue formation
  • Challenges and prospects
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Bone-Resorbing Osteoclasts
  • Introduction
  • Osteoclastogenesis
  • M-CSF and RANKL
  • Intracellular signaling
  • Co-stimulatory immunoglobulin-like receptors in osteoclast formation
  • M-CSF-, RANKL- and OPG-expressing cells
  • Osteoclastic resorption
  • Morphology
  • Dissolution of minerals
  • Degradation of bone matrix
  • Role of the enzyme tartrate resistant acid phosphatase
  • Regulation of RANKL-induced differentiation of mononuclear osteoclast progenitors
  • Hormones
  • Cytokines
  • Wnts
  • Semaphorin
  • Ephrin
  • Regulation of mature osteoclast activity
  • Osteoclast progenitor origin
  • Physiologic role of osteoclasts
  • Remodeling
  • Modeling
  • Calcium balance
  • Glucose and fat metabolism
  • Role of osteoclasts in skeletal diseases
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteopetrosis
  • Joint diseases
  • Malignancies
  • Role of osteoclasts in the jaw bone
  • Remodeling of jaw bones
  • Periodontitis
  • Bone fracture
  • Jaw tumors and cysts
  • Tooth eruption
  • Tooth movement
  • Osteoclasts and osteonecrosis of the jaws
  • Role of osteoclasts in tooth resorption
  • Osteoclast heterogeneity
  • Acknowledgments
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Physical and Chemical Methods to Optimize Pulpal and Periodontal Healing After Traumatic Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Treatment strategies
  • Accident site
  • Emergency dental visit
  • General strategies
  • Physical methods
  • Chemical methods
  • Systemic methods to limit inflammation
  • Fluoride pretreatment of the root
  • Physical methods
  • Chemical methods
  • Second visit
  • Essentials
  • Summary of experimental findings
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Psychosocial Aspects of Traumatic Dental Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Pyschosocial impacts of traumatic dental injuries
  • Stages of psychological development
  • Toddlers
  • Later preschool childhood (3-5 years)
  • School age (6-12 years)
  • Adolescence (13-20 years)
  • Implications for treatment
  • Treatment assessment
  • Treatment plan
  • Injury event
  • Emergency treatment
  • The child patient
  • Preparation of the patient
  • Talking to children
  • Treatments for procedural pain
  • The adult patient
  • Discussion post treatment
  • Follow-up treatments
  • Economic consequences
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Child Physical Abuse and Neglect
  • Definitions
  • Historical aspects
  • Prevalence
  • Etiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Types of orofacial injuries in child physical abuse
  • Bruising
  • Human hand marks
  • Bizarre bruises
  • Abrasions and lacerations
  • Burns
  • Bite marks
  • Dental trauma
  • Eye injuries
  • Bone fractures
  • Differential diagnosis
  • The dentist's role in the management of child physical abuse
  • The dentist's role in the management of dental neglect
  • Essentials
  • Terminology
  • Frequency
  • Clinical findings
  • Treatment
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Classification, Epidemiology and Etiology
  • Classification
  • Classification in the clinic
  • Classification for field screening
  • Why do we need to improve trauma registration?
  • How do we improve trauma registration?
  • Epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Incidence
  • Trends
  • Repeated trauma episodes
  • Distribution by sex, age, ethnicity and socio-economic status
  • Predisposing factors
  • Teeth involved
  • Types of injuries
  • Place of injury
  • Seasonal variations
  • Etiology
  • Falls and collisions
  • Physical leisure activities
  • Traffic accidents
  • Inappropriate use of teeth
  • Presence of illness, physical limitations or learning difficulties
  • Physical abuse
  • Iatrogenic procedures
  • Mechanisms of traumatic dental injuries
  • Treatment need
  • Organization of emergency care
  • Future models
  • Essentials
  • Injuries to the hard dental tissues and the pulp (Fig. 11.1)
  • Injuries to the periodontal tissues (Fig. 11.2)
  • Injuries to the supporting bone (Fig. 11.3)
  • Injuries to the gingiva or oral mucosa (Fig. 11.4)
  • Standardized registration
  • Core outcome set
  • Prevalence and incidence
  • Sex and age
  • Predisposing factors
  • Types of dental injuries
  • Place of injury
  • Seasonal variations
  • Etiology
  • Mechanism of dental injuries
  • Treatment need
  • Organization of emergency care
  • Future models
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Examination and Diagnosis of Dental Injuries
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Clinical examination
  • Pulp testing principles
  • Mechanical stimulation
  • Thermal tests
  • Heated gutta-percha
  • Ice
  • Ethyl chloride
  • Carbon dioxide snow
  • Dichlor-difluormethane
  • Electrometric pulp testing
  • Laser Doppler flowmetry
  • Improved diagnosis of pulp necrosis by the use of LDF compared to other methods
  • Pulse oximetry
  • Radiographic examination
  • Intraoral techniques
  • Extraoral techniques
  • Effect of treatment delay
  • Follow-up examinations
  • Essentials
  • History
  • Clinical examination
  • Reaction of teeth to sensibility tests
  • Radiographic examination
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Crown Fractures
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Clinical findings
  • Radiographic findings
  • Healing and pathology
  • Treatment
  • Enamel infractions
  • Enamel and enamel-dentin crown fractures
  • Use of dental bonding agents: should exposed dentin be lined?
  • Enamel-dentin crown fractures with pulp exposure
  • Provisional treatment of crown fractures
  • Uncomplicated fractures
  • Glass ionomer cement 'bandage'
  • Resin or celluloid crowns
  • Splints as dentin/pulpal coverage
  • Definitive treatment of crown fractures
  • Reattachment of the original crown fragment
  • Indications
  • Treatment strategy
  • Clinical results of fragment reattachment
  • Pulpal response to fragment reattachment
  • Esthetics following fragment reattachment
  • Fragment retention
  • Prognosis of crown fractures
  • Permanent teeth - follow-up after trauma
  • Enamel infractions
  • Enamel fractures
  • Enamel-dentin fractures without pulpal involvement
  • Pulp canal obliteration
  • Root resorption
  • Reattachment of the crown fragment
  • Essentials
  • Terminology (Fig. 13.1)
  • Frequency
  • Etiology
  • History
  • Clinical examination
  • Radiographic examination
  • Pathology
  • Enamel infraction
  • Enamel fracture (no dentin exposed)
  • Enamel-dentin fracture, no pulp exposure
  • Enamel-dentin fracture with pulp exposure
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Crown-Root Fractures
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Clinical findings
  • Radiographic findings
  • Healing and pathology
  • Treatment
  • Bonding of coronal fragment
  • Treatment principle
  • Initial measures
  • Fragment reattachment
  • Removal of coronal fragment and supragingival restoration
  • Treatment principle
  • Surgical exposure of fracture surface
  • Treatment principle
  • Indication
  • Treatment procedure
  • Cost-benefit
  • Orthodontic extrusion of apical fragment
  • Treatment principle
  • Indication
  • Treatment procedure
  • Cost-benefit
  • Surgical extrusion of apical fragment
  • Treatment principle
  • Indication
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Cost-benefit
  • Vital root submergence
  • Extraction
  • Essentials
  • Permanent teeth (primary teeth)
  • Extraction of the tooth
  • Bonding of coronal fragment
  • Removal of coronal fragment and supragingival restoration
  • Surgical exposure of fracture surface
