The Authoritarian Personality

 
 
Verso (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 20. August 2019
  • |
  • 1072 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-78873-164-5 (ISBN)
 

What makes a fascist? Are there character traits that make someone more likely to vote for the far right? The Authoritarian Personality, written in the shadow of Fascism and the Holocaust, looked to analyse the rise of Fascism in Europe through the specific psychological traits that make people prone to authoritarianism. Based on extensive empirical studies of Americans conducted by a team which included the leading member of the Frankfurt School Theodor Adorno, The Authoritarian Personality ranked a range of character traits on what it called the 'F scale' (F for fascist). These included conventionalism, anti-intellectualism, superstition and occultism, power and toughness, destructiveness and cynicism, projectivity, and exaggerated concerns over sex. The Authoritarian Personality is not only one of the most influential works of social psychology ever written, it also marks a milestone in the development of Adorno's thought, showing him grabbling with the problem of fascism and the reasons for Europe's turn to reaction. Over half a century later and with the rise of right-wing populism and the reemergence of the far-right in recent years, this hugely influential study remains as insightful and relevant as ever.

  • Englisch
  • La Vergne
  • |
  • USA
  • 10,78 MB
978-1-78873-164-5 (9781788731645)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover Page
  • Halftitle Page
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Tables and Figures
  • Introduction to the Authoritarian Personality
  • Remarks on the Authoritarian Personality
  • Foreword to Studies in Prejudice
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter I: Introduction
  • A. The Problem
  • B. Methodology
  • 1. General Characteristics of the Method
  • 2. The Techniques
  • C. Procedures in the Collection of Data
  • 1. The Groups Studied
  • 2. The Distribution and Collection of Questionnaires
  • 3. The Selection of Subjects for Intensive Clinical Study
  • Part I: The Measurement of Ideological Trends
  • Chapter II: The Contrasting Ideologies of Two College Men: A Preliminary View
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Mack: A Man High on Ethnocentrism
  • C. Larry: A Man Low on Ethnocentrism
  • D. Analysis of the Two Cases
  • 1. Ideology Concerning the Jews
  • 2. General Ethnocentrism
  • 3. Politics
  • 4. Religion
  • 5. Vocation and Income
  • Chapter III: The Study of Anti-Semitic Ideology
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Construction of the Anti-Semitism (A-S) Scale
  • 1. General Rules in Item Formulation
  • 2. Major Subdivisions or Areas: The Subscales
  • 3. The Total Anti-Semitism (A-S) Scale
  • C. Results: Statistical Analysis of the Scale
  • 1. Reliability
  • 2. Intercorrelations of the Subscales
  • 3. Internal Consistency: Statistical Analysis of the Individual Items
  • D. The Short Form of the A-S Scale
  • E. Validation by Case Studies: The Responses of Mack and Larry on the A-S Scale
  • F. Discussion: The Structure of Anti-Semitic Ideology
  • Chapter IV: The Study of Ethnocentric Ideology
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Construction of the Ethnocentrism (E) Scale
  • 1. Major Subdivisions or Areas: The Subscales
  • 2. The Total Ethnocentrism (E) Scale
  • C. Results: Statistical Analysis of the Scale
  • 1. Reliability
  • 2. Intercorrelations Among the Subscales
  • 3. Internal Consistency: Statistical Analysis of the Individual Items
  • 4. Second Form of the E Scale (Form 78)
  • D. The Inclusion of Anti-Semitism Within General Ethnocentrism
  • 1. The Third Form of the E Scale (Form 60)
  • 2. The Fourth Form of the E Scale (Forms 45 and 40)
  • 3. A Suggested Final E Scale
  • E. Validation by Case Studies: The Responses of Mack and Larry on the E Scale
  • F. Conclusions: The Structure of Ethnocentric Ideology
  • Chapter V: Politico-Economic Ideology and Group Memberships in Relation to Ethnocentrism
