This book discusses the design and implementation of energy harvesting systems targeting wearable devices. The authors describe in detail the different energy harvesting sources that can be utilized for powering low-power devices in general, focusing on the best candidates for wearable applications. Coverage also includes state-of-the-art interface circuits, which can be used to accept energy from harvesters and deliver it to a device in the most efficient way. Finally, the authors present power management circuits for using multiple energy harvesting sources at the same time to power devices and to enhance efficiency of the system.
Mohammad Alhawari received the B.S. degree in electronic engineering from Yarmouk University, Jordan, in 2008 and the M.S. degree in microsystems engineering from Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, in 2012. He received the PhD degree in electrical and computer engineering from Khalifa University of Science, Technology in 2016. From 2008 to 2010, he worked at YOUNIVATE Company in Jordan, as a hardware and PCB engineer. He is currently a post-doctoral research fellow at Khalifa University, where he focuses on low power designs for energy harvesting applications.
Baker Mohammad earned his PhD from University of Texas at Austin, his M.S. from Arizona State University, Tempe, and BS from the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, all in ECE. Dr. Mohammad is currently an associate Professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Khalifa University and a founding and active member of Khalifa University Semiconductor Research Center. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE and serves as an editor to the microelectronics journal, Elsevier. Baker Served in many organization and technical committee for IEEE conferences, In addition, he is a frequent reviewer for many journals including IEEE TVLSI, IEEE Circuits and Systems, and Springer. Baker has extensive experience for attracting and managing research grants including SRC, ADEC, UAE Space Agency and KU internal funding.
Prior to joining Khalifa University (KU) Baker has over 16-years industrial experience working for intel and Qualcomm in microprocessor design with emphasis on embedded system, and low power design. His research interest includes power efficient computing, high yield embedded memory, emerging technology such as memristor, STTRAM, computer architecture, and In-Memory-Computing. In addition, he is engaged in micro-watt range computing platform for WSN focusing on energy harvesting and power management including efficient dc/dc, ac/dc convertors. He authored/co-authored over 80 referred journals and conference proceedings, 2 books, 18 US patents, multiple invited seminars/panelist, and the presenter of 3 conference tutorials including one tutorial on Energy harvesting and Power management for WSN at the 2015 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems conference (ISCAS).
Dr. Mohammad has received several awards including the KU staff excellence award in intellectual property creation, IEEE TVLSI best paper award, Qualcomm Qstar award for excellence on performance, and leadership. Best paper award for Qtech conference June 2009, and Intel Involve in the community award for volunteer and impact on the community.
Hani Saleh is an assistant professor of electronic engineering at Khalifa University since 2012. He is an active member in KSRC (Khalifa University Research Center) where he leads a project for the development of wearable SOC and a mobile surveillance SOC. Hani has a total of 19 years of industrial experience in ASIC chip design, microprocessor design, DSP core design, graphics core design and embedded system design. His experience spans DSP core design, microprocessor peripherals design, microprocessors and graphics core deign. Prior to joining Khalifa University he worked as a Senior Chip Designer (Technical Lead) at Apple incorporation; where he worked on the design and implementation of Apple next generation graphics cores for its mobile products (iPad, iPhone, etc.), prior to joining Apple, he worked for several leading semiconductor companies including Intel (ATOM mobile microprocessor design), AMD (Bobcat mobile microprocessor design), Qualcomm (QDSP DSP core design for mobile SOCs), Synopsys (a key member of Synopsys turnkey design group where he taped out many ASICs and designed the I2C DW IP included in Synopys DesignWare library), Fujitsu (SPARC compatible high performance microprocessor design) and Motorola Australia (M210 low power microprocessor synthesizable core design). Hani received a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Jordan, a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Texas at San Antonio, and a Ph.D. degree in Computer Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. Hani research interest includes DSP algorithms design, DSP hardware design, computer architecture, computer arithmetic, SOC design, ASIC chip design, FPGA design and automatic computer recognition. Hani has 3 issued US patents, 13 pending patent application, and over 60 articles published in peer review conferences and Journals in the areas of digital system design, computer architecture, DSP and computer arithmetic.
