Derivatives, Composites and Applications
Wiley-Scrivener (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 4. August 2017
  • |
  • 516 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-36481-8 (ISBN)
This book delves deeply in to the preparation, characterization and multiple applications of chitin and chitosan. The 17 chapters written by leading experts is an excellent reference source and state-of-the-art review for researchers and scientists using chitosan or biopolymers in their respective areas.
This book is divided into following sections:
* Production and derivatives of chitosan
* Chitosan in the textile and food industries
* Chitosan in biomedical applications
* Chitosan in agriculture and water treatment
The book is practical as readers will be able to see descriptions of chitosan production methods as well as techniques that can be used to estimate and modify their physical and chemical properties. It provides a full description not only of the traditional and recent developments in the applications of chitosan in the fields of biotechnology, environmental studies, food, medicine, water treatments, drug delivery, but it includes all of the therapeutically usages as well.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 7,10 MB
978-1-119-36481-8 (9781119364818)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Intro
  • Title page
  • Copyright page
  • Preface
  • Section I: Production and Derivatives of Chitosan
  • Chapter 1: Chitin and Chitosan: History, Composition and Properties
  • 1.1 Chitin
  • 1.2 Chitosan
  • 1.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Nitrogenated Polysaccharides - Chitin and Chitosan, Characterization and Application
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Extraction of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides from Natural Sources
  • 2.3 Research Methods of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides
  • 2.4 Characterization of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides
  • 2.5 Properties of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides
  • 2.6 Applications
  • 2.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Enzymes for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide and Determination of Activities of Enzymes Using Chitinous Substrates
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Fermentation Methods for Production of Enzymes
  • 3.3 Methods for Purification of Enzymes
  • 3.4 Storage Conditions of Enzyme
  • 3.5 Commercial Enzymes
  • 3.6 Determinations of Enzyme Activities Using Chitinous Materials
  • 3.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide from Shrimp and Crab Shells Using Green Technology and Applications of Their Composite Materials
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Microorganisms for Production of Chitin and Chitosan Using Green Technology
  • 4.3 Production of Chitin Using Microorganisms
  • 4.4 Production of Chitosan from Chitin Using Chitin Deacetylase from Microorganisms
  • 4.5 Production of Crude Chitooligosaccharide from Shrimp and Crab Shells Using Fermentation Technology
  • 4.6 Applications of Chitin, Chitosan, Chitooligosaccharides and Their Composite Materials
  • 4.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Chitosan and Its Derivatives: Overview of Commercial Applications in Diverse Fields
  • 5.1 History
  • 5.2 Synthesis of Chitosan
  • 5.3 General Properties
  • 5.4 Biological Properties
  • 5.5 Physicochemical Aspects
  • 5.6 Molecular Weight
  • 5.7 Stability
  • 5.8 Fabrication
  • 5.9 Self-Assembly
  • 5.10 Strategies Self-Assembly
  • 5.11 Chief Significance
  • 5.12 Various Forms
  • 5.13 Chemical Modification
  • 5.14 Technologic Features for Medicinal Utilization
  • 5.15 Synthetic Procedure of Chitosan Nanoparticles
  • 5.16 Modified Chitosan
  • 5.17 Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CMC)
  • 5.18 Michael Reaction
  • 5.19 Antioxidant
  • 5.20 Antibacterial Properties
  • 5.21 Antimicrobial Activity
  • 5.22 Antiviral Activity
  • 5.23 Biological Adhesive
  • 5.24 Bonding Purposes
  • 5.25 Biodegradation
  • 5.26 Parameter Moving Transfection Competence
  • 5.27 Conjugation
  • 5.28 Functionalization of Chitosan
  • 5.29 Schiff's Base Formation
  • 5.30 Reductive Amination
  • 5.31 Chitosan-Proteins Interaction
  • 5.32 Absorption Enhancer
  • 5.33 Chitosan-Starch Blends
  • 5.34 Application in Various Fields
  • 5.35 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Chitin and Chitosan-Complexes and Their Applications
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Synthesis of Chitosan from Chitin
  • 6.3 Different Properties of Chitosan
  • 6.4 Polyelectrolyte Complexes of Chitosan