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Construction of the Politico-Economic Conservatism (PEC) Scale
  • 1. Some Major Trends in Contemporary Liberalism and Conservatism
  • 2. The Initial PEC Scale (Form 78)
  • 3. The Second PEC Scale (Form 60)
  • 4. The Third PEC Scale (Forms 45 and 40)
  • 5. Discussion: Some Patterns of Contemporary Liberalism and Conservatism
  • C. The Relation Between Ethnocentrism and Conservatism
  • D. Validation by Case Studies: The Responses of Mack and Larry on the PEC Scale
  • E. The Relation Between Ethnocentrism and Membership in Various Political and Economic Groupings
  • F. Conclusions
  • Chapter VI: Ethnocentrism in Relation to Some Religious Attitudes and Practices
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Results
  • 1. Religious Group Memberships
  • 2. "Importance" of Religion and the Church
  • 3. Scale Items
  • C. Discussion
  • D. Summary and Conclusion
  • Chapter VII: The Measurement of Implicit Antidemocratic Trends
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Construction of the Fascism (F) Scale
  • 1. The Underlying Theory
  • 2. The Formulation of Scale Items
  • C. Results with Successive Forms of the F Scale
  • 1. Statistical Properties of the Preliminary Scale (Form 78)
  • 2. Item Analysis and Revision of the Preliminary Scale
  • 3. The Second F Scale: Form 60
  • 4. The Third F Scale: Forms 45 and 40
  • D. Correlations of the F Scale with E and with PEC
  • E. Differences in Mean F-Scale Score Among Various Groups
  • F. Validation by Case Studies: The F-Scale Responses of Mack and Larry
  • G. Conclusion
  • Chapter VIII: Ethnocentrism in Relation to Intelligence and Education
  • Part II: Personality as Revealed through Clinical Interviews
  • Chapter IX: The Interviews as an Approach to the Prejudiced Personality
  • A. Introduction: Comparison of Groups
  • B. Selection of Subjects for the Interviews
  • 1. Basis of Selection
  • 2. Representativeness of the Interviewees
  • 3. Approaching the Interviewees
  • C. The Interviewers
  • D. Scope and Technique of the Interview
  • 1. General Plan for the Interview
  • 2. "Underlying" and "Manifest" Questions
  • 3. General Instructions to the Interviewers
  • E. The Interview Schedule
  • 1. Vocation
  • 2. Income
  • 3. Religion
  • 4. Clinical Data
  • 5. Politics
  • 6. Minorities and "Race"
  • F. The Scoring of the Interviews
  • 1. Quantification of Interview Data
  • 2. Broad Outline of Categories in the Interview Scoring Manual
  • 3. The Interview Rating Procedure and the Raters
  • 4. Reliability of the Interview Ratings
  • 5. Minimizing Halo-Effects in Rating the Interviews
  • 6. Tabulation of Interview Ratings by Categories: Statistical Significance
  • Chapter X: Parents and Childhood as Seen through the Interviews
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Attitudes Toward Parents and Conception of the Family
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Idealization vs. Objective Appraisal of Parents
  • 3. Genuineness of Affect
  • 4. Feelings of Victimization
  • 5. Submission vs. Principled Independence
  • 6. Dependence for Things vs. Dependence for Love
  • 7. Ingroup Orientation to the Family
  • C. Conceptions of Childhood Environment
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Image of the Father in Men: Distant and Stern vs. Relaxed and Mild
  • 3. Image of the Father in Women: The Role of Provider
  • 4. Image of the Mother: Sacrifice, Moralism, Restrictiveness
  • 5. Parental Conflict
  • 6. Father-Dominated vs. Mother-Oriented Home
  • 7. Discipline: Harsh Application of Rules vs. Assimilation of Principles
  • D. Childhood Events and Attitudes Toward Siblings
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Attitudes Toward Siblings
  • 3. Childhood Events
  • 4. Status Concern
  • E. Summary and Concluding Remarks on Family Patterns
  • Chapter XI: Sex, People, and Self as Seen through the Interviews
  • A. Attitude Toward Sex
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Status via Sex