Mohammed Ismail a prolific author and entrepreneur in the field of chip design and test, spent over 25 years in academia and industry in the US and Europe. He obtained his BS and MS from Cairo University, Egypt and his PhD from the University of Manitoba in 1983, all in electrical engineering. He is now the Chair of Electrical and Computer engineering at Wayne State University, MI, Detroit. He is the Founder of the Ohio State University's (OSU) Analog VLSI Lab, one of the foremost research entities in the field of analog, mixed signal and RF integrated circuits and served as its Director. He also served on the faculty of OSU's ElectroScience Lab. He held a Research Chair at the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) where he founded the RaMSiS (Radio and Mixed Signal Integrated Systems) Research Group there. He had visiting appointments in Finland (Aalto university), Norway (NTH and University of Oslo), the Netherlands (Twente University) and Japan (Tokyo Institute of Technology). He Joined KU, the UAE in 2011, where he holds the ATIC (now Mubadala Technology) Professor Chair and is Head of the ECE Department. He is the Founding Director of the Khalifa Semiconductor Research Center (KSRC) and Co-Director of the ATIC-SRC Center of Excellence on Energy Efficient Electronic systems (ACE4S) targeting self-powered chip sets for wireless sensing and monitoring, bio chips and power management solutions. His current research focuses on "self- healing" design techniques for CMOS RF and mm-wave ICs in deep nanometer nodes, energy harvesting and power management wearable Biochips and SoCs for IoTs.
Dr. Ismail served as a Corporate Consultant to over 30 companies and is a Co-Founder of Micrys Inc., Columbus, Ohio, Spirea AB, Stockholm, Firstpass Technologies Inc., Dublin, Ohio and ANACAD-Egypt (now part of Mentor Graphics). He advised the work of over 50 Ph.D. students and of over 100 M.S. students. He authored or co-authored over 20 books and over 170 journal publications, 300 conference papers and has 8 US patents issued and several pending. He is the Founding Editor of the Springer Journal of Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing and serves as the Journal's Editor-in-Chief. He served the IEEE in many editorial and administrative capacities. He is the Founder of the IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems (ICECS), the flagship Region 8 Conference of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society and a Co-Founder of the IEEE International Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED). He received the US Presidential Young Investigator Award, the Ohio State Lumley Research Award four times, in 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 and the US Semiconductor Research Corporation's Inventor Recognition Award twice.
1 Introduction1.1 Wearable Devices and Battery Technology in IoTs1.2 Energy Harvesting and Autonomous Systems2 Energy Harvesting Sources, Models and Circuits2.1 Energy Harvesters2.1.1 Thermoelectric Generators22.214.171.124 Human Body Thermal Harvesting2.1.2 Piezoelectric Harvesters126.96.36.199 Human Body Movement Characterization2.1.3 RF Harvesting188.8.131.52 Characterization of RF Energy Harvesting at 2.4 GHz2.1.4 Solar Harvesting2.2 Power Conversion Circuits2.2.1 Linear Regulators2.2.2 Switched Capacitor Circuit2.2.3 Switching Converters3 Interface Circuits for Thermoelectric Generator3.1 Inductor-based DC-DC Converters3.1.1 An asynchronous inductor-based DC-DC converter3.1.2 A synchronous inductor-based DC-DC converter3.2 Design of the Synchronous Inductor-based Boost Converter3.2.1 Losses in the inductor-based Boost Converter3.2.2 Control Circuits for Inductor-based Converter184.108.40.206 Zero Current Switching Control Circuit220.127.116.11 Polarity Control for TEG18.104.22.168 Maximum Power Point Transfer Techniques22.214.171.124 Startup Circuit3.2.3 Power Conversion Architectures3.2.4 System Robustness4 Zero Crossing Switching Control for L-based DC-DC Converters4.1 Background and Prior Work4.2 Example of ZCS Control Circuit4.2.1 Coarse/Fine ZCS Techniques4.3 Measurement Results5 Polarity Mechanism for Thermoelectric Harvester5.1 Prior Work in TEG Polarity Mechanism5.2 Example of Auto-Polarity Control Circuit5.2.1 Measurement Results of Auto-Polarity Circuits6 Energy Combiner and Power Manager for Multi-Source Energy Harvesting6.1 Reported Techniques in Energy Combiner Techniques6.2 Power Manager Implementation for Multi-Source Energy Harvesting6.2.1 Biomedical Processor6.2.2 Power Manager6.2.3 Sleep Mode OperationReferences