  • Orthodontic extrusion of apical fragment
  • Surgical extrusion of apical fragment
  • Vital root submergence
  • Extraction
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Root Fractures
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Clinical findings
  • Radiographic findings
  • Cone beam computed tomography in radiographic diagnosis of root fractures
  • Healing and pathology
  • Root fracture healing
  • Healing with calcified tissue
  • Interposition of connective tissue
  • Interposition of bone and connective tissue
  • Interposition of granulation tissue
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Follow-up
  • Pulpal healing
  • Pulp canal obliteration
  • Root resorption
  • Tooth survival
  • Tooth mobility
  • Orthodontic treatment of root-fractured teeth
  • Predictors of healing
  • Type of healing
  • Essentials
  • Terminology
  • Frequency
  • Etiology
  • History
  • Clinical examination
  • Radiographic examination
  • Healing and pathology
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Tooth survival
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Luxation Injuries of Permanent Teeth: General Findings
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Clinical findings
  • Radiographic findings
  • Healing and pathology
  • Pulp
  • Periodontal ligament
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Pulp necrosis
  • Type of luxation injury
  • Stage of root development
  • Presence of a concomitant crown fracture
  • Diagnosis of pulp necrosis
  • Electrometric pulp testing
  • Pulp testing using laser Doppler flowmetry
  • Color changes in the crown
  • Radiographic changes
  • Guidelines for the diagnosis of irreversible pulp necrosis
  • Internal bone formation (pulp bone)
  • Guidelines for observation without endodontic intervention
  • Treatment of pulp necrosis
  • Pulp canal obliteration
  • Internal bone formation (pulp bone)
  • Treatment delay
  • Root resorption
  • Root surface resorption (external root resorption)
  • Cervical invasive resorption
  • Root canal resorption (internal root resorption)
  • Loss of marginal bone support
  • Permanent or transient marginal breakdown
  • Essentials
  • Terminology (Fig. 16.1)
  • Frequency
  • Clinical examination (Table 16.1)
  • Radiographic examination
  • Pathology
  • Root surface (external) resorption
  • Root canal (internal) resorption
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Concussion and Subluxation
  • Definitions
  • Concussion
  • Subluxation (loosening)
  • Frequency
  • Pathology
  • Concussion
  • Subluxation
  • Radiographic findings
  • Treatment
  • Follow-up
  • Complications
  • Pulp necrosis
  • Root resorption
  • Predictors for healing and prognosis
  • Associated crown fracture
  • Pulp necrosis
  • Root resorption
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Extrusive Luxation and Lateral Luxation
  • Definitions
  • Extrusive luxation (axial dislocation, partial avulsion)
  • Lateral luxation (peripheral/eccentric dislocation)
  • Frequency
  • Healing and pathology
  • Clinical findings
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Radiographic findings
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Pulp necrosis
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Pulp canal obliteration
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Root resorption (external)
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Root resorption (internal)
  • When to do endodontics?
  • Marginal bone loss
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Predictors of healing
  • Tooth survival
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Intrusive Luxation
  • Definition
  • Frequency
  • Healing and pathology
  • Clinical findings
  • Radiographic findings
  • Treatment
  • Spontaneous re-eruption
  • Orthodontic extrusion
  • Surgical extrusion
  • Treatment guidelines according to trauma scenario
  • Prognosis
  • Diagnosis of healing complications
  • Pulp necrosis
  • Root resorption
  • Marginal bone loss
  • Survival of intruded teeth
  • Predictors for healing
  • Treatment guidelines
  • Essentials
  • Treatment alternatives
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Avulsions
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Clinical findings
  • Radiographic findings
  • Healing and pathology
  • Pulpal reactions