  • 3. Moralistic Rejection of Instinctual Tendencies
  • 4. "Pure" vs. "Bad" Women
  • 5. Ego-Alien Ambivalence vs. "Fondness"
  • 6. Exploitive Manipulation for Power
  • 7. Conventionality vs. Individualism
  • 8. Summary
  • B. Attitude Toward People
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Moralistic Condemnation vs. Permissiveness
  • 3. Extrapunitiveness
  • 4. World as Jungle
  • 5. Hierarchical vs. Equalitarian Conception of Human Relations
  • 6. Dependence for Things
  • 7. Manipulation vs. Libidinization of People and Genuine Work Adjustment
  • 8. Social Status vs. Intrinsic Worth in Friendship
  • 9. Summary
  • C. Attitude Toward Present Self
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Self-Glorification vs. Objective Appraisal
  • 3. Masculinity and Femininity
  • 4. Conventionalism and Moralism
  • 5. Conformity of Self and Ideal
  • 6. Denial of Sociopsychological Causation
  • 7. Property as Extension of Self
  • D. Conception of Childhood Self
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. "Difficult" Child
  • 3. Blandness vs. Adult-Orientation
  • 4. Contrasting Picture of Childhood and Present
  • 5. Summary of Attitude Toward Present Self and Childhood Self
  • Chapter XII: Dynamic and Cognitive Personality Organization as Seen through the Interviews
  • A. Dynamic Character Structure
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Orality and Anality
  • 3. Dependence
  • 4. Aggression
  • 5. Ambivalence
  • 6. Identification
  • 7. Superego
  • 8. Strength of the Ego
  • 9. Distortion of Reality
  • 10. Physical Symptoms
  • B. Cognitive Personality Organization
  • 1. Definition of Rating Categories and Quantitative Results
  • 2. Rigidity
  • 3. Negative Attitude Toward Science. Superstition
  • 4. Anti-Intraceptiveness and Autism
  • 5. Suggestibility
  • Chapter XIII: Comprehensive Scores and Summary of Interview Results
  • A. The Discriminatory Powers of the Major Areas Studied
  • 1. Verification of Anticipated Trend by Categories
  • 2. Composite Ratings for Seven Major Areas
  • B. Valitity of Over-All Scores and Ratings of the Interviews
  • 1. Individual Composite Score Based on All Areas of Rating
  • 2. Over-all Intuitive Rating and Its Agreement with the Composite Score
  • 3. Agreement with the Questionnaire Results
  • C. Summary of the Personality Patterns Derived from the Interviews
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Repression vs. Awareness
  • 3. Externalization vs. Internalization
  • 4. Conventionalism vs. Genuineness
  • 5. Power vs. Love-Orientation
  • 6. Rigidity vs. Flexibility. Problems of Adjustment
  • 7. Some Genetic Aspects
  • 8. Cultural Outlook
  • Part III: Personality as Revealed Through Projective Material
  • Chapter XIV: The Thematic Apperception Test in the Study of Prejudiced and Unprejudiced Individuals
  • A. Testing Procedure
  • 1. The Sample Tested
  • 2. Technique of Administration
  • 3. The Pictures Used
  • B. Method of Analysis of the Story Protocols
  • 1. The Murray-Sanford Scheme
  • 2. Thematic Analysis
  • C. The T.A.T.S of Mack and Larry
  • 1. Larry's Stories
  • 2. Mack's Stories
  • 3. Analysis of the Stories
  • D. Summary
  • Chapter XV: Projective Questions in the Study of Personality and Ideology
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Quantification by Means of Scoring Categories
  • C. Scoring Manual: Categories of Projective Question Response
  • D. Results
  • 1. Reliability of Scoring
  • 2. Projective Question Scores in Relation to Standing on the E Scale
  • 3. Validation by Means of Case Studies: Mack and Larry
  • E. Conclusions
  • 1. General Ego Functioning
  • 2. Specific Properties of the Ego
  • 3. Achievement Values vs. Conventional Values
  • 4. The Handling of Dependency as an Underlying Trend
  • 5. The Handling of Other Trends
  • Part IV: Qualitative Studies of Ideology
  • Introductory Remarks
  • Chapter XVI: Prejudice in the Interview Material
  • A. Introduction
  • B. The "Functional" Character of Anti-Semitism
  • C. The Imaginary Foe
  • D. Anti-Semitism for What?