  • 6.5 Complexes of Polyelectrolyte between Chitosan and Naturally Occurring Polymers
  • 6.6 Various Useful and Important Applications of Chitosan
  • 6.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Enzymes from Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Enzymes for Production of Chitin/Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide
  • 7.3 Enzyme and DNA Technology for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and CTO
  • 7.4 Determinations of Enzyme Activities Using Chitinous Materials
  • 7.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section II: Chitosan in Textile and Food Industry
  • Chapter 8: Chitosan Applications for the Food Industry
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Biological Activities of Chitosan and Its Derivatives
  • 8.3 Chitosan and Its Derivatives for Food Applications
  • 8.4 Nutritional Aspects of Chitin and Chitosan
  • 8.5 Preparation of Chitin and Chitosan Oligomers and Their Applications in the Food Industry as Health Supplements
  • 8.6 Future Trends: Chitosan-Based Nanotechnology for Food Applications
  • 8.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Chitosan: Sustainable and Environmental-Friendly Resource for Textile Industry
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Chitosan and Chitosan Resources
  • 9.3 Chitosan Treatment of Textiles
  • 9.4 Textile Functionalities Achieved
  • 9.5 Effluent Treatment Applications
  • 9.6 Future Perspectives and Conclusion
  • References
  • Section III: Chitosan in Biomedical Applications
  • Chapter 10: Perspectives of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds Dressing in Regenerative Medicine
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Scaffold Characteristics
  • 10.3 Fabrication Techniques
  • 10.4 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan as Regenerative Medicine
  • 10.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Chitin - and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Scaffold Components
  • 11.3 Scaffold Requirements
  • 11.4 Chitin - and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds Fabrication Techniques
  • 11.5 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan for Regeneration of Various Tissues
  • 11.6 Chitin - and CS-Based Scaffolds for Drug and Growth Factors Delivery
  • 11.7 Chitin - and CS-Based Scaffolds/Dressings in Market
  • 11.8 Conclusions
  • 11.9 Future perspectives
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Nanopolymer Chitosan in Cancer and Alzheimer Biomedical Application
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Chitosan Applications in Cancer
  • 12.3 Chitosan Applications in Alzheimer's
  • 12.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Biomedical Significance of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Biomedical Applications
  • 13.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Potential Biomedical Applications of Chitosan - and Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Production of Chitin and Chitosan
  • 14.3 Bioactivities of Chitin and Chitosan
  • 14.4 Biomedical Application of Chitin - and Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials
  • 14.5 Conclusion and Future Perspective
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Section IV: Chitosan in Agriculture and Water Treatment
  • Chapter 15: Practical and Plausible Implications of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites in Agriculture
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan Nanocomposite in Agriculture
  • 15.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Scope of Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibrous Web for its Potential Application in Water Filtration
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Chitosan as an Efficient Material for Water Purification/Disinfection
  • 16.3 Electrospinning Process
  • 16.4 Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibers Embedded with Silver Nanoparticles for Filtration of Water Contaminated with Bacteria
  • 16.5 Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites for Water Filtration
  • 16.6 Current Challenges and Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Application of Chitin/Chitosan and its Derivatives as Adsorbents, Coagulants, and Flocculants
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Chitin and Chitosan
  • 17.3 Properties of Chitin and Chitosan
  • 17.4 Modification of Chitin and Chitosan
  • 17.5 Application of Natural Polymers in Wastewater Treatment as Promising Adsorbents
  • 17.6 Chitin and Chitosan as a New Type of Polymer Coagulant/Flocculants
  • 17.7 Future Directions for Research
  • 17.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