  • Periodontal healing reactions
  • Infection-related resorption (healing with inflammatory resorption)
  • Treatment of the avulsed tooth
  • At the site of accident
  • At the clinic
  • Follow-up procedures
  • Prognosis
  • Tooth survival and tooth loss
  • Pulpal healing and pulp necrosis
  • Periodontal healing and root resorption
  • Storage media
  • Stage of root development
  • Splinting
  • Time of pulp extirpation
  • Contamination of the root surface
  • Ankylosis-related resorption (replacement resorption)
  • INFECTION-RELATED ROOT RESORPTION
  • Resorption by erupting teeth
  • Root development and disturbances in root growth
  • Root growth
  • Phantom roots
  • Gingival healing and loss of marginal attachment
  • Complications due to early loss of teeth
  • Malformation in the developing dentition
  • Socioeconomic burden of tooth replantation
  • Essentials
  • Terminology
  • Frequency
  • Etiology
  • Advice for the site of accident (e.g. telephone advice)
  • History
  • Clinical examination
  • Radiographic examination
  • Healing and pathology
  • Treatment of permanent teeth
  • Treatment of root resorption
  • Prognosis
  • Complications after premature loss of permanent teeth
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Injuries to the Supporting Bone
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Clinical findings
  • Radiographic findings
  • Pathology
  • Treatment
  • Fractures of the socket wall
  • Fractures of the alveolar process
  • Fractures of the mandible or maxilla
  • Teeth in the line of fracture
  • Prognosis
  • Fractures of the socket wall
  • Fractures of the alveolar process
  • Fractures of the mandible or maxilla in children
  • Inflammation at the line of fracture
  • Disturbances in the developing dentition
  • Fractures of the mandible or maxilla in adults
  • Fibrous union
  • Inflammation at the line of fracture
  • Pulpal healing and pulp necrosis
  • PDL healing and root resorption
  • Gingival healing and loss of marginal attachment
  • Essentials
  • Terminology (Fig. 21.1)
  • Frequency
  • Etiology
  • History
  • Clinical examination
  • Radiographic examination
  • Pathology
  • Treatment (Fig. 21.22)
  • Prognosis for permanent teeth involved in fractures of the alveolar process
  • Predictors for pulp necrosis in mature teeth
  • Prognosis for permanent teeth involved in fractures of the maxilla or the mandible
  • Treatment of pulp necrosis
  • Treatment of root resorption
  • Treatment of inflammation in the fracture line
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Injuries to the Primary Dentition
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology and etiology
  • Self-inflicted oro-dental injuries
  • Iatrogenic injury to the primary incisors
  • Battered child syndrome
  • Pathogenesis
  • Healing and pathology
  • Pulp
  • Luxation injuries
  • PDL healing
  • Clinical and radiographic findings and treatment of various injury types
  • Examination
  • Radiographic examination
  • Treatment regimens
  • Crown fractures
  • Crown-root fractures
  • Root fractures
  • Fractures of the alveolar process
  • Fractures secondary to chin trauma
  • Concussion and subluxation
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Intrusion
  • Prognosis
  • Avulsion
  • Complications in the primary dentition
  • Pulp healing complications
  • Pulp necrosis
  • External root resorption
  • External root resorption
  • Internal root resorption
  • Space loss after premature tooth loss
  • Speech problems due to early loss of primary incisors
  • Essentials
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Examination procedure
  • Treatment principles
  • Enamel and enamel-dentin fractures
  • Complicated crown fracture
  • Crown-root fracture
  • Root fracture
  • Alveolar fracture
  • Concussion and subluxation
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Intrusive luxation
  • Avulsion
  • Fractures secondary to chin injuries
  • Complications in the primary dentition
  • Instructions to parents
  • References
  • Chapter 23 Injuries to Developing Teeth
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Clinical, radiographic and pathologic findings
  • White or yellow-brown discolorations of enamel
  • White or yellow-brown discoloration of enamel with circular enamel hypoplasia
  • Crown dilaceration
  • Odontoma-like malformations
