Nanotechnology and the Brain

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 24. September 2016
  • |
  • 334 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-804759-0 (ISBN)
 

Nanotechnology and the Brain, the latest edition in the International Review of Neurobiology series is well-known for its appeal to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Written by an internationally renowned expert in the field, this volume focuses on the application of nanotechnology in the brain, covering blood brain barrier biology and how nanoparticles should be engineered to tackle this barrier.


  • Covers a wide range of nanoparticles in dedicated chapters
  • Focuses on the application of nanotechnology in the brain, shedding light on blood brain barrier biology and nanoparticles engineering
  • Contains the diverse expertise of renowned contributors
0074-7742
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 25,44 MB
978-0-12-804759-0 (9780128047590)
0128047593 (0128047593)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Nanotechnology and the Brain
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter One: Recent Trends in Nanotechnology Toward CNS Diseases: Lipid-Based Nanoparticles and Exosomes for Targeted The ...
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Nucleic Acid and Drug Delivery to the CNS
  • 2.1. Ischemic Stroke
  • 2.2. Neuropathic Pain
  • 2.3. Alzheimer´s Disease
  • 2.4. Parkinson´s Disease
  • 2.5. Machado-Joseph Disease
  • 2.6. Multiple Sclerosis
  • 2.7. CNS Tumors
  • 2.8. Other Neurological Disorders
  • 3. Exosomes as Delivery Systems for CNS Diseases
  • 4. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Two: From the Blood to the Central Nervous System: A Nanoparticle´s Journey Through the Blood-Brain Barrier by Tr ...
  • 1. Transcytosis: An Entry Portal into the Central Nervous System
  • 2. Distribution of Nanoparticles in the Blood
  • 3. Binding of a Blood-Borne Nanoparticle
  • 4. Wrapping
  • 5. Trafficking: Transcytosis at the Brain Endothelium
  • 5.1. Endocytosis
  • 5.2. Intracellular Trafficking
  • 5.3. Exocytosis
  • 6. Release and Receptor Recycling
  • 7. Nanoparticle Transcytosis: The Story So Far
  • 8. Summary
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Application of Nanomedicine to the CNS Diseases
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. NPs for Brain Cancer
  • 2.1. Physiopathology
  • 2.1.1. Brain Tumors and Glioblastoma
  • 2.1.1.1. Brain Tumors
  • 2.1.1.2. Glioblastoma
  • 2.2. Standard Treatments
  • 2.2.1. Current GB Therapies
  • 2.2.1.1. Surgery
  • 2.2.1.2. Chemotherapy
  • 2.2.1.3. Radiotherapy
  • 2.2.2. Therapeutic Limitations
  • 2.3. NP-Based GB Therapy
  • 2.3.1. Advantages
  • 2.3.1.1. Suitable Drugs
  • 2.3.1.2. Pharmacokinetic Modulation
  • 2.3.1.3. Targeting
  • 2.3.1.4. Crossing Barrier Facilitation
  • 2.3.1.5. Theranostic Medicine
  • 2.3.1.6. Gene Therapy
  • 2.3.2. Preclinical Phase and Clinical Trials
  • 2.3.2.1. Preclinical Phase
  • 2.3.2.2. Clinical Trials
  • 2.3.3. Limits of NP-Based GB Therapies
  • 2.4. Novel NP-Based Approaches for GB Treatment
  • 2.5. Conclusion on the Application of Nanomedicine to GB Therapy
  • 3. NPs for Alzheimer´s Disease Therapy
  • 3.1. Physiopathology
  • 3.1.1. Neurodegenerative Diseases and Alzheimer´s Disease
  • 3.1.1.1. Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 3.1.1.2. Alzheimer´s Disease
  • 3.2. Conventional Treatments
  • 3.2.1. Current Therapy and Research Strategies
  • 3.2.1.1. Therapeutics Based on ``Cholinergic Hypothesis´´
  • 3.2.1.2. Therapeutics Based on ``Tau Cascade Hypothesis´´
  • 3.2.1.3. Therapeutics Based on ``Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis´´
  • 3.2.2. Limitations of ADs Therapies
  • 3.3. NP-Based AD Therapies
  • 3.3.1. Nanotechnological Improvement and Innovation
  • 3.3.1.1. Nanotechnological Improvement
  • 3.3.1.2. Nanotechnological Innovation
  • 3.3.2. Preclinical Phase and Clinical Trials
  • 3.4. Conclusions on the Application of Nanomedicine to Alzheimer Disease Therapy
  • 4. Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Stroke
  • 4.1. Physiopathology of Stroke
  • 4.2. Current Stroke Therapies
  • 4.2.1. Thrombolysis
  • 4.2.2. Neuroprotective Therapy
  • 4.3. NP-Based Stroke Therapy
  • 4.3.1. Advantages
  • 4.3.1.1. BBB Crossing
  • 4.3.1.2. Multitargeted Pleiotropic Molecules
  • 4.3.2. Limits of NPs-Based Therapy for Stroke
  • 4.4. Novel NPs-Based Approaches for Stroke
  • 4.4.1. Drug Loading Improvement
  • 4.4.2. Multiple Drugs Delivery
  • 4.5. Conclusions on the Application of Nanomedicine to Stroke Therapy
  • 5. General Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Four: Carbohydrate Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery
  • 1. Drug Delivery to the Brain
  • 1.1. The BBB
  • 1.2. Invasive Strategies for Drug Delivery to the Brain
  • 1.2.1. Disruption of the BBB
  • 1.2.2. Convection-Enhanced Delivery
  • 1.2.3. Direct Injection (Intraventricular and Intracerebral) and the Use of Implants
  • 1.3. Noninvasive Strategies for Drug Delivery to the Brain
  • 1.3.1. Chemical Modification of Drugs
  • 1.3.2. Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphate-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters
  • 1.3.3. Carrier-Mediated Transport
  • 1.3.4. Receptor-Mediated Transport
  • 1.3.5. Nanocarrier-Mediated Delivery
  • 1.4. Carbohydrate Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery
  • 1.4.1. Carbohydrates: General Considerations
  • 1.4.2. Methods of Preparation of Carbohydrate Nanoparticles
  • 1.4.3. Preclinical Studies of Carbohydrate Nanoparticles
  • 1.4.4. Promising Novel Carbohydrate Nanocarriers for Brain Delivery
  • 1.5. Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter Five: Gold Nanoparticles for Imaging and Drug Transport to the CNS
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The Chemistry and Properties of Gold Nanoparticles
  • 2.1. The Gold Core
  • 2.2. Physical Properties of the Gold Core
  • 2.3. Ligands
  • 2.4. Therapeutic Cargo Molecules and Targeting Molecules
  • 3. Biological Properties of Gold Nanoparticles
  • 3.1. Tissue Distribution
  • 3.2. Toxicity
  • 3.3. Intracellular Effects of Gold Nanoparticles
  • 3.4. Effects on the BBB
  • 4. Detecting Gold Nanoparticles in Cells and Tissues
  • 4.1. Electron Microscopy
  • 4.2. Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry
  • 4.2.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of ICP-MS
  • 4.3. Quantitative Analysis by Spectroscopic or Radioactive Techniques
  • 4.4. Other Imaging Techniques in Tissues
  • 5. Cellular Routes for Nanoparticle Transport into the CNS
  • 5.1. Cytosolic Transport
  • 5.1.1. Enhancing Cytosolic Transport
  • 5.2. Vesicular Transport and Transcytosis
  • 5.2.1. Enhancing Vesicular Transport
  • 5.3. Stability of the Nanoparticles During Transcytosis
  • 5.4. Cellular Localization of Gold Nanoparticles Within the CNS
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 6.1. Gold Nanocarriers
  • 6.1.1. Comparison with Silica Nanoparticles and Carbon Nanoparticles
  • 6.1.2. Comparison with Liposomes, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, and Polymeric Nanoparticles
  • 6.2. Gold Nanoparticles as Imaging Reagents
  • References
  • Chapter Six: Metal Nanoparticles as Targeted Carriers Circumventing the Blood-Brain Barrier
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The BBB and Mechanisms of Nanoparticles by Which They Cross This Barrier
  • 3. Imaging and Treatment of Neurological Diseases Associated with Metal Nanoparticles
  • 3.1. Metal Nanoparticles for CNS Imaging
  • 3.2. Metal Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disease
  • 4. Trafficking of Metal Nanoparticles to the CNS and Neurotoxicological Considerations
  • 4.1. Crossing of Nanoparticles Through the BBB
  • 4.2. Neurotoxicity of Metal Nanoparticles
  • 5. The Intranasal Administration: Nose-to-Brain Route for Metal Nanoparticle Delivery
  • 5.1. The Nasal Architecture and the Olfactory Region
  • 5.2. Pathways of Nasal Absorption
  • 5.3. Mechanism of Nasal Absorption to the Brain
  • 5.4. Intranasal Administration of Metal Nanoparticles
  • 6. Conclusion and Future Perspective
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter Seven: Current Perspective of Carbon Nanotubes Application in Neurology
  • 1. Overview of Carbon Nanotubes
  • 2. Functionalization Strategies of CNTs
  • 2.1. Covalent Functionalization
  • 2.2. Noncovalent Functionalization
  • 3. The Scaffolding Effect of CNTs on Neuronal Cells as Growth Substrates In Vitro
  • 4. CNTs as Heating Devices for Hyperthermal Therapy Applications in Glioblastoma In Vitro
  • 5. The Intrinsic Therapeutic Action of CNTs in Brain Tissues as Active Agents
  • 6. CNTs as Local Delivery Tools of Therapeutics to the Brain via Direct Intracranial Administration In Vivo
  • 7. CNTs as Delivery Tools of Therapeutics to the Brain Using Systemic Administration In Vivo
  • 8. Mechanistic Studies Investigating the BBB Crossing of f-CNTs
  • 8.1. The Interaction of f-MWNTs with BBB In Vitro
  • 8.2. The Interaction of f-MWNTs with BBB In Vivo
  • 8.3. The Effect of ANG Targeting on Brain Accumulation of f-MWNTs
  • 9. Toxicity Studies of CNTs in Brain Tissues
  • 10. Biodegradation of CNTs
  • References
  • Index
  • Contents of Recent Volumes
  • Back Cover

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