Chapter 1
Chitin and Chitosan: History, Composition and Properties

Annu1*, Shakeel Ahmed1,2 and Saiqa Ikram1*

1Bio/Polymers Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi, India

2Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India

*Corresponding authors:;


Chitin and chitosan are most abundant naturally occurring polymers, ranked second after cellulose. Chitin is generally extracted from natural sources viz. terrestrial organisms, marine organisms, microorganisms like fungi and enzymatically from crustaceans shell waste materials. On the other hand, chitosan is obtained from the deacetylation of the former, chitin.

Nowadays, chitin and chitosan are commercially manufactured from biowastes obtained from aquatic organisms. But due to the seasonal and capricious availability of raw materials, terrestrial crustaceans and mushrooms are the alternative source for their production. Structurally, chitin and chitosan are N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units and D-glucosamine units, respectively, with only difference in hydroxyl group of cellulose. Both the biopolymers are biodegradable and possess many beneficial properties such as biocompatibility, antimicrobian, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, mucoadhesion, analgesic, non-toxicity, adsorption enhancing, antihypertensive, anticholesterolemic, anticancer, and antidiabetic. Due to having such respectable properties chitin, chitosan, and their corresponding derivatives are greatly exploiting by the scientists and also getting tremendously better results in medical and engineering fields.

Keywords: Chitin, chitosan, history, structure, properties, solubility, viscosity, biomedical, anticancer

1.1 Chitin

1.1.1 History

French scientist Prof. Henri Braconnot for the very first time discovered chitin in 1811 in mushroom. After that Odier found the same compound in the cuticles of insects in 1823 and called it "Chitin" from the Greek word meaning tunic, covering or envelope [1].

This was how it begins the research in a new direction of polymers present in our nature. Gradually as the time passed away in 1859, Prof. C. Rouget coined another noval biopolymer, actually derived from previous chitin, and it was known as "Chitosan." In 1878, Ledderhose revealed that the chitin consists of glucosamine and acetic acid. Thereafter, in 1930s and 1940s, both former and latter attract considerable attention as evidenced by about 50 patents. Chitin is the most abundant naturally occurring polymer, ranked second after cellulose and also most abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide possesses amino acid and sugars. Chemically, chitin is composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units with ß-(1-4) glycosidic linkage [2].

1.1.2 Sources of Chitin

Chitin is generally produced from natural sources viz. terrestrial organisms, marine organisms, microorganisms like fungi and enzymatically from crustaceans shell waste materials. On the other hand, chitosan is obtained from the deacetylation of the former, chitin. Nowadays, chitin and chitosan are commercially manufactured from biowastes obtained from aquatic organisms. But due to the seasonal and capricious availability of raw materials terrestrial crustaceans and mushrooms are the alternative source for their production [2]. The industrial manufacturing of synthetic polymers was restricted by the time because of the inadequate facilities as well as the cutthroat competition in synthetic polymers. Therefore, again the shellfish shells, crustaceans and shrimps revitalized the interest in late 1970s (Global industry analysis since 2004). Various sources for extraction and production of chitin can be categorized as follows:

  1. Terrestrial organisms
  2. Marine or Aquatic organisms
  3. Microorganisms (e.g., Fungi) Terrestrial Organisms

From commercial point of view, these organisms are mainly used for the extraction of chitin, due to their easy availability and processability. Terrestrial species generally includes crustaceans such as Porcellio scaber, Armadillidium vulgare; arthropods, nematodes, insects, silkworms, mosquitoes, honeybee, Sipyloidea sipylus, Drosophila melanogaster, Extatosoma tiaratum, and many more [3]. As the composition of these organisms is quite different, there is a variation in the contribution to the percentage of chitin produced as depicted in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Percentage of chitin produced from different sources [3].