  • Root duplication
  • Vestibular root angulation
  • Lateral root angulation or dilaceration
  • Partial or complete arrest of root formation and root angulation
  • Sequestration of permanent tooth germs - dentigerous cyst
  • Eruption disturbances
  • Treatment
  • Essentials
  • Terminology
  • Frequency
  • Pathology
  • Treatment
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Soft Tissue Injuries
  • Terminology, frequency and etiology
  • Types of soft tissue trauma
  • Abrasion
  • Contusion
  • Laceration
  • Tissue avulsion
  • Emergency management
  • Abrasion
  • Contusion
  • Laceration
  • Gingival and vestibular lacerations
  • Lip lacerations
  • Tongue lacerations
  • Avulsion of tissue
  • Wound closure materials and principles
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis
  • Tetanus prophylaxis
  • Essentials
  • Type of soft tissue lesion
  • General treatment principles
  • Gingival lacerations (Figs 24.11-24.14)
  • Lip lacerations
  • Penetrating lip wounds (Figs 24.22 and 24.23)
  • Split-lip wounds (Fig. 24.19)
  • Tongue lacerations
  • Penetrating tongue wounds (Fig. 24.26)
  • Lateral tongue border wounds
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Management of Trauma-Related Pulp Disease and Tooth Resorption
  • Introduction - Tribute to Miomir Cvek, DDS, Odont Dr. 1927-2008
  • Trauma-related pulp disease
  • Crown and crown-root fractures without pulp exposure
  • Healing and pathology
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis
  • Crown and crown-root fractures with pulp exposure
  • Treatment
  • Pulp capping
  • Pulpotomy
  • Clinical evaluation of pulp healing
  • Prognosis
  • Root fractures
  • Healing and pathosis of root fractures
  • Diagnosis of pulp necrosis and infection in root-fractured teeth
  • Treatment of root-fractured teeth
  • Prognosis for root-fractured teeth
  • Luxation and avulsion injuries
  • Pulp responses to trauma
  • Diagnosis of pulp necrosis and infection
  • Management of pulp necrosis and infection
  • Prognosis
  • External invasive tooth resorption following trauma
  • Invasive coronal resorption
  • Pathogenesis
  • Management
  • Invasive cervical resorption
  • Pathogenesis
  • Management
  • Invasive radicular resorption
  • Essentials
  • Crown and crown-root fractures without pulp exposure
  • Crown and crown-root fractures with pulp exposure
  • Root fractured teeth
  • Luxated or avulsed teeth
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 26 Regenerative Endodontics
  • Overview
  • Diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries and revascularization of teeth with an open apex
  • The consequences of pulp necrosis for the immature tooth
  • Regenerative endodontics
  • Regeneration or repair
  • Histologic characterization of tissues formed in the canal space
  • Terminology
  • History
  • Clinical considerations for regenerative endodontic procedures
  • Outcome assessment
  • Are outcomes different for teeth that have sustained trauma?
  • Regenerative endodontic procedures for other pathological conditions associated with traumatized teeth
  • Is revascularization an effective and reproducible technique?
  • Radiographic responses of teeth treated with REPs
  • Discoloration
  • Follow-up
  • Clinical REP technique
  • Are teeth treated with REPs stronger?
  • Publication bias and assessment of outcomes
  • What does the future hold?
  • Essentials
  • Aims
  • Technique
  • Outcomes
  • Difficulties with the technique
  • The potential and promise of the technique
  • References
  • Chapter 27 Reinforcing Endodontically Treated Teeth
  • Introduction
  • Structural consideration in endodontically treated teeth
  • Biomechanical considerations in endodontically treated teeth
  • Fractures in endodontically treated teeth
  • Strengthening of coronal structure
  • Steps to strengthen coronal tooth structure
  • Strengthening of root structure
  • Steps to strengthening the root structure
  • Conclusions
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 28 Orthodontic Management of the Traumatized Dentition
  • Introduction
  • Preventive orthodontics
  • Orthodontic treatment after trauma in the primary dentition
  • Orthodontic treatment planning
  • Treatment principles for various trauma types
  • Crown and crown-root fractures
  • Cervical root fractures
  • Intra-alveolar root fractures
  • Luxations