  • E. Two Kinds of Jews
  • F. The Anti-Semite's Dilemma
  • G. Prosecutor as Judge
  • H. The Misfit Bourgeois
  • I. Observations on Low-Scoring Subjects
  • J. Conclusion
  • Chapter XVII: Politics and Economics in the Interview Material
  • A. Introduction
  • B. Formal Constituents of Political Thinking
  • 1. Ignorance and Confusion
  • 2. Ticket Thinking and Personalization in Politics
  • 3. Surface Ideology and Real Opinion
  • 4. Pseudoconservatism
  • 5. The Usurpation Complex
  • 6. F.D.R.
  • 7. Bureaucrats and Politicians
  • 8. There Will Be No Utopia
  • 9. No Pity for the Poor
  • 10. Education Instead of Social Change
  • C. Some Political and Economic Topics
  • 1. Unions
  • 2. Business and Government
  • 3. Political Issues Close to the Subjects
  • 4. Foreign Policy and Russia
  • 5. Communism
  • Chapter XVIII: Some Aspects of Religious Ideology as Revealed in the Interview Material
  • A. Introduction
  • B. General Observations
  • C. Specific Issues
  • 1. The Function of Religion in High and Low Scorers
  • 2. Belief in God, Disbelief in Immortality
  • 3. The Irreligious Low Scorer
  • 4. Religious Low Scorers
  • Chapter XIX: Types and Syndromes
  • A. The Approach
  • B. Syndromes Found Among High Scorers
  • 1. Surface Resentment
  • 2. The "Conventional" Syndrome
  • 3. The "Authoritarian" Syndrome
  • 4. The Rebel and the Psychopath
  • 5. The Crank
  • 6. The "Manipulative" Type
  • C. Syndromes Found Among Low Scorers
  • 1. The "Rigid" Low Scorer
  • 2. The "Protesting" Low Scorer
  • 3. The "Impulsive" Low Scorer
  • 4. The "Easy-Going" Low Scorer
  • 5. The Genuine Liberal
  • Part V: Applications to Individuals and to Special Groups
  • Chapter XX: Genetic Aspects of the Authoritarian Personality: Case Studies of Two Contrasting Individuals
  • A. Introduction
  • B. The Case of Mack
  • 1. Environmental Forces and Events
  • 2. Deeper Personality Needs
  • 3. Dynamics of Surface Behavior and Attitudes
  • C. The Contrasting Case of Larry
  • Chapter XXI: Criminality and Antidemocratic Trends: A Study of Prison Inmates
  • A. Introduction
  • 1. The Problem
  • 2. Sampling and Administration
  • 3. Plan of Discussion
  • B. Ethnocentrism
  • 1. General Questionnaire Statistics and Their Significance
  • 2. Ideology Concerning Negroes: A Submerged Outgroup
  • 3. Ideology Concerning Jews: A Supposed "Dominant" Outgroup
  • C. Politico-Economic Attitudes
  • D. Morals and Religion
  • E. Defenses Against Weakness
  • F. Heterosexuality
  • G. Anti-Intraceptiveness and Childhood
  • H. Attitudes to Parents
  • I. "Criminality" in High and Low Scorers
  • Chapter XXII: Psychological Ill Health in Relation to Potential Fascism: A Study of Psychiatric Clinic Patients
  • A. Introduction
  • B. The Nature of the Sample
  • C. Statistical Results from the Questionnaire
  • D. Relationship of Ethnocentrism to Various Psychiatric Classifications
  • 1. Ethnocentrism in Relation to Neurosis and Psychosis
  • 2. Ethnocentrism in Relation to Specific Diagnostic Categories
  • E. Ethnocentrism in Relation to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  • F. Personality Trends as Revealed by Patients' "Statement of Problem" in the First Psychiatric Interview
  • 1. Selection of Material
  • 2. The Scoring Manual: Description of Variables
  • 3. The Method of Quantification
  • 4. The Reliability of the Measures
  • 5. Relationship Between Ratings and Ethnocentrism Score
  • 6. Summary
  • G. Clinical Pictures and Personalities of High and Low Scorers
  • 1. The High Scorers
  • 2. The Low Scorers
  • 3. The "Middles"
  • H. Conclusions
  • Chapter XXIII: Conclusions
  • Notes
  • References
  • Index

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