Source % Chitin produced Cockroach 30-37% (abdomen, legs, and head)
25-29% (genitalia, antennae, thorax, and cerci)
19% (fore and hind wings) Extatosoma tiaratum 24% (exuviae) 3.4% (eggs)
3.8% (eggshells) Sipyloidea sipylus 14% Honey bee 23-32% Silkworms 20% Marine or Aquatic Organisms

Chitin produced from aquatic species includes diatoms, algae, crabs, shrimps, lobster, squids, and krill. The hazardous waste materials generated from head, thorax, shells, and claws of shellfish are utilized as raw materials for processing, containing 15-40% chitin, 20-40% proteins, and 20-50% CaCO3. The waste streams of molluscs and crustaceans are the main source of chitin. Also they constitute a rich source of proteins, flavor compounds, and various pigments and hence are of great attention for different research fields and industries as well. Actually, if they are disposed of in the open environment of the water bodies, such as sea or river, then they are problematic due to the higher biochemical oxygen demand and eutrophication [4]. Microorganisms (e.g., Fungi or Mushroom)

Chitin can be obtained from microorganisms either by fermentative methods or biotechnological methods. Utilization of various microbes makes it easier for industries to produce chitin widely and hence microbes are considered as the economic source of extracting chitin as well as chitosan. Microbial world mainly includes fungi (cell wall, mycelia, septa) molds, chrysophyte algae, yeasts, prosthecate bacteria, spores of streptomycete and ciliates. Except Oomycetes, remaining Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Zygomycetes consists of 2-65% chitin/chitosan. Especially, Mucoralean strains viz. Syncephalastrum racemosum and Cunninghamella echinulata cell wall exhibited maximum chitin/chitosan yield of 7% per mycelia dry weight under optimum conditions [5-7]. Some of the examples of extraction of chitin from terrestrial, marine and microorganisms are listed in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2 Examples of sources of extraction of chitin [5].

Terrestrial Marine or aquatic Microorganisms Porcellio scaber Euphausia sp. (Krill) Mucor rouxii Armadillidium vulgare Paralithodes sp. (King crab) Mucor racemosus Sipyloidea sipylus Chionoecetes sp. and Carcinus sp. (Crab) Cunninghamella Echinulate Drosophila melanogaster Callinectes sp. (Blue crab) Aspergillus niger Extatosoma tiaratum Loliginidae sp. (Squid) Rhizopus oryzae Bombyx mori Pandalus sp. (Shrimp) Mucor circinelloides Apis mellifera Nephrops sp. (Lobster) Pleurotus ostreatus Periplaneta americana Lepas sp. (Goose Barnacle) Penaeus sp. (Prawn) Absidia. Coerulea Crassostrea sp. (Oyster) Lentinus edodes Mytilus sp. Auricularia auricula-judae

1.1.3 Extraction of Chitin

Chitin can be extracted from insect cuticle, tracheae and peritrophic matrix [25], shellfish waste such as shrimps, crabs, krill, lobster, fishes and microorganisms such as fungi or mushroom mycelia and some bacteria as discussed above. Generally, extraction of chitin involves the following steps:

  1. Demineralization
  2. Deproteination
  3. Decolorization

There may be difference in the sequence of these steps [3, 8]. For instance, Kumari et al. described the extraction of chitin from fish scales of Labeo rohita but after demineralization they performed decolorization followed by deproteination [9]. Demineralization

It can be performed by using strong acids such as HCl, H2SO4, HNO3 and weak acids such as CH3COOH and HCOOH. But generally HCl seems to be best one. Previous researchers showed that the concentration of HCl was about 1N or...

Dateiformat: ePUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)


Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat ePUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Bitte beachten Sie bei der Verwendung der Lese-Software Adobe Digital Editions: wir empfehlen Ihnen unbedingt nach Installation der Lese-Software diese mit Ihrer persönlichen Adobe-ID zu autorisieren!

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.

Download (sofort verfügbar)

180,99 €
inkl. 7% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe-DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book bestellen