  • Intrusions
  • Immature teeth
  • Mature teeth
  • Avulsions
  • Space closure
  • Space maintenance
  • Replanted teeth
  • Root resorption during orthodontic treatment
  • Hereditary and gender
  • Observation periods prior to orthodontic treatment
  • Treatment principles
  • Essentials
  • Mixed dentition
  • Preventive orthodontics
  • Primary dentition
  • Treatment planning
  • Observation period prior to orthodontic treatment
  • Principles for orthodontic movement of traumatized teeth
  • Root resorption during orthodontic treatment
  • Fractures
  • Luxations
  • Intruded teeth
  • Replanted teeth
  • Retention
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • Chapter 29 Restoration of Traumatized Teeth with Resin Composites
  • Long-term prognosis of resin composite restorations
  • Material considerations
  • Bond to enamel
  • Bond to dentin
  • Glass ionomer bond
  • Resin composite materials
  • Curing of materials
  • Clinical implications
  • Critical points in the restorative procedure
  • Identifying tooth characteristics
  • Preparation techniques
  • Shade selection
  • Choice of resin composite material
  • Anatomical layering technique
  • Finish and polish
  • Indications
  • Essentials
  • Indications
  • Durability
  • Biology and economy
  • Skills of the dentist
  • Treatment
  • Survival of resin composites
  • References
  • Chapter 30 Restorations Using Porcelain Laminate Veneers
  • Introduction
  • Patient assessment
  • Choosing the material
  • Tooth preparation and veneer design
  • Incisal edge reduction
  • Palatal finishing line
  • Overall bulk reduction
  • Dentin sealing
  • Impressions
  • Bonding
  • Review and maintenance
  • Longevity and risk factors
  • Modes of failure
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 31 Resin-Bonded Bridges and Conventional Bridges in the Anterior Region
  • Indications
  • Different types of RBBs
  • Dental ceramic for RBBs and tooth supported FDPs
  • Disadvantages with tooth supported FDPs
  • Prognosis of tooth supported FDPs, RBBs and implant-supported single crowns (ISC)
  • Complications of FDPs, RBBs and ISC
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 32 Dentoalveolar Ankylosis, Decoronation and Alveolar Bone Preservation
  • Introduction
  • The normal and damaged periodontal ligament
  • Development of dentoalveolar ankylosis
  • Clinical diagnosis of ankylosis
  • Methods to prevent ankylosis
  • Progression of ankylosis
  • Ankylosis in adult patients
  • Ankylosis in young, still growing, patient
  • Infraposition (infraocclusion)
  • Treatment options of infraposition
  • Decoronation
  • Alveolar bone development after decoronation of ankylosed teeth
  • Rate of infraposition
  • Preservation of the alveolar process
  • Implants and root remnants
  • Essentials
  • References
  • Chapter 33 Autotransplantation of Teeth to the Anterior Region
  • Treatment planning
  • Surgical considerations
  • Autotransplants versus implants
  • Graft selection
  • Analysis of the recipient site
  • Surgical procedure
  • Preparation of the recipient site
  • Open procedure
  • Graft removal and insertion
  • Follow-up period
  • Pulpal healing
  • Periodontal healing
  • Root development
  • Orthodontic considerations
  • Orthodontic considerations in selection of a donor tooth
  • Overjet
  • Space conditions
  • Premolar transplantation versus orthodontic space closure
  • Orthodontic treatment of transplanted teeth
  • Restorative considerations
  • Tooth morphology and color match
  • Dental papilla
  • Composite restoration
  • Ceramic laminate veneers
  • Combined orthodontic closure and autotransplantation
  • Autotransplantation of teeth with completed root formation
  • Prognosis
  • Predictors for healing
  • Essentials
  • Indications
  • Graft selection
  • Stage of graft removal
  • Surgical procedures
  • Orthodontic treatment
  • Prosthetic restoration
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • Chapter 34 Strategies for Treatment of Tooth Loss after Trauma to the Anterior Region of Young Patients
  • Introduction
  • Growth of the anterior maxilla
  • Prosthetic alternatives in the early mixed dentition
  • Orthodontic space closure
  • Important consideration when planning for later implant treatment
  • Autotransplantation
  • Treatment should be related to the growth status of the patient
  • Essentials
  • Treatment options
  • References
  • Chapter 35 Implant Therapy in the Esthetic Zone
  • Indications for dental implants in trauma patients
  • Treatment planning
  • Timing of implant placement in relation to growth
  • Timing of implant placement in relation to dental trauma
  • Timing of implant placement in relation to tooth extraction
  • Biologic aspects in esthetic implant sites
  • Ideal implant position
  • The concept of comfort and danger zones
  • Mesio-distal dimension
  • Oro-facial dimension
  • Coronal-apical positions
  • To create and maintain a harmonious soft tissue
  • Level and appearance of the peri-implant mucosa
  • To create and maintain a harmonious alveolar process
  • Proximal bone
  • Bone augmentation
  • Horizontal augmentation techniques
  • Onlay grafts
  • Guided bone regeneration (GBR)
  • Use of titanium mesh
  • Bone splitting
  • GBR technique: simultaneous approach (Fig. 35.7)
  • GBR technique: staged approach (Fig. 35.8)
  • Rationale for the described techniques
  • Vertical augmentation techniques
  • Staged vertical bone augmentation
  • Alveolar distraction osteogenesis
  • Segment osteotomy with interpositional graft
  • Bone harvesting
  • Harvesting methods
  • Long-term prognosis
  • References
  • Chapter 36 Esthetic Considerations in Restoring the Traumatized Dentition: a Biologic Approach
  • Tribute to Sverker Toreskog 1936-2013
  • Introduction
  • Replacement of a missing maxillary central incisor
  • Orthodontic space closure treatment
  • Single-tooth implants
  • Fixed prosthetics
  • Orthodontic implant site development
  • Replacement of a missing maxillary lateral incisor
  • Orthodontic closure
  • Implants
  • Autotransplants
  • Resin-bonded cantilever prosthetics
  • Replacement of a canine
  • Orthodontic closure
  • Autotransplants
  • Implants
  • Fixed prosthetics
  • Replacement after loss of multiple maxillary anterior teeth
  • Restoring fractured teeth
  • The Toreskog/Myrin concept
  • Don't cut through enamel just out of habit
  • Place cervical finishing line supragingivally
  • Make a very shallow cervical preparation (0.2-0.4?mm in depth)
  • Let the preparation be carried past existing proximal fillings
  • Let porcelain cover the incisal edge
  • Use rubber dam for maximum control and expose one preparation at a time plus the immediate contact point(s)
  • cement one restoration at a time
  • Use the all-etch technique with 35% phosphoric acid, dentin bonding and a translucent cement
  • Essentials
  • Replacement of a central incisor
  • Orthodontic implant site development
  • Replacement of a lateral incisor
  • Replacement of a canine
  • Replacement after loss of multiple anterior teeth
  • Restoring fractured teeth
  • References
  • Chapter 37 Prevention of Dental and Oral Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Means to prevent dental maxillofacial injuries
  • Appliances to prevent dental injuries
  • Faceguards
  • Mouthguards
  • Cost-benefit of impact protecting devices
  • Other applications for the use of mouthguards
  • Protection of the dental tissues during general anesthesia
  • Prevention of oral injury from traffic accidents
  • Essentials
  • Preventive devices
  • Design of mouthguards
  • Types of mouthguard
  • Use of mouthguards and other preventive measures in sport
  • Use of preventive measures in traffic
  • Use of preventive measures in endoscopy and orotracheal intubation
  • References
  • Chapter 38 Prognosis of Traumatic Dental Injuries: Statistical Considerations
  • Identifying prognosis related factors
  • Univariate and stratified analysis
  • Expressing prognosis quantitatively
  • Life table analysis
  • Importance of definition of failures
  • Importance of censored patients
  • Importance of withdrawn patients
  • Importance of the length of the investigation period
  • Importance of sample size
  • Effect of recall schedule
  • Comparing life tables
  • The logrank test for comparison of life tables
  • Further treatment comparisons, multiple regression analysis
  • Odds ratio (OR) and risk ratio (RR)
  • The use of predictors and confidence limits
  • Comparing tooth survival or healing results from various studies
  • Essentials
  • Expressing prognosis quantitatively
  • Factors of importance for life table analysis
  • Comparing life tables
  • Multiple regression analysis
  • Odds and risk ratio
  • Predictors and confidence intervals
  • Comparing healing results
  • References
  • Chapter 39 Splinting of Traumatized Teeth
  • Influence of splinting on dental tissues
  • Influence upon gingiva
  • Influence upon periodontal healing
  • Influence upon pulp healing
  • Enamel changes after splinting
  • Requirements for an acceptable splint
  • Splinting methods
  • Testing the mechanical properties of various splinting types
  • Suture splint
  • Arch bar splint
  • Orthodontic appliances
  • Composite resin
  • Wire-composite splint
  • Resin splint (e.g. Protemp® and Luxatemp®)
  • Prefabricated metal splinting materials
  • Removable splint
  • Recommendations for splinting type and duration
  • Extrusion
  • Lateral luxation
  • Intrusion
  • Avulsion
  • Autotransplantation
  • Root fracture
  • Alveolar bone fractures
  • Splinting in primary dentition
  • General comments
  • Essentials
  • Splinting properties
  • Splinting types
  • Splinting periods
  • References
  • Chapter 40 Bleaching of the Discolored Traumatized Tooth
  • Etiology of discoloration
  • Medicaments
  • Historical overview
  • Today's medicaments and mode of action
  • Toxicity of bleaching agents
  • Effects of bleaching agents on restorations
  • Intracoronal bleaching
  • Methods
  • Efficacy
  • Esthetic results
  • Adverse effects
  • External tooth bleaching
  • Clinical recommendations
  • Essentials
  • Indications
  • Efficacy
  • Precautions
  • Prognosis
  • References
  • Chapter 41 Economic Aspects of Traumatic Dental Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Costs of traumatic dental injuries
  • Degree of severity
  • Sports injuries are expensive
  • Time and costs
  • Resources presented in time
  • Traumatic dental injuries involve several people
  • Dental injuries more expensive than outpatient non-oral injuries
  • Other factors contributing to increase in cost
  • Economic evaluations
  • How to present costs
  • Future research
  • Cost and longevity of restorations
  • Essentials
  • Degree of severity
  • Sports injuries
  • Time and costs
  • People involved
  • Dental and non-oral injuries
  • Other factors increasing cost
  • Economic evaluations
  • How to present costs
  • References
  • Chapter 42 Information to the Public, Patients and Emergency Services on Traumatic Dental Injuries
  • Introduction
  • Prevention
  • Information aiming at increasing the knowledge on how to act at the place of accident
  • Who are the target groups?
  • Traditional ways to inform the target groups
  • Lectures
  • Posters
  • Brochures
  • Other methods
  • Role of e-health (the Internet, social media and mobile technology)
  • The Internet
  • Social media (social network sites)
  • m-Health
  • How people in the society seek information, and the effect of health information campaigns
  • Development of a public awareness campaign
  • What message shall be communicated?
  • Recommendations for specific groups
  • Information to emergency services
  • Information to patients
  • Primary tooth injuries
  • Tooth fractures
  • Loosened or displaced permanent teeth
  • Insurance
  • Essentials
  • Developing public dental trauma awareness
  • First aid and treatment of trauma to primary teeth
  • First aid for a crown fracture
  • First aid for an avulsed tooth
  • References
  • Chapter 43 Dental Trauma Guide
  • www.dentaltraumaguide.org (Fig. 43.1)
  • Essentials
  • Background
  • References
  • Chapter 44 International Association of Dental Traumatology (IADT)
  • The IADT
  • Start of the organization
  • Mission statement
  • IADT World Congresses
  • IADT Treatment Guidelines for Traumatic Dental Injuries
  • Fellowship
  • Website
  • How to become a member of IADT
  • Dental Traumatology, the scientific journal
  • Newsletter
  • Social media
  • Partnership with Dental Trauma Guide
  • Dental Trauma App
  • References
  • Appendix 1
  • Emergency record for acute dental trauma
  • General injuries
  • Tooth-specific injuries
  • Appendix 2
  • Clinical examination form for the time of injury and follow-up examinations
  • Appendix 3
  • Summary of treatment and follow-up procedures and recall schedule following the various trauma types
  • Appendix 4
  • Comparison between cost/effectiveness of different treatment solutions for anterior tooth loss
  • Index
  • EULA

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